Skip to main content

Full text of "French Engravers and Draughtsmen of the XVIIIth Century"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



> 



From the 

Fine Arts Library 

Fogg Art Museum 
Harvard University 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



FRENCH ENGRAVERS 
AND DRAUGHTSMEN 

of the XVIIIth Century 



db, Google 



HABVAED FI«£ ARTS LIBBAM 

C^3 



K' : • 



A I- 



•\% 



Uniform with this volume 

By lady DILKE 

Impeml 8vo. iSj. net each volume 

FRENCH PAINTERS OF THE XVniTH CENTURY. 

FRENCH ARCHITECTS AND SCULPTORS OF THE 

XVIIIth CENTURY. 
FRENCH DECORATION AND FURNITURE IN THE 



XVIIIth CENTURY. 



LONDON: GEORGE BELL AND SONS 
NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN CO. 



d by Google 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



FRENCH ENGRAVERS 
AND DRAUGHTSMEN 

of the XVIIIth Century 



By lady DILKE 



AITTHOR OP **THS KSNAISSANCE IN PRANCE, "CLAUDS LORRAIN, SA VI£ BT SES 

CSUVRES," <*ART IN THE MODERN STATE, OR THE AGE OP LOUIS XIT.," ** FRENCH 

PAINTERS OF THE XVIIITH CENTURY," "FRENCH ARCHITECTS AND SCULPTORS 

OF THE XVIIITH CENTURY," "FRENCH DECORATION AND 

FURNITURE IN THE XVIIITH CENTURY," ETC, 



LONDON: GEORGE BELL AND SONS 
YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN 

1^2 



d by Google 



^^f^\1333:i,W 



db, Google 



PREFACE 

WITH this volume ends the series in which I have 
attempted to sketch the leading features of French 
Art in the eighteenth century and to trace the aftion 
of those social laws under the pressure of which the 
arts take shape just as dogma crystallizes under the influence of 
preceding speculation. The difficulties of sele£tion and omission 
have been great, and every day I have received fresh suggestions 
as to the way in which I ought to have dealt with my subjeft. 
For my purpose it seemed better not to venture on a systematic 
history but to follow lines on which I have previously found myself 
able to interest my readers. I therefore have throughout selected 
in each division one or two artists who seemed to represent special 
tendencies connefted with the life of the day and whose work, 
still existing, could be treated in some detail. 

In respect to the illustrations of these final pages, special 
difficulties, not unforeseen, have had to be encountered. Archi- 
teflurc. Painting, or Sculpture can secure better representation in 
a volume of this size than can be obtained for the art of Engraving. 
The reproduftion of an engraving, even by a costly process in 
skilled hands, is always unsatisfa^ory unless carried out on the 
same scale as the original. Of a necessity the texture of the 
execution is confused by reduction : the lines, crosslines, hatchings 
and stipplings run together and are choked in each other so that 
what should be a luminous expression of form becomes a meaning- 
less pond of ink. As far as possible, therefore, examples have been 
selected that could be given of their full size. Yet in spite of the 
friendly help of M. Bouchot and his staff* at the Cabinet des 
Estampcs, the equally kind services of my friends of the Gazette 
des Beaux Arts and the counsels of that distinguished engraver. 



d by Google 



M. Achille Jacquet, I find myself baffled by very delicate work 
such as Cho^rd's portrait of himself in the *• Contes de la Fon- 
taine," or the exquisite head of Marie-Leczinska engraved after Nat- 
tier by Gaucher. That these rcprodu6tions are even — approximately 
— excellent is due to the zealous supervision of M. Andri Marty 
and the skill of Paris printers. 

Drawings of course come out better^ and I owe grateful thanks 
to Baroness James de Rothschild ; to Madame Aboucaya, M. 
Jacques Doucet, M. Beurdeley and other colleftors for the gene- 
rosity with which they have allowed me to make use of their 
treasures. 

Emilia F. S. Dilke. 



Digitized by Google 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

The Comte de Caylus and the great "Amateurs" 

Syateinttic account of Engravers and Draughtsmen difficult. Method employed. 
Engraving fashionable. Madame de Pompadour and other amateurs. Campion. Vivant 
Denon. Painter- etchers. Compel. Pragonard. The Count de Caylus exercised influence 
over every branch of art. Specially praftiscd engraving. His charaAer and pretensions. 
Exploration of the Levant and Asia Minor. Life with his mother. Reproductions of Crozat's 
treasures. Of the Royal Colleflions. Etchings after Watceau. After Bouchardon. 
Recueil d'Antiquitis in vrhlch his own collcftions are reproduced and described. Gifts to 
the Cabinet des Estampes. Fortune and title of Duke. DefeCb of his learning and his 
art, yet debt to him immense. Generosity to the Academy, Madame Geofirin. Mile. 
Quinault-Dufresne. De Caylus and Cochin. Marmontel. The Encyclopedists. Death 
of de Caylus. Watelet. Exceptional fortune and position. Salons. Watelet and Mme. Le 
Comte. George Sand. Pantastic account of them in " Lettres d'un Voyageur." They leave 
for Italy with the abbf Copette as chaperon. King of Sardinia at Turin ; Pope, Cardinal 
Albtno, Princess Borghese and others at Rome welcome the couple. They rejoin M. Le 
Comte in Paris. "L'Art de Peindre," Carmon telle. Marcenay de Ghuy. Abb^deSaint- 
Non. Fragonard. "Voyage pittoresque de Naples et dans les deux Siciles." Engravers 
and specialists engaged. Ruin of Saint-Non and his brother. De Caylus, Watelet and 
Saint-Non embody three distinA phases of the century page i 



CHAPTER II 

Mariette and Basan 

Mariette. Close friendship with de Caylus and Bouchardon. Connottseurship and 
exad learning. Hii collections. Family traditions. Proud type of best French middle 
class. His taste not infallible. "Belle main de Michel Ange." Preference for the 
maaten of great periods in spite of fashion. Estimation of his own colle£Uon of drawings as 
best chosen in Europe. Early relations with Prince Eugine. Two years in Vienna. 
Letters given by the Prince. The yellow diamond. Engravings, drawings and "ouvragei 
de bronze " sent from Paris to Vienna. Letters to Temanza and Bottari. The "A. B. C. 
Dario, Mariette." Pire Ortandi. Rosalba Carriera. Intimacy with de Caytns began 
probably when she visited Pierre Croztt. The "Letter on Lionardo" due to collaboration 
with de Caylus, as aiso the descriptions of "Pcimures Anciennet" which accompanied 



d by Google 



CHAPTER VI 

Laurent Cars, Flipart and L.e Bas 

Work of Laurent Cirs. Its relation to " la gravure d'hiatoire." Printselling business 
inheriied from his father. Brilliant pupils of Laurent Cars. He was ■ great arttsL His 
"school" did not attain the commercial importance of that of Le Bas. Mariette's encomium. 
Engravings after Le Moine. " Lcs Files V^nitiennes " after Watteau. " Camargo dansant " 
after Lancret. Illustrationi to Moliire after Boucher. The "Maladc imaginaire." 
Gaucher. Repeated success of Laurent Cars in academical competitions. Tardieu pire the 
master both of Can and of he Bas. Beauvarlei, the pupil of Cars, co-operates wiih him 
on the portrait of Clairon as Medea. Grimm's criticisms. Engravings by Beauvarlet 
after de Troy and Van Loo. Reception by the Academy delayed. Madame Dubarry in 
hunting dress. Other pupils of Laurent Cars : Saint-Aubin, Chedel, Jardinier, Piscjuier, 
Jean-Jacques Flipart. Great powers of assimilation shown by Fliparc. "Tempfites" after 
Veincc. " Chassc au Tigre " and " Chasse i I'Ours " after Boucher and Van Loo. Develops 
slowly. Frontispiece of " Description des F£tes donnfes pour le second mariage du Dauphin." 
Notice of Flipart by Gaucher. He exhibits in 1755 "Jeunc Dessinateur" after Chardin. 
Engravings after Vien in 1765. Devotes himself wholly to Grcuze. "Chasse au Tigre" 
and " L'Accordfe dc Village " works of the same period. Cars then dead. All the younger 
men crowding to Le Bas. Notice of Le Bas by Joultiin. Early difficulties. Marriage 
with Elizabeth Duret, Sale of the marriage gifts. Organizes atelier. Pupils live under 
his roof. His treatment of them. Jovial familiarity and mockery. Contrast the pleasant 
skill of Le Bas wnth the virility of Cars. Le Bas in touch with every later development of 
his art from the " vignette " to the " estampe galantc." His pupils : Cochin, Ficquet, 
Eisen, Le Mire, Cho&ard and others. Ryland, Strange, Rehn. Letters to Rehn. Easy 
family relations. Dancing. Muffs for Darcis and Madame Le Bas. Caricatures. Le Bas 
could do no portraits. Received on "Conversation galante" after Lancret. Bright effed. 
" Manon Lescaut." Moliire. Renderings of " Le mattre galant " and ** Le pied de bceuf." 
Sacrifices his profession to the "shop." Honours. Diderot. Le Bas engraves half price for 
de Caylus. "Lcs Ports dc France." Love of gain and generosity. Engravings of masonic 
ceremonies. Quarrel with Le Prince. Engraves the " Fites Flamandes " of the Duke de 
Choiseul's colleftion. Madame de Pompadour. "Figures de I'histoire de France." 
"CfrJmonies Chinoises." "Ports de France " unfinished when he dies. Disastrous results 
of his enterprise with Moreau lejeune. Double-dealing of Moreau . . page 84 

CHAPTER VII 

The Pupils of Le Bas and the Engravers of the Vignette 

The " graveun de livrea " a class ^art. Galerie de Dresdc, de Florence, de Duttel- 
dorf. Galerie de Versailles. Nicolas de Larmessin engraves ptvtraits and vignettes. Change 
in size and shape of book. Small volumes popular. Pupils of Le Bas illustrate famous 
small books in latter half of the century. His method. Influence extends further than his 
own school. Lempereur forms Delaunay, the master of the "estampe galante." Thestyle 
of Delaunay that of a pupil of Le Bas. The " Henriade." " Don Quichotte." " Fables de 
la Fontaine," Noil Le Mire. The " Boccaccio " illustrated by Boucher, Eisen, Cochin and 
Gravelol. Le Mire's work on this book. Engraves ten designs by Eisen for "Le Temple 
de Guide." The de Sive Racine. Vignettes engraved by Charles Baquoy. Fermiers- 
gin^rauz edition of the " Contes de la Fontaine." Le Mire employs Le Vean 10 prepare his 
plates for this work. Joseph de Longucil. " Le roi Candaule " and " Le mari confesseur." 
Admirable qualities of these marvellous volumes. Alliance between ornament and illustra- 
rion, Chofiard. The head and tail pieces of (he " Contes." Tailpiece of " Le Rossignol." 
Etienne Ficquet. Grateloup. Etienne Gaucher. Miniature portrait of Marie I.eczinska. 
Portraits of Joseph II. and Marie-Antoinette. " Couronnement du buste de Voltaire." 
Drawing in Lord Carnarvon's colleAion. "Contes Moraux" of Marmontcl. The Banier 
Ovid, ChoSard signs the ritle-page. Well-known names ; Le Mire, Le Veau, Augnsrin de 
Saint-Aubin, Masquelier, N^e, Baquoy, Delaunay, Baaan Umself. Le Veau maket a great 



db, Google 



advance. His contributions co the Moliire of 177}. The other engraven of these illuatra- 
tions. Special ercellence of Dclaunay*! work. " Lc Cocu imaginaire." The portrait of 
Moliire engraved by Cathelin. " Fables de Dorat." Co-operation of Masquelier and N£c. 
"Chansons de la Borde." Only the first volume shows real perfection. "History of Cos- 
tume." Martini. Baquoy. Malbestc. Splendid excellence of this worlt contrasts with the 
elegance and slighter graces of other works of the day. " Pastor Fido." " Origines des 
GrSces." Of these we may weary ; of the " Monument du Costume " we cannot weary 

page 97 

CHAPTER VIII 

Gravelot and Eisek 

Gravelot and the designers for illustrated books. The modern novel the creation of 
the eighteenth century. Gravelot shows us how to illustrate it. Pupil of Restout, Long 
absence from Prance in St. Domingo. Return. Encouraged by Boucher. Comes to 
London. Is said to have remained in England thirteen years. Designs trade-cards, bill- 
heads and illustrations, " L'Asir^e." Frontispiece to the Kit-Cat Club. " Songs in the Opera 
of Flora." Gay's " Fables." Rapin de Thoyras' " History of England." Sketch of the 
House of Commons. "Pamela." Shakespeare. "Tom Jones." Mariette's estimate of 
Gravelot. Some doubt as to cm& time spent in London. ** A Conversation with a Romish 
Priest." "Le Lefteur." The "Galcrie du Palais" or "The Unlucky Glance." "Sophie 
de Fran court." " Histoire de Miss Jenny." "Fabricant de Londres " and " L'HonnSte 
Criminel " ; Fenouilloi de Falbaire. All these have an English air. Other work intensely 
French. Most admirable work in illustrations to the "Contes Moraui " of Marmontel. 
Pine drawing in "Eiercices de I'lnfanterie." Nanine, Beauty of the vignettes to the 
" Decameron." Studies of children serve for the " Almanack " of 1 760. Graveloc's private 
life. Marries twice. Position in London. Correspondence with David Garrick, He 
executes a drawing of Clairon for the medal struck in her honour by Garrick's order. 
Gravelot writes to Garrick of the "Secchia Rapita," the Voltaire and Colly's "Partie de 
Chasse de Henri IV." Voltaire delighted with his work. Colman's Terence. Did 
Gravelot fly from England on account of the treatment he received after the battle of 
Fontenoy i Lavish employment of vignettes. Mathicu Marais, Gravelot creates the 
illustration of "Julie," but Eisen illustrates "Emile." Eisen exhibits at the Salon of the 
Academy of St. Luke in 1751. Designs for the "Eloge de la Folic." Drawings for 
Madame de Pompadour. Eisen's marriage. Vignettes for the Boileau of 174.7. Illus- 
tration of the "Contes de la Fontaine." Eisen's irregular life. His friends. Le Bas 
godfather to his eldest son. Madame Wille godmother to another in 174.9. Wille never 
mentions Eisen. Quarrel between Eisen and Lc Mire over the " Contes. Eisen's bulty 
and careless drawing. Drawings for the "Contes" chief title to fame. Superior in elegance 
even to later work on "Metamorphoses d'Ovide." " Les quatre parties du jour." "Les 
quatre Saisons." Commissions for sacred subjcCte executed by Eisen. Drawings for du 
Rosoi's "Les Sens." "Hcnriade." Eisen not present at the weddings of his son and daughter. 
Had left his wife and family. Drawings for Dorat's " Les Baisers," for " Le Temple de 
Gnide." These books have a better aspcA than *• Les Sens." Poor work by young Wille 
mixed with Eisen's drawings. Cochin's influence on Eisen's allegorical designs. Various 
contributions to the Academy of St. Luke. Leaves for Brussels. Dies at Brussels. Land- 
lord's letter to the "Dame St. Martin." Madame Eisen. The "Scelli." Eisen's affairs 

page III 

CHAPTER IX 

The Saint-Aubim, Moreau le jeune, Boilly, Prieur 

Germain de Satnt-Aubin. " Les Papillonneries humaines." Gabriel de Saint-Aabin, 
Competes for the Grand Prix. " Les nouvellistes." " Vue du Salon du Louvre en I'ann^e 
I7S3-" Tries for a place as "ilive prot^gi." "Bal d'Auteuil." "Ballet dans£ dans lc 



d by Google 



Contents. Carnivtl du Pwinsie." "DimBnchei de Saint -Cloud." "Chutes mises tax Thuillerics" 
tnd " Tonne>u d'arroMgc" Bohemian apint. Notei m Salon Catalogues. Exhibits at 
the Salon dei Mattres in 1774. Exhibits at the CoIyi6e. Gabriel as profesBor. " Parade 
aux th^Stres du Baulevaid." Drawings in the colle^on of M, Valton. Last work 
by Gabriel. "Stance de physique i la monnaie." Gabriel lives in the street. His 
clothes. Death at his brother's house. Disorder of his lodgings. Augustin de Saint-Aubin. 
Pupil of Edenne Fessard. Early work. Engravings after Gravelot for the " Decameron." 
" Promenade dei remparts de Paris." Enters atelier of Laurent Cars. Marriage. Portraits 
of his wife. "Au moins soyez discret" and "Comptez lur mes serments." -^grii by the 
Academy. The " Bal parf " and the " Concert." Series of portraits after Cochin. Ex- 
pelled from his atelier by the Revolution. Employed by Renouard. Failing powers. 
Moreau le jeune in same position. Moreau had as a youth accompanied Lc Lorrain to St, 
Petersburg. Moreau in the workshop of Le Has. Etches plates for others. Marriage with 
Pran9oise-Nicole Pineau, Work for Prault, "Le Couch^ de la marine," Drawing of 
"La Revue de la Plaiac des Sablons." Appointed "dessinateur des Menus," Birth of his 
daughter. Her life of her father. " Chansons de Ja Borde." Illustrations of " La nouvelle 
Hflolse." Other book-illustrations. "Monument du Costume." "Sacre de Lonis XVL" 
Moreau's great opportunity. Drawing and engraving exhibited 1781, together with a great 
group of other works. "Ffites dc la Ville." Received by the Academy on his drawing of 
" Tullia." Drawing of " Aasembl^e des Notables " for the King. Loses fortune, gift and 
style in the Revolution. Decadence began with Italian tour. Sketch-book of 1785. 
Influence of David. Accepts post of professor at the " Ecoles Centrates." Louis XVIII. 
restores him to his old post before his death. All his companions drop into poverty and 
negleft Few flourish at did Boilly before and after the Revolution. Boilly a painter, but 
also a draughtsman and lithographer. Work at Hertford House, in the Louvre and in 
private colleflions. " La queue au lait." He gives not only documents, but work of 
artistic value. The works of Prieur interesting as documents. Prieur shows steady deteriora- 
tion under the excitement of the Terror, ''Tableaux de la Rivolurion." Study of Prieur 
by M. Jean Guiffirey in "L'Art •* page 130 



CHAPTER X 

The Engravers in CotouR 

Varieties of method. Deliberations of the Academy. Jean Lutma and Leblond. 
Francois, Pension from Marigny. Magny, Gilles Demarteau, Bonnet and others. Repro- 
duAioni of Boucher's drawings made by Demarteau. Work after Cochin, Van Loo and 
Pierre. Works exhibited in 1773. Jean Le Prince. His secret bought by the Academy. 
His wild life and eccentric habits. Marriage. Travels in Russia. Received on "Bapt£me 
scion le rite Grec," Mariette's criticisms. Diderot. Death of Le Prince. Janinet applies 
colour on the method of Le Prince. " L'Op^rateur." Experiments as aeronaut. Account 
given by Wille of their total failure. Janinet returns to engraving in colour, " Toilette de 
Vfnus" after Boucher. Portraits of Marie-Antoinette and Mile. Bertin. Medallions 
after Fragonard. "Boudoir" subjefb after Lavreincc. Claude Hoin. Dull work by 
Janinet after Moitte, Debucourt masters Janinet's methods. Exhibits at the Salons 178], 
178;. Publishes "La Feinte Carcsse " as a coloured engraving, 17S9. The " Menuet dc 
la Mari^," Important gravure-gouache. Debucourt superior to Descourtis. *' Promenade 
de la gallcrie du Palais Royal " and other works. Gives his best during the five years which 
precede the stir of the Revolution. Methods change. Loses mastery over his own secret. 
Ceases to be the "graveur qui eric." Invents new "procAli," Stipple in colour, Barto- 
lozzi. Copia and Roger, They successfully reproduce Prud'hon's drawings. Attempt to 
apply this system to colour destroys Debucourt's art page 149 



db, Google 



CHAPTER XI ( 

Ehgravers and th£ Academy 

Insufficient training of engravers. ReaAion in favour of severer discipline. Wille. 
Inferior position of engravers in the Academy. Insufficient proteftion. Attacks of prititcrs 
and publishers. Appeal to Marigny. Rights of reproduftiDn and publication. Poillf. 
Gabriel de Saint-Aubin attacks DeUunay. Balechou. Portrait of Augustus, King of 
Poland. Did Balechou pull too many proofs on his own account i Trial by the Academy. 
Balechou found guilty. Banished to Avignon. His printer the chief witness against him. 
Vernet writes to Balechou. Nattier sends him a portrait. Dies in eiile. Giimm on 
Balechou and Wille. Fessard and Germain. Cochin and Wille appear as experts. 
Collefiion of engravings made by the Academy- Valuable property acquired in the plates 
of diploma works. Gifts from "honorary amateurs." Coypel. Chardin. Wille. Jean- 
Jacques Caffieri. Itlustraced books. Larmcssin. Moyreau. Cochin. Bernard Lfpicij. 
Purchase of plates. Receipts from this source. Inventory of 177;. Commissions given to 
engravers. Miger, Lempereur, Academy buy all plates left by Flipart. Acquisitions of 
the Library. Refuse to the last to recognize engravers as the equaU of painters and 
sculptors. Last meeting occupied with concerns of engraven. Academy suppressed 

page 158 

Triumph of revolt against privilege made easy by centralization. Pall of Academies 
only a detail. Outbreak of 1789 unlocks sources of spiritual life. Vision of new "Har- 
monia Mundi." Ideals of this moral evolution. Limitations. Tyranny as ciaAing as the 
rule it replaces. Prud'hon and David. Note struck by leaders of Romantic movement. 
Tendencies released. Task of tracing relation to development of modern democracy yet 
to be accomplished p^e 169 



APPENDIX 

(A) Lilt of Works by the Comte de Caylut. (B) Note snr la Pamille de M. Mariette. 
(C) Eztrads from the " Parugc des Biens de la Succession de Monrieur Mariette," (D) 
Lilt of Works exhibited at the Salon by : — Beauvariet, Cars, Cathclin, Cochin fits, Daull^, 
Debucourt, Delaunay I'atn^, Eisen [Works exhibited at the Academy of St. Luke], Flipart, 
Larmcssin, Le Bas, Lempereur, Moreau le jeune, Saint-Aubin (Augustin de), Saint-Aubtn 
(Gabriel de) [Works exhibited at the Academy of St. Luke and at the Cotys6e], Wille 

page 171 

INDEX page »05 



d by Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

All engraved works are entered under the names ef the engravers. With »ne 
exciption {No, 5) they have been reproduced from examples in the Print Room af the 
Bihliothiqut Nalionale, 

TO FACB 
FAGS 

1. Malbbste, Georgbs; LiiNARD, Jbah-Baptists ; N6e, FRAN9OIS- 

Dekis. La Revue de la plaine des Sablons. (Moreau le /eunb) 

Heliogravure. Frontispiece 

2. Ponce, Nicolas. La Toilette. (Baudouin) i 

3. Caylus, Comte db, Achctis des Moultns. Mon bel CEillet. (Bou- 

CHARDON, "Cris de Paris") 7 

4. Watelbt, Claude-Henri. Portrait of Marguerite Lc Comte. (Cochin 

LB FILS) II 

5. ChoffarDjPierre-Philippb. Frontispice: " Catalogue Mariette." {Idem) 23 

6. Basan, Pierre-Francois. Ballet dansj au Th^&tre de I'Op^ra dans le 

"Carnaval du Parnasse," AStt V. (Gabriel de Saint- Aubin) . 31 

7. Choffard, Pierre-Philippe. Cul dc lampe. ("Metamorphoses 

d'Ovidc," 1767-1771) 35 

8. AvELiNB, Pierre. L'Ouvri^re en dentelle : ** Diverses charges dc la 

rue de Paris." (Cochin lb FILs) 38 

9. Cochin le fils, Charles-Nicolas. Vue perspe&ive dc I'lllumination de 

la rue de la ferronnerie, ex^cut^c le 29 Aout 1739 par les soins de 
Messieurs les six corps des marchands a I'occasion du mariage de Madame 
I" de France et de I'Infant Don Philippe 11', Les figures invent^ et 
grav^ (;iV) par Cochin le Fils, et la Perspective par J. De Seve . . 41 

10. Cochin le fils, Charles-Nicolas, Billet de Bal pari a Versailles pour 

le mariage de Monseigneur le Dauphin, le 24 ffvrier 1745 ... 50 

11. Drevbt, Pibrre-Imbert. Portrait of Bossuet. (Rioaud) 

Heliogravure 58 

12. Drevet, Pierrb-Imbert, Portrait of Adrienne Lecouvreur, (Coypbl) 62 

13. Daull^ Jean. Portrait of Cochin le fils 66 

14. Dupuis, Nicolas. Frontispice: "Fables de la Fontaine," 1755-1759. 

(OUDRY) 68 

15. Larmbssin, Nicolas db. Les Remois : " Contes de la Fontaine." 

(Lancret) 72 

16. WiLLE, Jean-Georges. La sceur de la bonne femme de Normandie, dite 

"La femme a la tulipc." (Willb fils, 1773) 78 

XV 



d by Google 



List of TO FACI 

Illustra- PAGE 

tioDB. 17. Cars, Laurent. Le MaUde itnaginsure: Moli^e, "CEuvres," 1734* 

(Boucher) 84 

18. Beavvarlet, jACQUES-FRANfOia. Madame Dubarry en habit de chasse. 

(DrooaisJ Heliogravurt 87 

19. Flipart, jEAN-jAC<yFEs. ConcouFS pour le prix de I'expression fondi 

dans I'Acad^mie royale de pemture par le Comte de Qiylus: Made- 
moiselle Clairon, assise au-dessus d'une table, sert de module aux jeunes 
artistes. (C, N. Cochik le fils) 88 

20. Cathelin, Louis-Jacques. Portrait of Le Has. (C. N. Cochik ls fils, 

1776J gravi 1782) 90 

ai. Le Bas, Jacc^ies-Philippe. La Marchande de Beignets • ■ • 93 

22. Lb Bas, Jacques-Philippe. Les Francma^ons : L'Entr6c du rJcipien- 

daire duis la logc 94. 

23. pAsQyiER, Jacques-Jban. Lc depart pour Paris. Manon en prison. 

("Manon Lescaut," 1753) 97 

24. Delaunay, Nicolas. St. Preux mocquf par les femmes. (Moreau le 

JEUNE. "Nouvelle H^loise," CEuvres de Rousseau, 1774-1783) 

Hiliegraviire 99 
Givm in tht large paper tditian mfy, 

25. Baquoy, Jean-Charles. En tetc de la "Thfbaide." Cul de lampc, 

*' 3™ A^ d'Alexandre." (De S4ve Radne, 1 760) . . . .101 

26. Choffard, Pierre-Philippe. LeRossignol. (**Contcs de la Fontaine," 

1762) Heliogravurt 103 

Given in the large paper edition only. 

27. Gaucher, Charles. Etiekne. Marie-Leczinska. (Nattier. En ttte 

de la didicace du Nouvel Abr£g£ Chronologique de I'Histoire de France 

du Pr&idcnt H^nault, 1767) HeEogravure 104 

28. SiMONET, Jeak-Baptiste. Lcs CrFaccs vengics. (Moreau lb jeunr. 

Querlon, "Les CJraccB," 1769) 106 

29. Malbestb, Georges. Le Mariage ou la Sortie de I'Op^. (Moreau le 

JEUNE) 109 

30. Ghendt, Emmanuel db. En t£te. L'AbdlleJustiii^ Cul de lampe. 

(Marillibr, Pierre-Clement. **Fables dc Dorat"). Heliogravure iio 

31. Gravblot, Hubert-Francois. Viola and Olivia. (Hayman. "Twelfth 

Night": Shalcespcarc. Oxford, 1744) 112 

32. Gravelot, Hubert- Francois. Promenade a deux. (Drawing in the 

coUc^on of M Jacques Doucet) .... SimiBgravure 114 

33. Le Mire, NoSl. Le Misanthrope corrigj 116 

Rousseau, Jean-Frani;ois. Le Connoisseur. (Gravelot. " Contes 

Moraux": Marmontel) . 116 

34. Gravelot, Hubert-Francois. Conversation with a Romish Priest . 1 19 

35. Le MntB, NoIl. La Galcric du Palais, or the Unlucky Glance. (Gra- 

velot. Corneillc, Geneva, 1764) 120 

36. Ghendt, Emmanuel de. Les Vendanges ou I'Automne. (Eisen.) 

Preparation en eau-forte Heliwravure 123 

37. Eisen, Charlbs-Dominique-Josbph, Les trois Commires. (Drawing 

in the coUcdion of Baroness James de Rothschild) .... 124 

Lempereur. Lcs trois Comm^res. (ElsEN. "Cfontcs de la Fontaine") 124 

38. Saint-Aubin, Germain DB. LeBain: " Papillonneries humunes " . 130 

39. Saint-Aubin, Gabriel db. Reunion dans un pare (Etching. Cabinet 

dcs Estampcs) 132 

40. Saiht-Aubin, Gabriel de. S^ce de physique i la Monnoie. (Drawing 

in the colleftion of M. Jacques Doucet) . . . Simtligravure 1 34 

xvi 



d by Google 



TO FACl l-'St of 

,AGi lUuBtra. 
Saimt-Aubin, Augustin de. Demiire heurc dc Madame de Rebccque. tionB. 

HelioFTOvuri 137 
MoREAV, Jbak-Michel. Little gjrl asleep. (Drawing in the cdle^on 

of Mr. Heseldne] Heliogravure 139 

Le Mibb, NoBl. Le Retour de Claire. (" Nouvelle Hilo'ise," CEuvres 

de Rousseau, 1774-1783. Morbau lb jeitne) ..... 14.0 
MoREAu, Jean-Michel. Leases from a Sketch-Book (Music du Louvre) 

HeSogravure 14.3 
BoiLLY, Louis-LiopoLD. La Queue au Lait. (Drawing in the collection 

of Madame Aboucaya) Heliogravure 147 

Pribus, Jean-Louis, La Ffite de la Ffdiration. (Mus£e du Louvre.) 

This drawing shows the Triumphal Arch ere^d in honour of the 

occasion Heliogravure 148 

Ollivibr, MiCHBL-BARTHiLBMY. Study of a woman sitting on the 

ground SimiUgravure 153 

Lavreince, Nicolas. La Marchande de modes. (Gouache in the col- 

le^on of M. Beurdelcy) Heliogravure 154 

Dbbucoukt, Louis-Philibert. Le menuet de la mari^ Heliogravure 156 
Lipicii, Bernard. La petite fiUe au volant. (Chardin) . . .165 



d by Google 



db, Google 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 



G. B. A. 

A. de I'A. fr. 
N. A. 
P. V. 

Willc Mim. 
Basan, Oia. 
Cochin, M^m. in^d. 

A. B. C. Dario 
Not. hist. 
Portalis and Bdraldi 

Portalis, " Les Dessmateurs " 

French PaiDtcrs, etc. 

French Archite^ and Sculptors, etc. 

French Decoration, etc. 

B. M. 

Chal. du l.ouvre 



Engd. 

Ex. 

It. 



= Gazette des Beaux Arts. 

= Archives de I'Art firan^ais. 

= Nouvelles Archives de I'Art fran^ais. 

= Proc^-verbaux de PAcad^mie Royale. 

= Mimoires et Journal dc Jean-Georges Wille. 

= Basan, Didtionnairc dcs Graveurs. 

= M^moires in^dits dc Charlc&-Ni colas Cochin. 

= Abeccdario de P.- J, Mariette. 

= Notice Histori<]ue. 

= Portalis et Biraldi, "Les Graveurs du XVUI 

Siicle." 
= Portalis, '* Les Dessinateurs d 'Illustrations au 

XVIII SiMe." 
= Frcnch Painters oftheXVlIIth Century. 
= French Archite<as and Sculptors of the XVIII 

Century, 
= French Decoration and Furniture in the 

XVIII Century. 
= Print Room, British Museum. 
= Chalcographie du Louvre. 
= Agr«. 
= Re9u. 
= Engraved, 
= Exhibited. 
= livres tournots. 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



La Toilette. 
(Nicolas Ponck, after Bauuouin.) 



Digitized by Google 



FRENCH ENGRAVERS AND DRAUGHTSMEN 
OF THE XVIII CENTURY 

CHAPTER I 

THE COMTE DE CAYLUS AND THE GREAT 
"AMATEURS" 

IT is even more difficult to give a systematic account of French 
engravers and draughtsmen in the eighteenth century than 
to write of the painters, the architects, the sculptors and the 
decorators. To treat of them chronologically or to break up 
their work into seftions according to the subjefl would be to give 
this volume the charafter of a text-book — useful, perhaps, but 
unreadable. I have therefore again attempted to seled the man 
in each division who has impressed me as a typical personality, and 
to group round him others who appear less marked in character 
or who present features which may be emphasized by way of 
contrast. 

The notice of the Comte de Caylus with which this volume 
opens has been reserved till now because, though he exercised 
during the early part of the century an extraordinary influence 
over every branch of art, his own praAice connefls him specially 
with engraving. His close alliance with Mariettc carries us 
naturally to the consideration of that famous printseller, colleftor 
and publisher, who, if he engraved little, bought and sold a great 
deal. In conjunction with de Caylus, Mariette exercised an 
authority with which, as long as they lived, every dealer, draughts- 
man and engraver had to reckon. In this connection Basan — 
whom Mariette appointed to deal with his collections — cannot be 
overlooked. These men form the background for the adtivity of 



d by Google 



The others, but their influence was contested even during their lives 

Comte de t,y the growing power of Cochin fils, who, backed by Marigny, 
an J the exercised a vigorous direftion in his name. 

great When we come to the engravers and draughtsmen proper the 

teure*' ^'^^^ thing that strikes us is their marvellous power of drawing — 
due to the severe studies of which they possessed the wholesome 
tradition. The Drcvet — those great engravers of portrait — were 
the direct heirs of Nanteuil, and to them DauUe, Beauvarlet, 
Wille and their pupils were deeply indebted. If we turn to those 
men, who devoted themselves to p&ces historiquesy the name of 
Laurent Cars stands first, and his character and connexion with 
business may be contrasted with the character and business of his 
younger rival Le Bas, out of whose workshop went nearly all the 
vignettistes and engravers of the *' estampe galante " to whom I 
have devoted the following chapter. 

Gravelot and Eisen, amongst the draughtsmen, precede the 
Saint-Aubin, Moreau le jeune, Boilly and those other designers 
whose work lent itself specially to the pretty art of engraving in 
colour, which is essentially of the later days of the century ; and for 
the concluding pages I have kept a short account of the relations 
of engravers to the Academy of Painting and Sculpture, with the 
suppression of which and the proclamation of the " Commune des 
Arts " this work ends. 

It was the fashion to engrave in the eighteenth century. 
Cochin's famous pupil, Madame de Pompadour, was by no means 
original in her efforts to praftisc the art. Everybody of distinflion 
knew something of the use of the needle or the graver, and lengthy 
would be even a list of amateurs, some of whom — like de Thiers 
or the Chevalier de Valory — left a considerable group of work. If 
we pick out only the most noted names, the Marquis d'Argenson 
may stand first in point of time with his *'Vue du Chiteau des 
Bergeries." Then come the Dukes of Chevreuse, of Charost and 
of Chaulncs ; the Princess de Condi ; the Marquise de Belloy ; 
the Marquis de Coigny ; the Marquis d'Harcourt ; the Count de 
Breteuil, the Count de Clermont and the Count d'Eu. Others as 
widely diiFercnt in type as Bachaumont, the writer of those " Mi- 
moires Secrets " which are the most excellent chronicle of their 
day, and Bertinazzi dit Carlin, the famous aftor, shared the enthu- 
siasm of the Court, to which Philippe Egalite himself paid tribute 
when, as Duke de Chartres, he engraved in 1761 two little subjeds 
after Carmontelle.* 

' "Paysanne de St.-Cloud " and ''Mancruvrc de St.-Cloud." 



d by Google 



For the most part these courtly artists left little behind them. The 
They contented themselves, after the fashion of Campion,^ the Comtc de 
giWznx. contr6leur gin^ral, with a dozen or so examples of a skill and the 
by which they paid homage to the divinity of the moment : — great 
\ Mme. de Cypicrre, " Vues des bords de la Loire " ; k Mme. de teura,"" 
GuiUonvillc, " Vues des bords du Loiret"; a Mme. la marquise 
de Pilles, " Vue de Meung." Others employed their art with so 
much indiscretion that it might be said of them, as of Vivant 
Denon,^ one of the most distinguished of this group of amateur 
engravers, that their chief occupation was " la gravure ct les 
femmes." He, indeed, seems to have owed much of his success 
and even his great position at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century to this means of popularity with women. They were all 
delighted to sit to him. The list, which begins with Madame 
Vigee Lebrun and includes Lady Hamilton, is a long one, and his 
charm is said to have been sufficient to soften even the bitterness 
of captivity to the outraged Pius VH. 

Painters have always, like Coypel,' Rivalz, "M. le chevalier 
d'Origny,"* Pierre and others, engraved or etched their own work 
as a matter of course. Throughout the eighteenth century the 
etching needle was never out of their hands, though few, if we 
except Watteau, Oudry perhaps, and Fragonard, ever attained to 
a high degree of skill or showed any originality of method. The 
student days in Italy generally saw the birth of these attempts. 
There it was, as we may remember, that Fragonard engraved and 
re-engraved subjects after Tiepolo, " son maltre de gravure " ; 
there, too, he rendered with deep personal feeling and spirit that 
forgotten corner of the neglefted garden of some patrician villa, 
which is known to colle<aors as " Lc Pare." In Italy, also, Fra- 

* 1 73+- 1 784. 

* 1 747-1 825. He was Diredor of the Imperial Galleries during the reign of the 
first Napoleon, and had an enormous influence on the movement of the arts. In 
1815, after having resisted obstinately the removal of the spoils amassed in the 
Louvre, he resigned his post. " Toutes les fois," we are told, " qu'un enlevement 
devait avoir lieu, il itait pris au collet et rard^ a vue dans son cabinet par un peloton 
de soldats prussiens " (Clement de Ris, "Les Amateurs d'autrcfbis," p. 437). 

' Charles O^pel, the designer of the lamous illustrations of " Les Aventures de 
Don Qpichotte ("French Painters, etc.," p, 28, and "French Decoration, etc,** 
p. 103), is the author — amongst other pieces of a like chara^r — of "L'Histoirc 
d'une Devote," which consists of four satirical subjects: 1. "La Devote va ii la 
messe"} a. "EUe s'offrc en holocauste ** } 3. " Elle quercUc sa servante "54." Elle 
calomnie son prochain." One may also note an amusing " Assemble de brocantcurs " 
with asses' heads examining works of painting and sculpture, and a '* lady making her 
will in the presence of her lover, her lawyer and her cat " — the cat evidently is to be 
the universal legatee. 

* See Salons of 1739 to 1743. 

3 



db, Google 



The gonard etched his four "Bacchanales" or "Jeux de Satyrs" (1763), 

Comte de (jjg handling of which — ^like his brilliant work of a different 

and the charader and later date, " L'Armoire " — shows an intuitive per- 

gpeat ception of the resources of the process employed and qualities 

teu»."' which are not revealed by many of the easel pidurcs which now, 

in some cases, enjoy an exaggerated reputation. Many of Fra- 

gonard's etchings have all the charm of his drawings or of his 

best decorative work, whereas his achievements as a painter are of 

an amazing inequality, and differ in value to a quite exceptional 

degree. 

Amongst amateurs, the learned, self-consequent nephew of 
Madame de Maintenon, the Comte de Caylus^ — whose authority 
and influence form one of the most remarkable features of the 
day — stands in the front rank. The importance of his position, 
the very nature of his faults and failings, his vast pretensions, real 
merit and indifierent accomplishment combine to make him an 
admirable representative of the wealthy amateur in the earlier half 
of the century, just as we find in Watelet and Saint-Non the 
finished pattern of the inferior types fiishionable at a later date. 
The exaggerated seriousness with which Caylus took himself 
might be expected of a man who had sat on the knees of the Great 
King,^ but we may recoiled that his sense of his own dignity and 
importance was no hindrance to those touching relations with 
Watteau which are the consecration of de Caylus's life. 

" It is well to remember," says Cochin, " in respeft of the 
petty despotism which M. de Caylus sought to exercise over the 
arts, that he had become accustomed to it little by little, which is 
as it were his apology. Perhaps, indeed, in the beginning of his 
relations with artists he had no such scheme."^ His fi'iendship 
with Watteau was certainly untainted by any of that ambition to 
play the patron by which he was devoured in later years. No 
estimate of his character will be just that omits to reckon with his 
real love of and devotion to the arts, or to take into account that 
he most certainly knew more about them than any other amateur 
of his day. When he died, the loss of ** ce connoisseur profond " 

' 1692-1765. Anne-Claude-Philippe de Tbubiires, de Grimoard, dc Pcstels, de 
Levi, Comte de Caylut, was the son of Marguerite de ViUette, great-niece of Mmc. 
de Maintenon and stepdaughter of that Marquise de ViUette who married Boling- 
broke after the death of her first husband. 

* "N'Jtant encore que mousqueuirc, il se distingua i la bataille de MaI[Jaquet, 
de fa^n qu'au rctour de la campagnc, le roi, par amitij pour Mad* de Maintenon, 
le prit sur ses genoux, en disant: 'Voyez mon petit Caylus } il a diji tai un de mes 
ennemis ' " (A. B. C. Dario, Mariette). 

* Cochin, Mim, in^d., p. 64. 

4 



db, Google 



was sincerely regretted by the Academicians, in spite of their The 
personal and painful experience that, as Cochin puts it, "men Comtede 
of quality, though doubtless conferring honour on the body to and the 
which they attach themselves, unfortunately know it too well, 8''^*' 
and it is rare that their proteftion does not degenerate into some- teu^*' 
thing like tyranny." ^ 

The pretensions of de Caylus to be an universal expert were at 
least backed by persistent study and some practical knowledge of 
more than one branch of art. He was not only a draughtsman and 
etcher of no mean excellence, but all that experience which may 
be won by the constant direction of the attention and steady train- 
ing of the powers of perception was undoubtedly his. He started 
for Italy on the death of the old King^ from whose favour he had 
much to expe£l : " huit mois apres," we are told, " il saisit 
roccasion de passer dans le Levant. II partit avec M. de Bonac, 
qui alloit relever M. Desalleurs k la Porte Ottomane." ^ Thence- 
forth, dc Caylus gave up his whole existence to the serious study 
of those subjects in which he honestly delighted. Rich and well- 
placed, he abandoned the dignities of the Court ^ and the pleasures 
of his class in order to devote himself to literature,* to archsology, 
to every branch of art. When he finally returned to Paris after a 
prolonged exploration of Asia Minor, he settled with his mother 
in a house surrounded by the gardens of the Petit Luxembourg, 
and at once began to reproduce the treasures of Crozat's famous 
collections with his indefatigable needle. 

In a most touching letter, written on the occasion of his 
mother's death to the abb6 de Conti, de Caylus lets us see how 
beautiful his life with her at this date had been. " Je ne S9ais plus 
vivre . . .," he writes ; " i tout ce que le commerce le plus aimable 
peut avoir de plus s6duisant, k toute la volupt6 de la paresse qu'il 
entraSnoit k sa suite, il a succed^ une solitude afTreuse."'' Rallying 
his strength, de Caylus devoted all his powers to the task which he 
had set himself, when the riches of de Crozat's portfolios were re- 
vealed to him, with that deliberate persistence which sustained 
him throughout his life. 

' Cochin, Mim. in^d., p. 25. 

* Le Beau, ** Eloge de Caylus." An account of this journey, of interest to all 
who concern themselves with classical archeology, was given by M. Miintz from an 
unpublished MS. at a sitting of the Acad, des Inscriptions, April 6th, 1900. 

' He lived at first, after leaving the Petit Luxembourg, in a small building on the 
terrace near the Tuileries. When the growth of his cotleSions forced him to seek 
larger quarters, he built an hdtel in the rue Saint-Dominique. 

* See Appendix A for list of his works. 

* Letter of June 17th, 1729 (de Goncourt, ^Portraits indma," t. ii., p. 22). 

5 



db, Google 



The The restless energy which never allowed him to remain idle 

Comte de for a moment, and which found a certain vent in the voluminous 

and the writings, published and unpublished,^ which were the excuse for 

great his election to the Academy, could not long be diverted from its main 

tews*' channel. He returned always to his favourite occupation with 

renewed zest and vivacity. After he had surprised Europe by his 

reproductions of the treasures of Crozat's admirable coUeftions, de 

Caylus set himself to etch those in the Royal Cabinet, his access 

to which was facilitated by the appointment of his intimate friend, 

Charles. Coypel, as garde des dessins du rot? In 1747 Coypel, 

whose nomination as First Painter and Diredor of the Royal 

Academy had been supported by de Caylus, in his capacity of 

" conseiUer et honoraire amateur, ' against the party which would 

have recalled de Troy from Rome,* presented to the Society two 

hundred and twenty-three prooft of etchings made by de Caylus 

from the drawings under his care.* 

This set, considerable though it seems, includes but a small 
portion of his accomplishment, for the &mous " Recueil " of his 
complete engraved work, now in the Cabinet des Estampes, fills 
four folio volumes,'' every example in this unique coUeftion 
having its counter proof feeing it. The early efforts here repre- 
sented, the little figures etched after Watteau, " Un Nouvelliste," 
" Le beau Cl^on," etc.,' are amongst the most pleasing. The 
slight but not unintelligent point with which they are indicated has 
an attradion denied to the more ambitious facsimiles of drawings 
and reproductions of set and solid work. 

An exception must, however, be made as regards later work, 
in favour of the brilliant and workmanlike renderings of Bouchar- 
don's drawings of the " Cris de Paris." It is true that we find in 

' The " Catalogue des Manuscrits provenant de Caylus," and now in the ** Biblio- 
cheque de I'Universiti," is primed in the Appendix to the "M^moires de Cochin " 
(p, 151 tt itq."). This represents but only one side of the writer's activity, which, as 
it contains numbers of comedies and society verses, probably belongs to the class of 
work referred to by Marictte when he says that de Caylus " dans sa jcunesse avoit 
beaucoup £crit, mais pourtant des bagatelles " (A. B. C. Dario). 

* Coypel was also '^ garde des planches gravte et des estampes." He was named 
in succession to Claude dc Chancey, " pricur de la Saintc Madeleine," who had robbed 
the collections and only left the Bastille for the Petttcs Maisons, See Delaborde, 
" Djpartement des Estampes," pp. 61, 62. 

■ See " French Painters, etc.," p. +0. 

* P. v., May 27th, 1747. See also August ist, 1750, and January 10th and 
November 27th, 1 756, for other gifts, and Cauloguc of the Chalc<^3phie du Louvre, 
Nos. 100 to 322. 

' The set (abo in four volumes) sold at the death of Mariette consisted of 3,200 
pieces. 

* " Suites de %urcs invent^ par Watteau et gravies par son ami C " 

6 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



dbi Google 






db, Google 



this " Recueil " reprodudions of drawings by Michel Ange, by The 
Raphael, by Rubens, by Rembrandt and Van Dyck, rendered with Comte de 
absolutely faithful intention ; it is true that we rise from turning ^nd the 
over its pages with an enlarged conception of the services rendered great 
by de Caylus, not to archseology only but to art, yet it is impossible i^u^/" 
not to see that he interprets the work of his contemporaries with 
a superior liberty and ease. Gillot and Coypel are more within 
his grasp than the landscapes of Titian, nor are there many 
among the more studied examples from his hand which can rival 
the " Collcur d'Affiches " or the " Porteur d'Eau " of the " Cris 
de Paris." 

This " Recueil " was but one of the important gifts a6hially 
transferred to the Cabinet des Estampes by de Caylus during his 
lifetime. Beside many single examples he handed over various 
"Collections," each in its way unique. Amongst these was a 
series of drawings from objefts in his possession which he had 
caused to be executed for reprodudlion in his own works,^ as well 
as the " Peintures antiques trouvecs k Rome," copied by Pietro 
Santi Bartoli in gouache for Queen Christina of Sweden.'' Of all 
these gifts the Print Room was, however, temporarily deprived on 
an appeal made by his heir, the Duke de Caylus, to the King. 

De Caylus himself had never married, but he inherited at the 
age of sixty-eight, from an uncle who had taken service with 
Spain, an income of 60,000 It., " la grandesse espagnole et son titre 
de due reversible' a perpetuity sur les h^ritiers du nom et des armes 
de Caylus."' The title, which he never assumed, went by patent 
to his nearest relative, the Marquis de Lignerac. He demanded 
and obtained from Louis XV., " la jouissance, sa vie durant, des 
choses rares qui cbmposaient le cabinet de feu son oncle." Books 
and portfolios, therefore, as well as the treasures bequeathed to the 
Cabinet des M^dailles, returned to their old quarters, where they 
remained till the death of the Duke permitted the Print Room 
the free exercise of its rights. 

* Amongst these may be mentioned the volumes in which were reproduced and 
.described his own colle3ions, " Recueil d'Antiquitfs igypticnncs, ^trusques, grccques, 
romaines ct gauloises " (1752-1767, Paris, Dcssaint « Vaillant, then Tilliard), the 
seventh volume of which was published after the death of de Caylus ; " Recueil 
de peintures antiques " j " Nouveaux sujcts de pcinturc et de sculpture," etc. See 
Appendix A. 

' See Delaborde, "Le D^partement des Estampes," p. 90 and note 2. Before 
presenting the original drawings of Bartoli to the Cabinet du roi, Caylus had them 
engraved and coloured at great cost. Thirty copies were, Le Beau tells us, given to 
the public i that in the Catalogue of Mariette, and which is described by Basan in 
the Catalogue of Mariette's sale, is now in the Biblioth^ue Nationalc. 

* "Les Amateurs d'autrefbis," pp. 279, 280. 



db, Google 



The Whoever wrote or spoke of de Caylus in his own day, if of a 

Comte dc friendly turn, invariably attached to his name the solemn epithet 
and the " profond." To the Academy he is a " profond connoisseur." 
great Gaburri,^ the friend and correspondent of Mariettc, writes of the 
teura"" " profonde intelligence de M. le Comte de Caylus." Yet " pro- 
fond " de Caylus was not, nor had he any trace of that sense of 
exa£l science in which others were then equally lacking. The 
text and illustration of his " Recueil des Antiquit^s"^ are both 
open to criticism. The one is full of errors ; the other, especially 
where works of sculpture are concerned, shows — whether we 
recognize the hand of Bouchardon or of Caylus — a pure travesty 
of classic style. 

All the same our debt to Caylus remains immense. We can- 
not be too grateful to the man who devoted his fortune to bring 
together these vast coUedions, who gave his time, his labour, his 
intelligence to the scrupulous exactitude of their description, and 
who did so much in this and in every other direction to raise the level 
of taste in his day. At the Academy he was a frequent lecturer, 
and when, as a consequence of a discourse on " Testes d'expres- 
sion," a petition was got up by the students, funds were found by 
him for the maintenance of a class which has been immortalized 
by Cochin's drawing,' and the prize for a duller subje<a — " I'Ostio- 
logie " — was also instituted through his initiative.* 

His own work shows that his taste was not always sure, and 
that he could dwell as fondly on a drawing by one of the Caracci 
as on the work of Lionardo. He could prefer Vasse ^ to Pigalle, in 
which he was certainly wrong, and we may be sure that Cochin 
says no more than the truth when he avers that Caylus, if he had 
given a hasty judgement, was loth to retraft or modify it — a most 
usual weakness with critics. But when we have made all deduc- 
tions, there remains a remarkable man, one whose character and 
life had unity and dignity, one who deserves something more than 
to be remembered only as the friend of Watteau, the lover of 
Mademoiselle Quinault-Dufresne" and Madame GeofFrin, the 

* His collc£tion of engravings and drawings was sold in London, after his death, 
in 1742. "Ellc n'y a pas eu bcaucoup de &veur, chose assez singuliire, car tout ce 
qui vient d'ltalie est reputi bon pour les Anglois" (Mariette, A. B, C. Dario). 

' See p. 7, note i. 

* See the reprodudion in " L'Art du XVIII. Siicle," cd. 1882, t. ii., p. 51. 

* P. v., Oftober 6th and 27th, 1759; February, 1760; April 28th, 1764. 
' See " French Architefis, etc.," pp. 39 note, 75, log and note, 147 note, etc 

* Jeanne-Franyoise, the younger sister of Quinault-Dufresne, a brilliant a^ress 



and witty woman, often consulted by Voltaire on his plays. She made her dihnt at 
the ComMe Fran^aise in 1718. Thi! ' ' ' ' ... 

the date of her relations to de Caylus. 



the Com^die Fran^se in 17 18. This, it has been suggested, preceded by two years 



db, Google 



etcher of '* Les Petits Pieds," that supplementary illustration to the The 
romance of Longus without which coUeftors hold that no copy of Comte de 
" Daphnis et Chloi " can be complete^ and the 

The references made to de Caylusin Cochin's Memoirs are by great 
no means friendly ; they lay bare all the flaws of a nature prone both ^^^j' 
by birth and inclination to the exercise of authority, but show at 
the same time that de Caylus was one to whom, as Cochin himself 
says, much must be forgiven because he really loved much. The 
venomous attack made by Marmontel on the man by whose good- 
will he had probably been admitted to Madame GeofFrin's table 
conveys the impression that de Caylus had been justly displeased 
by the bumptious and underbred familiarity of the author'of those 
mawkish " Contes Moraux " which owe their only value to Gra- 
velot's brilliant illustrations. 

The quarrel with the Encyclopaedists, which began with their 
intentional exclusion of. de Caylus from their list of authorities,^ 
embittered the last years of his life and had no doubt contributed 
to develop hostile relations between himself and Marmontel. 
Neither side could tolerate the pretensions of the other and de 
Caylus dealt with Diderot as insolently and more frankly than 
Diderot dealt with him. "Jc connais peu Diderot," he wrote 
to Pacciaudi in 1761, " parce que je nc Testime point; mais 

je crois qu'il se porte bien. II y a de certains b qui 

ne meurent pas tandis que pour le malheur des lettres de 
I'Europe d'honnfites gens . . . meurent dans leur plus grande 
force." ^ 

Cochin even attributes a certain coolness which crept between 
de Caylus and Watelet to the fad that Watelet undertook to 
write those articles " on the arts " for the Encyclopsedia which had 
not been offered to himself. " II est aimable," writes de Caylus, 
" mais son genre d'esprit et sa soci^t^ ne vont pas avec la fa^on 
dont je pense sur certaincs choscs," and in these words we have 
probably an exa£fc and even kindly statement of the situation. 
Watelet belonged to the new generation, de Caylus represented 
the old. 

The indefatigable activity and high ambitions displayed by de 

* Cochin, Wlim. inid., pp. 42, 43. 

' " Corrcspondance ineditc du Comtc de Caylus avcc Ic Pire Pacciaudi, Th&tin. 
(1754-1765)1 t. iy p. 237, ed. Nisard, 1877. Pacciaudi was librarian to the 
Duke of Parma. Diderot's resentment may be measured by the satisfadion with 
which he congratulates himself and others, in the Salon of 1765, on having been 
delivered by death from the '* plus cruel des amateurs." Yet his debt to de Caylus, 
whose teaching had cleared the way for his own, was large. See £. Milntz, "Un 
pricurseur et un ennemi de Diderot " (Rev. Bleue, 29 Mai, 1897). 



db, Google 



The Caylus both as an archaeologist and engraver were seconded, it is 

CaWuB*** '™*' '^y " P^"^ ^^ ^^^^ 9"*^ **^ talent," but they sustained him 

and the throughout the agony of his mortal illness ^ — as they had throughout 

great his life — and gave to his figure a consistent dignity and consequence 

teuTB." ^^ which there is no example amongst the many " gens du monde " 

who followed in his footsteps. Claude-Henri Watelet,* bom to 

great wealth,' employed his riches to make his colle^ons perfeA 

and to lead an easy life with a picked circle of friends. " He 

likes," says Mariette, " to paint, to draw, to engrave, and to all these 

talents he adds another and superior, that of versifying and writing 

elegantly in French."* 

His early journeys with Leroi dc Saint-Agnan in Germany 
and Italy, his long stay in Vienna, and still longer stay at Rome, 
where he remained as a sort of amateur student of the Ecole dc 
France, encouraged the development of tastes and friendships 
which became a part of his life. On his return, Watelet was 
naturally regarded by de Caylus as a promising disciple. These 
expe6lations were heightened by the successive publication of 
various sets of " Vases " engraved by Watelet, after drawings by 
Pierre, or by Pierre and Vien, one of which was dedicated to 
Madame Geoffrin." 

Watelet had, however, no intention of sacrificing any of the 
advantages and pleasures that exceptional fortune and position could 
secure. He was pleased to busy himself with music, or painting, 
or engraving ; but he lived for the world, in the Salons of Madame 
GeofFrin and Madame Tencin, in the pleasant company of the 
reigning favourite, for whom he engraved Cochin's portrait of her 
young brother, Abel Poisson, the future Marquis de Marigny, 
or the even more agreeable society of Madame Le Comte, whose 

' Le Beau says: **I1 supporta avec le plus grand courage des operations 
douloureuses. . . . Dis que la plaie fiit ferm^e, il se rendit avcc empressement a nos 
occupations. II n'avoit point intcrrompu ses Etudes ; il reprit son train ordinaire ; il 
visita ses amis, les savants, les artistes, dont il alloit animer Ics travaux, tandis qu'il 
mouroit lui-mSme. Port£ cntre les bras de ses domcstiques, il sembloit laisser a 
cbaquc lieu une portion de sa vie. Combien dc fois ne I'avons-nous pas vu en cet 
€at assister a nos stances et se ranimer a nos Icdures." 

' 1718-1786. Honoraire associ^ libre, 1747. 

' He succeeded his father, who was "receveur g^njral des finances'* (or the 
" giniraliti d'Orl&ins," at the age of twenty-two. 

• Mariette, A. B. C, Dario. His chief performance was " L'Art de Peindre," 
but he also published one or two tragedies and comedies, an " Essai sur les jardins," 
and the first two volumes of a " Di&ionnaire des beaux arts," which was re-edited 
with additions in 1792 by L£vesquc. 

* "Raccolta di Vasi intagliate dal suo amico Watelet," 1749. A similar set is 
dedicated to " la Signora illustrissima Duronceray nel arte del* inUgliatura dilettante 
virtuotissima " — a thoroughly unmerited eulc^um. 



d by Google 



Digiizod b, Google , 



db, Google 



db, Google 



Portrait of Marcuehjte 1,r Cowte. 
(Claude-Henri Watelet, after Cochin le fils.) 



Digiizodb, Google 



portrait in profile, also after Cochin, was engraved by him in The 
f7ci * Comte de 

^/jj' Cavlus 

In 1754 Watelet, who had been received as an associ^ libre by and the 
the Royal Academy in 17^7? signs a " Suite dc dessins peints et great 
graves par Watclet du cabinet de Madame Le C . . ." This initial t^^^*" 
indicates the lady of whom he has left us this engaging portrait, 
and whose relations with Watelet and the ^hion ^er which they 
were accepted by the world are as incredible as anything recounted 
concerning Voltaire and the divine " Emilie." 

George Sand, in her " Lettres d*un Voyageur," draws a senti- 
mental picture of Watelet, " an etcher superior to any of his day," 
and Marguerite Le Comte as two poor old people etching together, 
and thus consoling themselves for the narrow poverty or their lives 
by their common love for art." It is true, indeed, that Watelet 
not long before his death was embarrassed by the flight of a dis- 
honest subordinate, who carried off considerable sums due to the 
State, the pajmient of which, exacted stridly and promptly by the 
abb6 Terray, straitened the resources of the unfortunate receveur 
gMral\ but in 1754, thirty years earlier, when he is supposed to 
have found in the wife of the procureur^ M. Le Comte, the woman 
to whom by a rare conformity of tastes and pleasures he became 
indissolubly attached, the source of Watelet's wealth was untouched, 
nor can the fortune of M. Le Comte and his wife be regarded as 
inconsiderable. Le Moulin-Joli, a beautiful property near Argen- 
teuil, was actually bought by Watelet as a retreat for himself and 
Marguerite he Comte, in which they might enjoy each other's 
society in the company of trusted friends, and he certainly lavished 
great sums on making it a perfed maison de plaisance. 

Watelet's social successes were crowned by his eledion to the 
Academy, and the journey to Italy which he undertook with 
Madame Le Comte in 1763 was a sort of triumphal procession. 
The couple — chaperoned by Watelet's complaisant old tutor, the 
abb^ Coppette, and carrying in their train Savalette de Buchelay 
and the Swiss landscape-painter and engraver Weirotter* — ^were 

' A second portrait of the same lady, in full hsx — an example of which is dted 
by PoruUi and Biraldi as in the colle^on of Baron Pichon — was also ennaved by 
Watelet. 

* P. v., September 30th, 1747. 

* « II y avait un bon artiste qu'on appelait Watelet, qui gravait 1 1'eau-lbrte mieux 
qu'aucun homme de son temps. II atma Marguerite Le Comte et lui apprit \ 
graver i I'cau-forte aiissi Uen que lui, £lle quitta son mari, ses biens et son pays 

?)ur aller vivrc avec Watelet. Quarantc ans apris on d6couvrit aux environs de 
aris, dans unc maison appelic ^uiilin-JeUy un vicux homme," etc (** Lettres d'uo 
Voyageur," ed. i860, p. 142}. 

* 1730-I77i« Mariette saya of Weirotter: "Nous I'avons vu a Paris, ct s'y 



d by Google 



The everywhere magnificently received and entertained. At Turin 

Comte de they were welcomed by His Majesty of Sardinia ; at Rome the 



"Ama- 
teurs." 



and the Pope and the ambassador of France combined with Natoire and 
great the ^Hves of the Ecole de France to do them honour.^ In a letter, 
written it has been supposed to M. Lc Comte, from Romc,^ 
Watelet, after giving directions as to the arrangement of their 
rooms at the Moulin, adds : " Nous nous portons au reste ^ mer- 
veille. Mme. Le Comte est toujours combine de polltesses, de 
provenances et d'attentions sur tout et en toute occasion. £Ue 
auroit hti log^e sur la route de Naples dans tons les palais qui sont 
sur ce chemin et re9eue dans cette ville par ce qu'il y a de plus 
grand. II y a ici un cardinal Albane qui Ta prise dans la plus sin- 
guH^re amitiO ainsi que la princesse Borgh^se." Nowhere, indeed, 
do we find any hint of the sacrifices generously suggested by George 
Sand as having been made for her lover's sake by Marguerite Le 
Comte.' 

There is, however, an even more suggestive picture of this 
curious society in later years, by Mme. VigOe Lebrun, who was 
herself one of the privileged guests of " Le Moulin-Joli." In her 
amusing " Memoirs " she writes of " that dlys^e which belonged to 
a man of my acquaintance, M. Watelet, a great lover of art, a dis- 
tinguished man of a sweet and attaching character who had made 
many friends. In his enchanted isle, I found him in keeping with 
all his surroundings ; he received there with grace and simplicity 
a small but perfectly well-chosen set. A friend, to whom he had 
been attached for thirty years, lived in his house. Time had 
sanctified, so to say, their tie, to such a point that they were every- 
where received in the best company, as well as the lady's husband, 
who, droUy enough, never left her." * 

The abode of this curious household, ** La maison de Mar- 
guerite Le Comte, meunifercdu Moulin-Joli," is the subjeCt of one 

distingucr par dcs deaseins de paysage faits d'apris nature, ou il mettoit beaucoup dc 
godt et peut-£trc trop de maniire. Etant dans cette viUe, il en a grav£ plusieun qui 
mjritent d'etre estim^. II 6toit un esprit inquiet et qui ne pouvoit demeurer en 
place. II suivit M. Watelet en Italic" (A. B. C. Dario). 

' They published a little boolc entitled "Nella venuta in Roma di madama Le 
Comte e dei Signori Watelet e Copette, cotnponitnenti poetici di Luigi Subleyras 
coUe figure in ramc di Stefano della Valine -Poussin, 1764. ' The cuts, which show 
Watelet arriving with his sketch-book under one arm and his lady on the other, are 
excellent comedy. 

* This letter is quoted by MM. de Portalis and BJraldi^ t. iii., pp. 643-645. 
From its style it is more probi^le that it was written by Watelet to his MtVn'rr, 
Roland, than to M. Le Comte. See Wille, M^m., Sept. 3rd, 1767. 

' See note 3, p. ti, 

* ** Souvenirs de Madame Vig£e>Lebrun," ed. 1835, t. i., pp. 151, 15Z. 



d by Google 



of Watelet*s happiest attempts, and here he produced by far the The 
greater part of the three hundred etchings which bear his name.^ Comte de 
Unfortunately one can only say, even of the best, that they show and the 
the good intentions of the intelligent amateur, and in that rcspeiS great 
are about on a level with the literary efforts which, culminating in (gy^^^r 
his versified and illustrated " Art de Peindre," opened to him the 
doors of the Academy.^ 

" M. Watclet," wrote Colli, " rcceveur gin^ral des finances, 
est un amateur des arts, mais qui, dans aucun n'a montri ni un 
ginie ni un talent decide. II salt peindre, il salt graver, il a fait 
des vers, mais tout cel^ dans un degr6 si mediocre que le moindre 
des artistes est infiniment au-dessus de lui." The criticism is, 
indeed, painfully true not only of Watelet but of all that busy 
crowd of gens au monde who were pleased to have a talent for the 
arts. 

On one of my first visits to Chantilly, the Duke d'Aumale sent 
mc off with M. Gruycr to look over the drawings of one of the 
most widely celebrated — Carmontelle." The opportunities which 
Louis Carrogis dit de Carmontelle enjoyed as Reader to the Duke de 
Chartres, and which he cultivated by means of his excellent address 
and social talents, were employed by him to make that extra- 
ordinary coUeftion of curious, lull-length sketches of his con- 
temporaries in which, as Grimm observed, he has seized the air, 
the bearing, the essence as it were of each person rather than their 
adual features. The interest which his drawings excite is in- 
dependent of any artistic value ; it is simply that of a chronicle of 
things and people out of sight.* This is the sole merit which 
accrues to him in connexion with the famous engravings by 
Delafosse, one of which represents *' La Malheureuse Famille 

* Portalis and Biraldi say "son ceuvre gravj d^asse 300 ptices," t. iii., p. 648. 
His work is by no means rcmaricable, but it had a great social success. Wille writes, 
March 29th, 1766: "Pay charge M. Huber d'obtenir de M, Wattelet son ceuvre 
pour le Cabinet dcAoral.' 

* This poem, which was published by Guerin and Dclatour in 1760, was orna< 
mented by Pierre with vignettes. It excited the ire of Diderot. " If it were mine," 
he wrote, "I would cut out all the vignenes, frame and glaze them, and throw the 
rest into the fire." The vignettes are not much better than the text. 

* 1717-1806, He was the son of a shoemaker named Carrogis, whose shop was 
at the corner of the rue des Quatre-Vents. It is supposed that he took his second 
name in order not too constantly to recall that of the shop. See the notice by 
Mme. de Gcniis to ** Proverbes et Comedies Postbumea de Carmontelle." 

* He kept all his drawings, and the colle^on now at Chantilly is supposed to 
include the 520 portraits fi-om his hand, sold in 1 83 1, at the sale of La Mfsang^re, b> 
an English purchaser. One drawing, that of the Calas family, is historic. Grimm 
tried in vain to induce Wille to engrave it, and it was banded to Delafosse. See 
Wille, MJm., April 20th, 1763. 

13 



d by Google 



' ' Ama- 
teurs,' 



The Calasi" ^ whilst in the other deeply interesting if less sensational 

Comte de work we see the seven-year-old Mozart at the spinet, accompany- 
anithe ^^S ^^^ ^^^^^ sister Marianne whilst their father plays the violin. 
great Both these works had sketches by Carmontelle for their basis. 

"" The few portraits which he etched himself show that their author 
might easily have rivalled Watelet, and that is all. 

The only amateur whose execution rises above this level is 
Antoine de Marcenay de Ghuy,^ and he is an exception proving 
the rule, for though always reckoned as an amateur, he appears to 
have no title to this indulgence except good birth. He regularly 
sold his work in order to eke out his income,' and his abortive 
attempt, with the help of Wille, who had already solicited for 
him the " patent " of the Imperial Academy of Augsburg, to get 
himself received as an associate by the Royal Academy indicates 
an essentially professional ambition. 

" J'ay fait mes visites," writes Wille, on July 20th, 1761, "aux 
officiers et membres de I'Acad^mie royale ayant voix, pour les 
prier de m'accorder leurs suffrages lorsque je pr^senterai le portrait 
dc M. Ic marquis de Marigny, que j'ay gravi pour ma reception. Ces 
pri^res sont d'usage. M.de Marcenay m'accompagna et fit ces visites 
avec moi et priires pour des suffrages aux m^mes personnes ; car il 
desire 6tre agrii le jour que j'cspirc etre refu, qui sera vendredy 

Erochain 24 de ce mois." Unfortunately, when the day came, Wille 
as to enter together with his own unanimous reception the dis- 
comfiture of his friend, who *' n'ayant pas le nombre de voix pour 
lui qu'il lui aurolt fallu, fut refus^." 

As the justification of his pretensions, de Marcenay submitted 
to the Academy ** quatre tableaux "—probably those which he 
hastened to exhibit with the maitres in 1 762 — but it is probable that 
had he even been able to show the best of his etched work, the 
portraits of Marshals Saxe and Turenne, or the medallions of 
Stanislas Leckzinski, the result would not have been different.' 
These were, however, all executed after his rejection by the 
Academy, and show that* de Marcenay, in his least pretentious 
things, does best. As a rule, in large work he gets thick and 
heavy when trying for force, and " woolly " when he wants an 

* This work is shown hanging in the alcove of Voltaire's bedroom, in Denon's 
** Dejeuner dc Ferney." 

* 1724-1811. 

* See Louis Morand, "Antoine de Marcenay de Ghuy, peintre et graveur. 
Catalogue de son ceuvre, Lettres incites," etc 

* Turenne, d'apris Ph. de Champagne, 1767. Le MarJchal de Saxe, d'apiis 
Liotard, 1766, et Stanislas-Auguste, roi de Pologne, d'ajx'is MUe. BacciarcUi. 
Demarcenay inv. et sc. 1765. 

14 



db, Google 



effect of delicacy. Possibly the check to his ambition, by disgust- The 
ing him with painting, threw him back on the praftice of an art Comte de 
for which he had more aptitude, and in which he could appeal to anJrtie 
WiUe for pradical counsel and guidance. great 

From his close association with this great engraver, de Mar- 4-™"^ 
cenay doubtless drew a certain strength, just as his years with 
Fragonard and Hubert Robert fortified the taste and talent of the 
abbd Richard de Saint-Non,^ whose zeal and devotion to the great 
work on which he spent his fortune entitle him to be regarded as 
the most distinguished amateur of the second half of the century. 
He had inherited artistic tastes from his mother — daughter and 
grand-daughter of painters of the &mily of BouUogne. He became 
an abb^ and a comeilkr au Parlement for family reasons, but took 
the first opportunity that offered of quitting his place, the sale of 
which supplied the means for his stay in Italy, whence he returned 
in 1 76 1 , bringing Fragonard with him, and, says Marietta, 
" quantity de desseins qu'il lui a fait faire, et parmi lesquels j'en ai vu 
plusieurs repr^sentant des veues de Rome, dont la touche et le &ire 
m'ont beaucoup plu." 

He was a member of the set received by Watelet at Moulin- 
Joli, and six views of the enchanted isle — in one of which Mar- 
guerite Le Comte is seen with her academician in a boat on the 
lake — are amongst the earliest of the abba's performances.^ On his 
return firom Italy, the publication of those '* Vues de Rome et de 
ses environs," which he etched — with, in some instances, brilliant 
success — from drawings by Fragonard and Hubert Robert, betray 
the character of the impressions which seem to have given a new 
direction to his life. 

This attempt was followed up by the series of " Fragments de 
peintures et tableaux les plus interessants des palais et <^glises 
d'ltalie," engraved by Saint-Non after his system of "eau-forte 
complit^e de lavis " ' which closely resembled the method per- 
feded by Le Prince. Already he had begun to plan the great 
work to which he dedicated his fortune and his life, the " Voyage 
pittoresque de Naples et dans les Deux Siciles." The passion by 
which he was inspired communicated itself to others and, at first, 
he found zealous co-operation on the part of all whom he ap- 
proached concerning the preparation of this costly work. 

' 1717-1791, Honoraire associj libre, December 6th, 1777 ; amateur, February 
a6tb, 1785. 

* The first date found on his work is that of 1753 on " Vue des Environs de Poi- 
tiers," an etching executed by its author during the exile of the Parliament at PoidcTC. 

* Reference will be made to this and to the various other processes which came 
into lashion at this date in Chapter X. 

H 



db, Google 



The Amateurs opened their purses ; a long list of subscribers 

Comte de guaranteed a prosperous undertaking ; artists explored Sicily and 
and the Calabria under the guidance of Vivant Denon ; the chief engravers 
great of Paris, Duplessi-Bertaux, Choffard, Saint-Aubin, Daudet, Mar- 
tcurt.*' ^^* Marillicr, were busied with the illustrations, and the text was 
entrusted to distinguished specialists.^ De Saint-Non himself 
undertook with admirable unselfishness the least attractive duties 
on the perfect discharge of which the perfedion of a great under- 
taking of this sort must depend. Proof-reading, careful critical 
examination of the text, were the least of the actual drudgery which 
devolved on him, and, in this respect, as well as in the distribution 
of the subjefts of the illustrations to the engravers — whom he 
treated with an open-handed generosity — he showed the same 
devoted temper of self-abnegation, reserving for his own execution 
only the simpler ornaments at the foot of the page, in which 
figured antique vases or groups of fruit and foliage.^ Magnificent 
success seemed certain to crown this great enterprise, which, begun 
in 1778, went steadily forward till, in 1786, it was complete in 
five great folio volumes. 

Complete also was the ruin of its creator. Subscribers had 
become weary of the drain on their funds, and in order to keep his 
engagements de Saint-Non had been compelled to throw into the 
gulf not only his own fortune but that of his brother. 

Throughout this desperate struggle with adverse circumstances, 
de Saint-Non was sustained by the fire with which he pursued his 
unselfish ends. His charader in this respe<5t presents a remarkable 
contrast both to the epicureanism of Watelet and to the formal 
dignity of de Caylus. All three men are types of their century in 
its successive phases of development. The whole attitude of de 
Caylus, with its manifest assumption of authority, is reminiscent of 
the traditions of the Grand Sifecic; Watelet personifies the lighter 
philosophy by which they were replaced, but the spirit of de Saint- 
Non had been stirred by the breath of the coming revolution. 
His friends were Rousseau and Franklin ; he had generous illusions 
which consoled and fortified him in disaster and the hour of death. 
He closed his eyes in the firm faith of a great national renewal ; • 

* Faujas de Saint-Fond, the gcolc^st, and Dolomieu (de Gntet de Dolomieu), 
were amongst those who undertook special portions of the [x>ok. 

* His work never rises above that of a gifted amateur. The figure subje^b are 
usually the worst, though there is an etching by him of a woman in bed chatting 
with another seated at the foot, that has " come ''^ very well and has a real air. One 
may abo mention " Vue prise dans les jardins de la Villa Barbarini, Rome** (Saint- 
Non sc. 1770, Robert del.). 

* His last words were " Et le patriotismc, se soutient-il ? " 

16 



db, Google 



knowing also that, by the conscientious perfe£Hon of the work to The 
which he had sacrificed his all, he had himself in a certain measure Comte dc 
co-operated with those who were engaged in the great attempt to anl^e 
bring the sincerity of truth to bear on the whole domain of know- great 



>7 



db, Google 



CHAPTER II 
MARIETTE AND BASAN 

IN the bond which closely united de Caylus and Bouchardon^ 
Pierre-Jean Mariette had always made a third. Cochin 
describes Bouchardon as " tr^s-despote ches lui ... mais 
comme cela n'auroit pas r6ussi dans le monde, il y a apparence 
que c'est ce qui I'a engage a se repandre pen, et i ne manger que 
trcs-rarement hors de ch?s lui, si ce n'est chis M. Mariette^ qui, 
pour ainsi dire, ^toit toujours a genoux devant lui."'' 

To Mariette, Bouchardon, on his deathbed, gave the letter by 
which — in direft opposition to the wishes of de Caylus — he 
appointed Pigalle to carry on his unfinished work.' " II fit," says 
Cochin, " conjointement avec M. Mariette, cette lettre, lui ayant 
confix son id^e sous la promesse du plus grand secret. M. Mariette 
le lui garda et s'en justifia comme il put dans la suitte aupres de 
M. de Caylus."* Marietta's position in this conjuncture was one 
of great difficulty, and the fa£t that his close and intimate relations 
with de Caylus remained undisturbed, in spite of what might have 
been regarded as unfriendly conduft on his part, goes to prove that 
Mariette was no such slave to de Caylus as has been pretended,'' 
' 1694- 1 774. 

* M^m, in6d., pp. 30, 85. '*M. de Caylus . . . et M. Mariette fiusoient tres 
assiducment leur cour a M. Bouchardon, he premier donnoit par la bonne opinion 
dc son goust, et le second en tiroit de la consideration et presque touttes les contr^ 
preuves de ses desseins." 

' See " French Architefts and Sculptors," p. 79. * Mim. inW^ p. 55. 

* **M. Mariette," says Cochin (p. 33), **libraire et marchand d'estampes, devenu 
fort riche par cei deux commerces reunis, et considJr^ en cons^ucncc, ^oit fort amy 
de M. le Comte de Caylus et fort susceptible d'en recevoir les impressions, et de ne 
voir que par ses yeux." Again we find in another passage (p. 118] an even more 
decided statement : " M. de Caylus 6to\t un bomme partial . . . quant a Mariette ce 
n'^tcHt que son ^cho," 

18 



db, Google 



nor was de Caylus himself as intolerant of all opposition as Cochin Mariette 
would have us believe. iSaan. 

There is indeed no hint, except in Cochin's pages, that the 
friendship existing between these men was ever troubled,^ and 
Mariette, when writing to Bottari (Oflober 12th, 1765) of de 
Caylus's death, added the kindly words : "il est dur, a mon Sge, de 
voir partir un ami qui avail, depuis quarante ans, autant d'attache- 
ment pour moi que j'en avais pour lui."^ 

The tie between Mariette and de Caylus had grown out of 
common interests and diversity of gifts. Each found in the other 
qualities in which he himself was more or less lacking. The 
varied acquirements of de Caylus, his tendency to dogmatic system 
and theoretic speculation were a stimulus to the intelligence of 
Mariette, who, inheriting narrower traditions and special training, 
was inclined towards the exhibition of pure connoisseurship, 
backed, it is true, by an amazing store of exa£t learning. The 
influence which they combined to exercise on their contemporaries 
was of incalculable importance. Just when superior direction was 
failing, de Caylus ereded a standard of attainment which was of the 
highest charafter : when the passion for prettiness and fantastic 
graces threatened to blind men to the larger virtues of art, Mariette, 
strong in the immense authority of his unrivalled collections 
which formed, as it were, an incontrovertible body of doftrine, 
called their attention to the work of men who had won the 
heights, to the great periods which have left us the masterpieces 
of the arts. 

These colledtions had been to a great extent amassed by the 
father and grandfather of Pierre-Jean, whom he had succeeded 
as printscller and publisher at the sign of the Colonnes d'Hercule, 
rue St. Jacques, with the motto " Haec meta laborum."' The 

' " Ccux qui ont bien connu M. de Caylus . . , n'ont pas dout£ que, nulgrj tous 
les beaux semblans . . . il n'eut iti int^rieurcmcnt tr^ rcfroidi pour lui. J'ay encore 
iti confirm^ dans cettc id^ par I'aveu que j'ay entendu hWc a M. Mariette que, 
matgr^ le long attachement qu'il avoit t£moign6 a M. de Caylus il avoit aperfu que 
cc n'^oit point pour lui un veritable amy" (/W., pp. 55, 56). 

' J^u^ Dumesnil, " Hist, des plus c61^bres amateurs fran^is," p. 214. 

' This house, in which Pierre-Jean Mariette died, was reconstructed out of 
three by his father and mother. (See Appendix B.) The sign of the '* Colonnes 
d'Hercule** is coupled with the name of a Mariette for the first time in 1644 (Le livre 
original de la Pourtraidure pour la jeunesse tir6 de F. Boulogne, i Paris, chez Pierre 
Mariette le fils. Rue St. Jacques, aux Colonnes d'Hercule, 1644.). It appean to have 
come into the family from Langlois dit Chartres, who died in 1647, leaving a widow 
who married Pierre le fils. Delatour, in error, eives her to Denys, whose wife was 
Justine Abonnenc The original sign of the Mariettes appears to have been " a 
rEsperance," and in a dispute over the house baring it, in which several of the 

■9 



db, Google 



Mariette &mily were closely united and belonged to the proudest and best 
°"^ type of the great Parisian middle class. Their traditions were 

preserved with noble dignity by Pierre-Jean, and one may sec, 
even from chance references made by Cochin, how striftly he 
kept to his own class — married in it, lived in it, sought alliances 
for his children in it — at a time when his close relations with the 
great and powerful would have enabled him to gratify less worthy 
ambitions. " M. Mariette," writes Cochin, *' avoit marii une de 
ses filles a M. Brochan,^ marchand d'etoffes; cette famille 6toit 
tres-considiree dans la paroisse St. Germain tant a cause de son 
opulence, qu'a cause de ses mceurs les plus honnStes et les plus 
respectables dont elle faisoit profession. lis n'entendoient rien 
aux arts et regardoient M. Mariette comme un aigle en ces 
matieres." ^ 

In this respect, the family gave proof of better wit than Cochin, 
whose judgement was distempered by the rcjeftion of the proposals 
made by his friend Slodtz for the decoration of the choir of 
St. Gertnain I'Auxerrois, and who resented the influence which 
he supposed to have been exercised by de Caylus on the Brochant 
family, through Mariette, in order to procure the commission for 
Vasse. On such a point Mariette might now be held to have been 
wrong. The weakness inherent to the position taken up by himself 
and de Caylus was that it led to a doctrinaire assumption of the 
merit of all work — no matter how poor in quality— executed ac- 
cording to certain canons of taste, and to the condemnation of all — 
no matter how graceful and brilliant — in which these canons were 
not respeded. No doubt they quite honestly preferred the feeble 
elegance of Vass^ to the vigorous bravura of Slodtz, neither of 
whom, however, was in the least likely to have felt the beauty 
of the' structure they were proposing to decorate. 

As regards taste, even in his own special province, the judge- 
ments of Mariette have not always been confirmed by posterity. It 
is, indeed, impossible, even for one as brilliantly endowed as he, 
not to be biassed occasionally by some capricious fancy or strain of 
personal prejudice. Mariette, who wrote of Lionardo, " il itoit 
lui-mSme une lumi^re qui devoit servir de guide k tous ceux qui 

hmily were interested, Pierre is described as"nuu%hand detaille^uce" (MS. ia 
possession of Mr. Percy Mariette, whom I have to thank (br these deails). 

' A M. Brochant left a colle^on of engravings, drawings and pi&ires, etc., etc, 
sold in 1774. He may have been of the same &mily, but is not the Sicur Claude- 
Jcan-Baptiste Brochant, marchand, fburnisscur de la maison du Roy, who married 
Angjlique-Geneviive Mariette and figures with her in 1776 in the"A^e de partage," 
etc^ bv which her lather's affiu'rs were wound up. (See Ai^ndix C) 

' Mim. inM., p. 35. 



d by Google 



viendroient apres lui,*'^ is the same Mariette who writes to Mariette 
Bottari,^ " J'ai une prMileflion pour les ouvrages de Carle ^** 
Maratte. J'ai plusieurs dc ses desseins que je met au rang de tout 
ce que je connois de plus beau,"' and who accepted the attribu- 
tion to Michael-Angelo of the somewhat coarse and violent drawing 
of a hand which now figures under the name of Annibal Caracci 
in the Louvre. 

Condivi, in his " Life of Michael- Angel o," had related that 
when Cardinal Santo Giorgio sent to the sculptor to ask whether a 
statue of Cupid, sold to him as an antique, were not really by 
him, Michael -Angelo took a pen and drew a hand in proof of his 
claims/ The drawing brought from Italy by Evrard Jabach," 
was supposed to be the one in question. It passed from Crozat to 
Mariette, and Mariette was convinced of its authenticity. He 
refers to it with unmeasured admiration in the notes published 
by Gori in the first volume of his edition of Condivi, which 
appeared at Florence in 1 746. " C'cst pent ^tre," he says, " le 
plus beau dessin qu'il eut [Crozat] . . . et je le conserverai 
pr6cieusement toute ma vie."* 

This drawing, which appears to us but a sorry makeshift for a 
masterpiece,' imposed on Mariette because it was accredited by a 

' See the article on Lionardo in the A. B. C. Datio, which is followed by the 
" L<ettre sur Leonard dc Vinci, Peintre Florcntin," addressed by Mariette to Caylus, 
and intended to accompany the ** Recueil de Caricatures " engraved by de Caylus 
after da Vinci. (See abo Nos. 192-195, ChaL du Louvre.) The letter nrst appeared 
in 1730 without the names of either Caylus or Mariette j it was translated into 
Italian in the " Lcttere bu la pittura," and finally was reprinted with corrections and 
additions, and accompanied by the engravings, in 1767. It will be found again 
reprinted by the editors of the A. B. C. Dano,vo1. iii.,pp. 139-164. The sixty drawings 
were acquired by Mariette, See No. 787 of his Catalogue. 

* 1689-1775. He formed the Cabinet des M^dailles of the Vatican Library. In 
1737 he published "Sculture e Pitture sacre cstratte dei cimiterj di Roma,** and in 
'754 **R^ccolta di letterc suUa [Httura, scultura e architettura, scritte da' i piii celebri 
professori." 

* Seeletter of 15 Ffvrier, 1757, "Courrier de I'Art," August 2lnd, 1884. 

* " Frese una penna . . . e con tal leggiadria gli diinnse una mano, che ne resto 
stupefiitto " (Condivi), 

* See A. B. C. Dario, Mariette, t. i., p. 207. 

* A. B. C. Dario, Mariette, t. i., p. 213, and Dumcsnil, at supra, pp. 95-97. 

^ In 1732 Gaburri wrote to Mariette asking him to send him the engraving by 
Caylus of this drawing, and saying, "Je sats bien que M. Crozat possede un tres- 
grand nombre de dcssins tous beaux ct tares, mais n*eflt-il que cette seule main, die 
suffirait i elle seule pour le rendre c^Icbre, commc il Test dans le monde cntier, parce 
qu'clle est v^itablemcnt un trfsor " (Bottari, t. ii., No. xcix., p. 359 ; apud Dumesnil, 
p. 96). Eight yean later, on the death of Crozat, the drawing now in the Louvre 
became the proper^ of Mariette, whose admiration for its quality withstood evra 
the ccnnparison with important and authentic work by the master of which he was 
possessed. 



d by Google 



Mariette probably apocryphal legend and backed by the names of the 
Basan famous colleftors who had been its previous possessors. " Jc I'ai 
achct6," he says, ** a la vente qui vient de sc fairc aprfes la mort 
dc M. Crozat."! He saw in it the virtues that he wished to 
see. On this one occasion his habitually direct judgement was 
warped by the desire which constantly betrays the ordinary col- 
lector — the desire to recognize unique importance in his own 



The one slip made by Mariette is conspicuous only by contrast 
with the innumerable proofs of his consummate connoisseurship, 
which constitute his claim to take a higher place than can be 
conceded to any other amateur. His special distin<^ion consisted 
in the fine taste which led him instin^ively to the work of great 
periods, and which rendered him insensible to the caprices of 
rashion. "On compte," he writes in 1769, " les curieux qui, 
comme moi, donnent la pr^fi^rence aux ouvrages des mattres 
Italiens, sur ceux des peintres qu'ont produit les Pays Bas. Ceux<i 
ont pris un tel crWit qu'on se les arrache et qu'on y prodigue Tor 
et I'argent, tandis qu'un tableau ou qu'un dessein d'ltalie n'est 
regard^ qu'avec une sorte d'indifF^rence. Cela ne m'empSche pas 
de suivre mon gout, aussi n'cst-cc point une exagiration de vous dire 
que ma coUeftion, form^e dans cet esprit-la, est peut-^tre la plus 
complette et la mieux choisie qui soit en Europe." ^ 

Mariette's natural gifts had been fostered by circumstances 
from his earliest days. He was born to great opportunities. Not 
the least of these was offered by the collections formed by his father 
and grandfather, who seem to have carried on their business with 
the obje6t of reserving for their own portfolios everything that they 
thought to be of exceptional interest or beauty. Trained by daily 
contact with the treasures stored in his own home, Mariette was 
ready, at an age when most men are but at the threshold of life, to 
take advantage to the full of the relations which his father had 
acquired in the conduct of his affairs. 

On the 30th November, 1718, Prince Eugene wrote from 
Vienna to Baron von Hohendorif : " La satisfaction que j'ay des 
travauxdujeune Mariette m'engageront [j/V] avcc plaisir de recom- 
penser les soins et attentions, qu'il s'est donn^ de seconder et 
favoriser les desseins, qu'il a de faire un tour en Italie par telles 
lettres de recommendations, dont il pourroit avoir besoin et de luy 
procurer par ces moyens tous les agremens, et facilit^s que sa 

* A. B. C. Dario. See under the heading " Buonaroti." 

* Letter to Tcmajwa, 12 Dec., 1769. See "Lettres de Mariette i Tcmanza," 
"Les Archives des Am, Recucil, etc.," edited by £. Muntz, 1890, p. 133. 

22 



d by Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



1 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



Frontispice: "Catalogue Mariette." 
(Pikrke-Philippe Choffard, after Cochin le fils.) 



, Google 



louable curiosit^ et gran ddsir de se perfeAionner dans sa sphire Mariette 
peuvent miritcr." ^ ^^ 

At this date Mariette, who had spent two years in Vienna, 
was about twenty-four, and we learn from the " Note sur la 
Famille de M. Mariette," drawn up by " M. Delatour, successeur 
de M' Mariette," ^ that he had started in business with his father, 
Jean, in 1714. He was, says the writer, "libraire en 1714 . . . 
imprimeur en 1722, il acheta conjointemcnt avec son pirc 
d'Antoine-Urbain Coustelier moitii du privilege de Touvrage des 
historiens des Gaules et de France, collection volutnineuse dont le 
premier volume in f" n'a paru qu'en 1738."^ The friends made 
during the stay in Vienna,' the letters of introduction, due to the 
friendship of Prince Engine, which brought him into relations 
with all those whom he most desired to know during his Italian 
tour, laid the foundation of Marietta's prosperous and distinguished 
future. " Ses grandes relations," writes the author of the " Note" 
already quoted, '* le mirent ^ meme d*6tendre son commerce de la 
maniere la plus brillante et de pousser sa fortune jusqu'ou elle 
pouvait aller ; on pent dire qu'il realisa dans son ^tat la devise que 
son p4re^ avait adoptee." 

His early debt to the Prince was faithfully recalled by 
Mariette when at the height of his success, and when his fortune 
had reached its period of exceptional brilliancy. Special mention 
is made in the " Partage des biens de la succession " of a " diamant 
jaune qu'il avait re9u de M. le Prince Eugene," and he requests 
his eldest son to keep it as a " marque des bontes que ce prince 
avait eiies pour luy et comme une marque honorable pour leur 
famille."^ 

Mariette's relations with the Prince had not ended with his 
stay in Vienna and his Italian tour.* From letters written in 
Paris in 1728, we find that his services were in demand, not only 
for the choice of drawings and engravings, but for the selection of 
" ouvrages de bronze dore d'or moulu " ; for the biddings to be 



' Letter published by M. EugineMiintz, "Courrier de I'Art.," April lith, 1884. 
See also von Arneth, "Prinz Eugen von Savoyen," t. iji., p. 70. 
' See Appendix B. 

* Amongst these may be especially noted Antonio Maria Zanetti (1680-1767), 
who was a Ufelong correspondent, and Pietro Santi Bartoli. In writing to Temanza 
(15 Avnl, 1768) Mariette mentions "Sertoli, habile dessinateur que j^ connu per- 
sonnellement dans le s£jour que j'ai bit a Vienne " ("Arch, des Arts, 1890, p. 1 15). 

* This is an evident allusion to the motto ** Nee plus ultra," which I learn from 
Mr. Percy Mariette was not the motto of his great ancestor. 

' See Appendix C. 

* See letter of the Prince to Mariette, July 27th, 1724, Hausarch., von Arneth, 
" Prinz Eugen," etc., t. iii., p. 522. 

23 



db, Google 



Mariette made at the sale of the " bibliotheque de M. Colbert," and for the 
^^ purchase of a *' Recueil de quatre cent vingt-cinq plantes dessin^es 

ou pour mieux dire imprimee& par le moyen d'un nouveau secret."^ 
In 1732 he says in a letter to Gaburri: " J'ai cu par le moyen du 
prince Eugene, les quatre gravures des tableaux du grand-due qui 
me manquaient." ^ 

Mariette's letters, whether they treat of business or learning, 
are mostly dull reading, though saved by the perfe£l simplicity of 
their style from any touch of pedantry. Every page gives evidence 
of that exceptionally exa£t knowledge and wide experience which, 
as Delatour puts it, " le mirent dans le cas de m^rtter la confiance 
des personnages les plus disting;u<^es et de plusieurs souverains." 
Although, however, they must be consulted— especially the series 
addressed to Temanza ^ and Bottari * — ^by anyone who wishes to 
follow the development of Mariette's interests and pursuits, that 
which we find in them and in other writings by him is but as dust 
in the balance if compared with that monument of learning, to 
which we turn even now day by day for information, the famous 
Abecedario. 

In undertaking this vast enterprise Mariette had the advantage 
of a forerunner. The mistakes and errors of the PAre Orlandi," 
a writer " sans mi^thode et sans exaditude," provoked Mariette, 
as he has himself told us, into jotting down day by day the correc- 
tions which occurred to him. " La fine, r6guliere et juvenile 
^criture que Ton retrouve sur certains feuillets de TAbecedario, 
et qui y recopie des extraits de livres italiens ou des aJdita 
d'^ditions nouvelles d'Orlandi, nous permet de reporter vers 1730 
les plus anciennes notules qui se trouvent sur I'exemplaire qu'il 
avait fait interfolier de Tedition de 1719."" Thus writes M. 
de Chennevieres, to whom, aided by M. de Montaiglon, we owe 

' See " Lettres inJdites de P. J. Mariette," published by M. E. Miintz, "Couriier 
de I'Art," April nth and i8th, and May 2nd, 1884.. 

* " Lettres extraites de la Corresponoancc de Mariette," Dumesnil, ui lupra^ p. 299. 
' 1705-1789. First Architcft to the Venetian Republic The autogr^hs of 

Mariette's letters to him, eighteen in number, were found by M. Miintz at the 
MusJe Corrct, and published in the " Archives des Arts," 1890. They were previously 
known only in the Italian translation given by Ticozzi, " Letters pittorichc " (Bottan, 
t. viii.). 

* Various letters to Bottari have been published by M. Miintz in the "Courrier de 
I'Art," July 4.th and nth, August ist and 22nd, 1884 ; January ind and 9th, 1885. 

' " L' Abecedario pittorico de' professori piii illustri in pittura, scultura cd archi- 
tettura" (Bologna, 1704.). The edition of 1719 was dedicated to Crozat, "excellent 
et nu^nifique amateur et dilettante de peinture, sculpture et des autres beaux arts 
dans la royale ville de Paris." This edition was the basis of Mariette's great work. 

* De Chennevieres, " Un Amateur fran^is du XVIII. Sieclc," " L'&uvie d'Art," 

oa. 15th, 1897. 

24 



d by Google 



the publication of this work. When, however, we read in Mariette 
Mariette's letter to Bottari * his angry condemnation of Orlandi's ^^ 
carelessness, it is impossible not to refleft that it is far easier to """' 
correct old blunders and add new fafts when someone else has 
brought into shape, however clumsily, the great body of the 
materials to be employed. It does not diminish the honours of 
the great French amateur to point out that Orlandi, hasty and 
uncritical as he was, furnished him, by the publication of his 
" Abecedario pittorico," with the ground for his own work.^ 
" Tous les jours, malgr^ nous, ne remontons-nous pas encore k 
V Abecedario du moine de Bologne." ' 

His warm attachment to de Caylus is dated by Mariette from 
1726, but it is certain that their acquaintance must have begun in 
earlier years. Mariette had known Rosalba Carriera at Venice, 
during his Italian tour, and when she came to Paris in 1720, 
she visited him and his mother in the rue Saint Jacques.^ Mariette 
was also often in her company at the hdtel in the rue de Richelieu, 
where Pierre Crozat offered a splendid hospitality to the Venetian 
pastel-painter and her companions. From the journal kept by her 
during her stay ^ we get not only an entertaining pifture of the 
crowd of fine ladies and gentlemen by whom she was besieged," 
but an exa£l notion as to the regular guests of the house. Amongst 
these one of the most assiduous was de Caylus, who busied himself, 
as we have seen, with the reprodudion of the magnificent collec- 
tion of drawings which Crozat had himself brought back from 
Italy in 1714. 

" M. Crozat," says Mariette, " n'aimait point ses dessins pour 
lui seul; il se faisait, au contraire, un plaisir de les faire voir aux 

' II Aout, 1764. 

* When Mariette sent corrections to Bottari for his edition of Vasari, 1759-1760, 
Bottari replied : " II semblc qu'il y ait une mal^didion qui s'attache aux ^crivains qui 
traitent les beaux-arts ; car tous ont commis et commettent journellement des erreurs 
incroyables. Je le dis en me citant moi-mflme, qui me suis tromp^ sur des noois que 
je connais aussi bien que mon nom. La mfime chose est arriv^ a Vasari et a ceux 
qui sont vcnus apr^ lui " (Bottui, t. v., p. 4^3, No, clx.). 

' Dc Chennevieres, "L'CEuvre d'Art," 08t. 15, 1897, p. 178. 

* Her message to Madame Mariette in the letter of September i8th, 1722, and 
other letters to Mariette, show a most afIc£tionate intimacy. DumesniJ, ut tupra, 
pp. 3»-32. 

* "Diario degli anni 1720-1721 scritto di propria mano in Parigi, da Rosalba 
Carriera, I793>" A French translation, *' Journal de Rosalba Carriera,"!)]' M. Sensier, 
appeared in 1865, 

' For example we find, February zist, 1721 : "Venuti da me, con madama la 
duchessa et la principessa di Clermont, due altre duchesse e cavalieri . , . Venne pure 
M. Quelm, di nasCDsto, e per ordine dell' altra principessa sorella, dispostii anche ella 
di venirci alle sei della mattina seguente . . ." 

25 I 



db, Google 



Mariette amateurs, toutes les fois qu'lls le lui demandaient, et il ne refusait 
^^ pas m6me d'en aider Ics artistes. On tenait assez riguliiremeot 

toutes les semaines des assembUes cbez lui, ou j'ai eu pendant long- 
temps le bonheur de me trouver ; et c'est autant aux ouvrages des 
grands maitres, qu'on y consid^rait, qu'aux entretiens des habiles 
gens qui s*y r^unissaient, que je dois le peu de connaissances que 
j'ai acquises." ^ 

To his collaboration with de Caylus we owe not only Mariette's 
excellent letter on Lionardo * — which is a remarkable performance 
for its date — but the descriptions of " Peintures Ancienncs," which 
accompanied the reproductions by Pietro Santi Bartoli, to which a 
letter was prefixed by de Caylus. Mariette was, also, it may be 
noted, the publisher of this costly work,' but the printing business 
in which he had engaged two years before his marriage^ was 
abandoned in 1750, when it was sold to Louis-Francois Delatour, 
the writer of the not always accurate note on the family of Mariette 
already quoted. 

M. de Chenneviires reje6ts Cochin's assertion that the Academy 
could not receive Mariette as " honoraire associ^ libre " until he 
had given up his printing business as a " petitesse," *" but look- 
ing to the kind of standard maintained by that body in these 
matters it seems as if Cochin were probably right. The same 
writer also quotes Mariette's proud saying, " I wish no other title 
th&n that o( li&raire-amafeur" but that was made only in repudiation 
of the " quality of painter " with which Gori had enriched him in 
the notes to his edition of Condivi's life of Michael-Angelo.* 

It is more than probable that Mariette cared nothing for the 
honours of the Academy but that his friends de Julienne and de 

' " Avis de Mariette, mis en tfite du Catalogue Crozat," p. xj ; apiul Dumesnil, 
ut supra, p. 1 3. 

' See p. 21, note i. 

* In Wille s journal, under the date March 7th, 1 762, is the entry : ** Ripondu a 
M. Usteri de Neuenhof! Je lui marque que M. Mariette m'a remis le volume 
d'yfntijuith, peint pour lui. Cet ouvrage lui a itt (ait pr^ent par M. le Comte de 
Caylus qui n'a fait imprimer que trente exemplaires. La d^pense pour peindre et 
coloricr ces estampes est de trois cents livres, et la relieure dix-huit tivrcs." There 
il a note on the drawings given by Caylus to the Bibliothique saying that the plates 
had been broken up. An edition of the work was published by Didot in 1783. 

* "Imprimeur 17x2," writes Delatour. In the second and somewhat fuller MS. 
note which is appended to the first the date of Mariette's marriage to '*Angelique- 
Cathcrine Doyen, fille de Louis Doyen, notaire," is given as 1722, but M. de 
Chcnncvi^res quotes it as " 15 mai, 1724," and this date is accepted by the family as 
corrcfft {" L'CEuvre d'Art," Oft. 15, 1897, p. 177). 

* ** Des que le fils (P. J. Mariette) eut quitt^ ce commerce, 1' Academic s'emfHVSsa 
de I'admettre dans son sein " (" L'CEuvre d'Art," Nov. 15, 1897, P- '9^)* 

* See the note by Mariette reproduced Inr Dumesnil, xt supra, p. 92. 



d by Google 



Caylus were anxious to have the guidance of his incomparable taste Mariette 
and judgement at their sittings and were unable to carry their point. |J»** 
The Academy remained unmoved even by the example of the *■*"• 
Academy of Florence, which had done itself the honour of receiv- 
ing Mariette as a member in 1733 ; ^ it remained indifferent Co the 
fine performance of his " Description sommaire des dessins des 
grands maitres du Cabinet de feu M. Crozat,"'* to the Catalogue of 
the Cabinet Boycr-d*Aguilles;' in short, Mariette — even though 
rumour declared that his most important work, " Trait^ des pierres 
gravies," had won the favour of Mme. de Pompadour — did not 
exist for the Company until " il se dimit de son imprimerie et de 
la pratique de la police, en foveur de L. F. Delatour." * 

As soon as he had also sold his printing business and reduced his 
publishing to a mere share in the great work of the " Historiens de 
France," Mariette received the compliment that had long been his 
due, and which would doubtless have been paid many years earlier 
had he been as apt to intrigue as were most of his contemporaries. 
His purchase in 1752, "avcc I'agriment et I'estime du chef de la 
magistrature . . . d'un oiBcc de secretaire du Roi, contrfileur 
gindral de la grande chancellerie de France," ^ no doubt added to 
his position and consideration in the world. I have seen it suggested 
that he was not one of Mme. Geoffrin's set, but Cochin, no friendly 
witness, mentions his name as present at one of her famous dinners 
in 1760, and adds that he drove away afterwards with de Caylus 
in Marigny's coach to look at the Catafalque by Siodtz. A year or 
two later Cochin again mentions his presence at Mme, GeofFrin's 
** bureau des amateurs," when the quarrel had arisen between Bctzky 
and Daiilli over the engraving of the portrait of the Princess Anas- 
tasia,^ and does so in terms which show that, at that date, the learned 
author of the " Traiti des pierres gravies " was one of the regular 
guests of the Monday dinners instituted by de Caylus." 

Evidence that a very considerable fortune was amassed by 
this great publisher and dealer before he sold his business is not 
wanting. From a reference in Wille's journal (February, 1769) 



• Dumesnil, ui supra, pp. 53, 54. 

This Cauloguc, which was sKCompanied hj " des reflexions sur Isi maniere ac 
dcssiner des principaux pcintres," is perhaps the best known of M;iriette's works. It 
bears bis name both as author and publisher, ** Pierre- Jean Mariette, me Saint-Jacques, 
aux Colonncs d'Hercule, 1741." The lirst " Descriptioa " in one volume appeared 
in 1729. See "Crozat," A. B. C. Dario. 

• This appeared in 1744. The short preface written by Mariette will be found 
under the name of Boyer-d'Aguilles in the A. B. C. Dano. 

• See Appendix fi, ' See Appendix B. 

• See Chapter IV. * Mim. inid., p. 77. 

27 



d by Google 



Mariette we find that Mariette — who had then been promoted by the 
^^ Academy to the rank of Amateur* — was attending the Gaignat 

sale^ in much state and comfort. "J'y fus toujours," he writes, 
"accompagn<^ parM. Daudet . . . je revenois cependant plusieurs 
fois dans le carossc de M. Mariette car le temps itoit fort mauvais." 
The driver of this " carosse " is mentioned in that " A€te de 
partage," the clauses of which bear witness to the prosperity of the 
house. The " Cocher Pelletier " figures with Mile. La Croix and 
Mile. Le Blanc — the first and second maids of Mme. Mariette — 
the domestique Belleville and the gardener of the country place at 
Croisy, which is mentioned by Mariette in his letter to Temanza 
of the 1 8th June, 1 768 : " Je rejois," he says, " votre Icttre a la cam- 
pagne, dans une maison que j'ai & quelques lieues de Paris, et 
que j'habite pendant la belle saison."^ 

Mme. Mariette survived her husband and the arrangements 
made during her lifetime as to the employment of her fortune 
when the four children of the house were married and dowered * 
seem to have been answerable for the sale of the unique coUe^on 
which was the glory of Paris. It was felt by the small group of 
connoisseurs who continued the traditions of the Grand Stick that 
the treasures accumulated during more than a century by three 
generations of iconophiUs — the last of whom was the most illustrious 
known — ought not to be allowed to leave the country. 

A movement was set on foot to secure for the Biblioth&que 
Royale this priceless collection and so realize the wishes of one 
who had in his lifetime patriotically refused the brilliant offers 
made by the Empresses of Austria and Russia, the King of Prussia 
and the Eledor of Saxony/ Joly, then at the head of the 
*' Cabinet," was keenly alive tc the necessities of the situation.' 
"Mimoires" were addressed to the "ministre de la maison du 

* P. v^oa. 31, 1767. 

* In his letter to Temanza of the 8th August, 1767, Mariette sap: **I1 s'est 
hit id depuis peu une vente xxks considerable dc tableaux prfcieux, de dcsscins, 
d'estampes ct de toute espice de curiosity. Elle a produit plus dc 530,9CX} It. 
Jugez de ce que se [^iV] pouvoit itre. J'y ai eu pour ma part un nombre de dcsseins 
qui ne d^parcront point ma collection" ("Arch, des Arts," Muntz, 1890, p, 109). 

' Ibid.^ 1890, p. 116. 

* See Appendix C. 

* Delabordc, " Le Dipartement de« Estampes," p. 92. See also " Documents aur 
la Vente du Cabinet de Mariette," N. A,, 1872, pp. 346-370. 

' He writes to Malcsherbes : ** On ne pourra jamais, m£me a prix d'argent, 
rassembler un catnnet de dessina et d'estampes tel que celui de M, Mariette.' 
** L 'assemblage de ces richesscs est un prodige. Ce prodige a enfantj un second, 
celui d'avoir transmis pendant pris de deux si^cles, la m€me fortune, Ic mSme gout 
i^arl ct Ic m£me savoir ^lai» dans la personne du citoyen dernier poesesscur de 
cette superbe colle^on," 



d by Google 



roi," setting forth the " ralsons puissantes pour acqu^rir le cabinet Mariette 
de feu M. Mariette et le r^unir i cclui de Sa Majest^," For a "?^ 
while there seemed to be some hope of success. Pierre, Cochin 
and Lempereur were told off to negotiate with the heirs, but 
their expectations had been raised by the large sum — 69,000 1. 
— obtained at the first sales of duplicates ^ and they rejected the 
oifer of 300,000!. made in the King's name for the complete 
group of drawings and engravings, reckoning on obtaining a 
larger sum by a sale at auction. Their expeftations were dis- 
appointed ; the sale of November 15th, 1775, only realized a sum 
inferior by 1 1,500 1. to that which they had refused. 

Joly, in the bitterness of his defeat, may have found some satis- 
faction in this circumstance, but he had himself had the pain of 
watching, hour after hour, the acquisition by others of the in- 
estimable treasures for ever lost to France. The credit of 50,000 1. 
finally wrung from Turgot came too late — not until the eighth 
day of this memorable s^e was past.^ 

When Crozat's great colledion was dispersed the sale had 
been directed by Mariette; the weight and colour of every word 
in his description had added value and character to the whole 
event ; the unrivalled colledion of Mariette found no such com- 
petent handling. The famous dealer, publisher and expert of 
the rue Serpente, Pierre-Fran9ois Basan," to whom the treasures 
amassed by the house of Mariette were entrusted, lacked the 
necessary qualification for his task, not having the scholarship which 
had rendered the Catalogue of the Cabinet Crozat a work of the 
highest form of teaching, " Basan ^tait loin d'avoir I'irudition 
aussi sfire que celle de Mariette, et Mariette lui-mSme eflt seul 
pu donncr de son cabinet le catalogue qu'on attendait."* 

Basan had shown remarkable aptitude as an engraver and had 

' For details of the first sale of duplicates see C. Blanc, " Tr£sor de la Curiosity" 
t. i., pp. 256-304. 

' There were a few pictures, gems, coins, etc. (see Wille, May 17th, 1775), but 
the enormous importance of the colledtion consisted in the unrivalled perfedion of 
the sets of the work of all the great engravers of every school and the incomparable 
beauty and rarity of the drawings, the chief portion or which had been in the hands 
of Crozat, The prices, though not realizing as much as the heirs expeAed, went 
beyond the expe^tions of the outside world, " Rjpondu a M. Dittmcr, i Ratis- 
bonne," writes Wille, "je lui fiiis voir I'impossibilit^ ou jc me suis trouvf (par 
rapport aux prix que son ami, M I'Assesseur Hartlaub, m'avoit marqufe pour divers 
articles dans la vente de M. Mariette), d'acqu6ir ce que M. Hartlaub auroit d&ir^ " 
{27 Man, 1776). 

* 1723-1797. See " Abr^gj historique " prefixed to the " Catalogue raisonnj du 
Cabinet de feu rierre-Franeois Basan p4re." 

• De Chenneviires, "Un Amateur," etc. ("L'CEuvre d'Art," Nov. 15, 1897, 
p. 199). 

29 



d by Google 



Mariette received lessons, at an early age, from Eticnnc Fcssard,^ who was 
*"<* a member of his own family. Prompted as it would seem by the 

desire of gain, he abandoned his art and devoted his energies to 
dealing. He put into the trade which he developed and carried 
on in his hdtel, rue Serpente, the zeal, the devotion, the passion 
even, which Mariette displayed in the service of learning and of 
art. Basan, in short, represents the temper of that later generation 
of dealers, who have seen in the knowledge of and care for 
beautiful things mainly the means of making money and who 
have valued the knack of anticipating their market beyond any 
interest or pleasure to be derived from the intrinsic value of the 
works in which they dealt. 

Mariette by his personal taste, by his traditions, by his won- 
derful power of recognizing good work under the most varied or 
unaccustomed aspefls, by his fine qualities of judgement raised the 
standard of the libratre-amateur to a point which it has never 
attained before or since and anally exerted a dire^ influence on 
the formation of that opinion which determined the classic re- 
adion, which coloured the art of Prud'hon and contributed to 
form the talent of David. 

In Basan we have the prototype of the successful dealer of our 
own day : his commercial instincts had been sharpened by his 
early stay with Etienne Fessard, a pushing, unscrupulous man, 
whose ability was greatly inferior to his ambition and his pre- 
sumption. Under him Basan necessarily became familiar with all 
the courses of profitable advertisement. If Fessard engraved a 
work, there was the dedication in favour of which money or credit 
were to be won. He contrived to stand so well with great people 
that all Cochin's wit and wisdom were needed to support Marigny 
in his refusal to grant Fessard the exclusive privilege of engraving 
with his facile burin the " Tableaux du roi," and he succeeded in 
extraifting a " pourboire " of 600 It. for each volume of his poorly 
illustrated edition of the "Fables dc la Fontaine" (1765-1775), 
on the strength of dedications inserted after every title-page to the 
" Enfants de France"; he could not even suffer the slight of re- 
jection at the Salon without making capital out of it by a 
vigorous appeal to Marigny himself. 

From Fessard, Basan went, we are told,^ to DaulU, a master 

* 1714-1777. 

' Basan gives oa\j a few lines to his own name in his ** Di^onnaire des graveurs." 
The chief source of our information concerning him anil for all these detaib is the 
**Abr6g£ historique" prefixed to the "Catalogue raisonnj" of his coUedions, to 
which reference has already been made. 

30 



db, Google 



db, Google 



Dionizodb, Google 



Dionizodb, Google 



" a g 

3 S J 

g K U 

° « s 



fi = 



db, Google 



whose laborious life is represented, as we shall presently see, by an Mariette 
immense series of portraits, very unequal in value, and whose ^^ 
pupils must often have learnt from example that it is better 
to do quickly than to do well. When Basan left Daull^, 
he was determined on making money. He bought a few good 
plates, engraved a few himself, and collected round him various 
young engravers, whom he employed and housed under his 
own roof. 

Italy did not tempt Francois Basan but, noting the passion for 
little Dutch pictures of the class skilfully manipulated by Wtlle, 
he had resort to Holland, to Flanders and to England^ for the 
establishment of a connection. Mariette, with whom he was on 
friendly terms, may have served him in this part of his business. 
Meanwhile the manufadure of engravings was steadily kept going 
in Paris, and in 1760 the public were invited to buy a " Recueil de 
cent estampes de sujets agr^ables et paysages, gravies d'apr^ les 
meilleurs maltres des Pays-Bas et de TEcole Fran^aise par Fran9ois 
Basan, ou sous sa direction." 

Very few, if any, were wholly executed by his hand ; but as one 
turns over the pages signed by Le Veau, Cochin, Lucas, ^ Sornique," 
Pierre Aveline,* Daulli, Flipart or Beauvarlet, one gradually 
recognizes a bright, intelligent, exceedingly summary rendering in 
certain prints which bear the name of Basan : it is, I think, quite 
obvious, even when, as in the " Hameau de Flandre," after 
Teniers,^ we find the name of Basan coupled with that of another. 
The kind of technique, clear and effedive as far as it goes, if not 
too scrupulously honest, is just of the order which necessarily 
appeared most desirable to Basan for the setting out of the series 
of subjects after Flemish and Dutch painters which were to find 
their market '* k Amsterdam chez Fouquet junior, k Paris chez 
Basan graveur, rue St. Jacques." 

For himself alone, Basan claims work such as the '* Cordonnier 
hoUandais" after "Skowmann,"" the '• Ouvriere en dentelle " 

* He made more than one visit to London. Wille mentions that Basan was 
away, in I^ndon, in August, 1770, 

* **Le Traitant," after Dumeril, is signed "Lucas sculp." There were two 
engravers of this name. 

* I722-I756(?), Basan says "a gravj I'Enlevement dcs Sabines, m. p. en t. 
d'apris Luca Jordano, pour Ic Recuetl de Drcsde. Sornique ayant laiss£, en mourant, 
cette planche impariaite, elle a iti termini par Beauvarlet." 

* i697'i76o. A. 1737. In 1757 he exhibited three works engraved for the 
" Galerie de Dresde." 

' In February, 1761, Wille buys at the sale of the Count de Vence '*un tableau 
de Teniers que M. Basan a gnvi. 

* Schouman (Arthur), 17 10-1792. 

3' 



db, Google _ 



Mariette after van Miens, and the " Femme en courroux " after Zick,^ the 
^^ ft-iend of David Rontgens. His title to the execution of these 

has been contested, but it is clear from the special charaderistics 
of the work that if Basan did not do it he had at least a very clear 
idea as to how it was to be carried out under his direction. To this 
class belong also the reproductions of the sketches of Oudry — 
" * Le Mouton ' et ' Le Chat Panterre,' peint d'apres nature a la 
Mdnagerie du Roy." 

The selection of a subjeft by Zick was probably didtated by 
Wille, with whom Basan was on terms of the closest intimacy. 
Wille seems to have had frequent business relations with Basan. 
" Livr^ Ics ^preuves k M. Basan, au nombre de quarante-huit, des 
planches que M. Zingg^ m'a gravees d'apres M. Vernct," he 
writes on the 4th November, 1760, a date at which Basan was 
engaged in the publication of the first "Rccueil." In 1762 came 
out the second collection, followed by four other sets at different 
intervals, the last appearing in 1779, and thus, if we include a 
variety of independent work, we reach the enormous total, filling 
the six heavy folio volumes which we find as " L'CEuvre de Basan " 
in the Print Room of the Bibliotheque Nationale. 

Before going to the rue et H6tel Serpente, where we find him 
{No. 14) in 1776,' Basan had two other addresses. He lived first, 
I suppose, in the rue St. Jacques, where he would have received in 
1754 the encouragements of his neighbour, Mariette; then in the 
rue du Foin * near St. Severin, until the great extension of his 
trade forced him to seek larger quarters. His domestic troubles 
may also have contributed to make him desire the change. " M. 
Basan," writes Wille, January 31st, 1768, "depuis sa separation 
d'avec sa femme, a soup^ la premiere fois chez nous^ II me fait 
bien de la peine, car il ne merite pas ce qui lui est arriv^." Mile. 
Basan, however, soon comes on the scene," the business prospers 
and develops, visitors are taken to the shop as to a great sight," and 
Wille's journal shows a constantly increasing friendly intercourse 

' See "French Decoration and Furniture, etc.," p. 187 and note 4, p. 190. 
' A Swiss emplo]red by Wille. 

* This address is given in the Almanach des Artistes for the year, with a note to 
the cflfe£t that Basan is the Paris dealer doing the largest business. 

* The engraving by Oaull6 of Drouais' portrait of Mile. F6Iissier is inscribed 
*' se vendent a Paris chez Basan, gravcur rue du Foin." 

* Mim. Wille, January, 1770. There is no explanation given of the "separa- 
tion." The writer of the pre4ce to the " Catalogue " savs only that " Basan avoit 
^pousj Marie Drouct, qu'il perdit apr^ trcntc-scpt ann^ de mariage." She ceruinly 
returned to her husbaiid long before her death. 

* Mtta. Wille, November 'i6th, 1768. 

32 



d by Google 



between the families accompanying the increasing consequence Mariette 
and importance attached to Basan's position. *"^ 

He plays the host at suppers and dinners of which it is always 
recorded that there was much laughter and good cheer, Boucher 
dines with him to meet Wille * and on another occasion he enter- 
tains the whole Wille family, the Chireau and M. de St. Aubin 
I'ain^,^ whose name reminck us that the two most interesting 
engravings with which Basan's name is conneded are from draw- 
ings by that most delightful artist.' Business did not suffer from 
this jovial existence; on the contrary, it would seem to have been 
a means of extending and cultivating useful relations and we soon 
begin to hear something of the project regarding the publication 
of that edition of the " Metamorphoses d'Ovide " which was one of 
the most harmoniously beautiful books of the century.' Grimm, 
who was no lover of illustrations and who had been rightly 
disgusted by the wretched performance of Fessard's " Fables," pro- 
phesied evil concerning the undertaking, but draughtsmen and 
engravers made a combination of admirable perfe^lion. Boucher, 
Moreau, Gravelot, Eisen, Monnet, Choffard were interpreted by 
Le Mire, de St. Aubin, de Longueil, Simonet, Masquelier and 
Baquoy. 

The enterprise was, however, the cause of a serious quarrel 
between Basan and Noel Le Mire, who finally appealed to Wille 
and three other experts to compose their differences. On the 12th 
August, 1771, the entry occurs in Wille's journal: " M. Basan 
m'avoit invito pour fitre m^diateur, avec trois autres, entre lui et 
M. le Mire, qui se sont s^par^s d'int^r^ts dans leur entreprise des 
' Metamorphoses d'Ovide.' M. Basan reste aduellement seul 
proprietaire, en donnant dix mille six cents livres et douzc exem- 
plaires complets ^ M. le Mire, et tout le monde parolt content." 

To have carried out this remarkable work refledls the greatest 
honour on Basan as a publisher. It places the credit of his taste 
and judgement on a level with his reputation as a brilliant man of 
business, and Mariette himself may well have given his approval 
to its pages. It is, indeed, not impossible that the beauty of the 
work contributed to determine the sele^ion of Basan to deal with 
the sale of Mariette's collections. In the notice prefixed by Basan 
to the Catalogue he frankly acknowledges his debt to the twenty 

' tAim. Wille, Fchttary Ijth, 1770. ' /tirf., June 51)1, 177a 

* " La Guinguette, Divertissement pantomime du Th&tre Italien, par le sieur 

de Hesse," and " Le Ballet dans£ au Thntre de I'Op^ra dans le Camaval du Parnassc, 

Afte I", grav* par F. Basan." See Chapter IX. 
* See Chapter VIL 

33 P 



d by Google 

I 



Mariette years of friendship with which Mariette had honoured him, and 
^^ speaks proudly of the *' choix qu'il a bien voulu faire de moi pour 

Tarrangement de son cabinet apr^ sa mort." 

As an engraver-publisher Basan had affirmed his reputation 
when he brought out the famous Ovid ; the sale of Mariettc's col- 
lection gave him the opportunity by which his standing as 
the great expert dealer of the second half of the century was 
equally established. Neither before nor after had he anything to 
handle of like importance.* The names of Bouchardon, Van Loo, 
Marigny, Cochin and Wille illustrate the interminable list of sales 
which were arranged by him, but the great event of his career 
was, undoubtedly, the dispersion of the Cabinet Mariette. 

With the sale of the colle^ons of an amateur of Amsterdam 
named Neyman, Basan — encouraged probably by the success of the 
set of little engravings which accompanied the sale of the collection 
of the Duke de Choiseul — inaugurated the system, since popular, 
of illustrated catalogues. The Neyman and Poullain sales seem to 
have decided Wille to sell all his pictures and such drawings as he 
had in portfolios, " M, Basan," he says (Oftober, 1784) "destin^ 
a en faire la vente, est venu tons ces jours-cy pour prendre notes des 
uns et des autres, notes n^cessaires pour composer le catalogue." 
The catalogue was allowed to circulate for a month, four days 
were allowed for arranging everything at the H6tel Bullion and 
the sale, which began on December 6th, 1784, lasted four days. 

It probably answered Wille's expectations, for the " bon repas" 
given on the 2nd February, 1 785, to M. and Mme. Basan 
(whose reappearance receives no comment), M. and Mme. Poig- 
nant ^ and others may be connected with the final settlement of the 
operations at the SaJle des Ventes. It vras certainly no ordinary 
occasion, for the host adds: " Nous ^tions en tout douze personnes 
tres-joyeuses et de bonne humeur. Tous ont ^galement soupi 
le soir, et nous sommes rest^s ensemble jusqu'k minuit," after 
which Basan pays his debt by inviting the party to his country 
house at Bagneux.' 

There was a certain uneasiness already creeping over the men 
who were concerned with affairs and Basan decided Wille to part 
with the greater part of his fine collection of engravings. The re- 

' " Dans le nombrc des catalogues qu'il a public, on distingue ceux des cabinets 
Bouchardon, Rumpr£, Slodtz, Quarr£ de Quintin, Fabre, Ics Vanloo, Mariette ci- 
dcssus nommj, Neyman, Latour d'Aigues, Marigny, Cochin et Aliatnet " (Catalogue 
Basan, p. iv). 

' Poignant had married Mile. Basan, and was associated with her father in his 
business. 

• Mita. Wille, June 4th, 1785. 

34 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



CUL VE LaMPE from the " M^TAMORP] 

u'ovide," i767-i771. 
(I'ikrre-Philippe Chokkard.) 



d by Google 



suits of the sale, which opened on the i ith December, ^7^5^ ^o not Mariette 
seem to have been as satisfeflory as those of that by which it was 3!^^^ 
preceded. "Sur bien des estampes/' writes Willc, "j'ay perdu, sur 
d'autres j'ay gagni, comme il arrive ordinairement/' No pains, 
however, had been spared, Basan himself having " compost et fait 
imprimer le catalogue." It was the last noteworthy sale in which 
he aiStively participated. In 1787 he figured as an expert in the 
" Plainte en escroquerie de Coutant contre Martin, marchand de 
tableaux," ^ and a few years later he decided to give up business. 
In 1790 Schmuzer, writing to^Wille as to the sale of an engraving, 
is told that he must not count on Paris printsellers, for " les prin- 
cipaux, qui ^toient MM. Basan et Ch^reau, avoient quitt6 le 
commerce." * 

Basan died in 1797. In December of the following year 
Regnault-Delalande organized the sale of the coUeftions which 
had made the old h6tel of the rue Serpente one of the sights of 
Paris. Mariette had lived hts life, as it were, to himself; we are 
told that he hid his treasures as a miser would his gold ^ and did 
not willingly open his portfolios except to those whose taste and 
judgement he respected — a sentiment which appeals to every 
collector ; for who has not suffered anguish at seeing damp thumbs 
pressed on bronze medals ; prints handled by the wrong ends, and 
books pulled from their shelves and laid open with a display of 
total ignorance as to the constitution of their backs ! 

To such distresses Basan, whose house was genially open to 
every visitor, must have been continually exposed. No words of 
mine can better the picturesque description of his life and surround- 
ings given in "Les Graveurs du XVIII. Sifeclc" by MM. de 
Portalis et B^raldi. They speak of the great sale-room on the 
ground floor, where Basan left on view the pictures, prints and 
curiosities entrusted to him ; on the first floor they note the atelier 
of the engravers working for the house, and near to it the atelier 
of Basan himself — the gallery, shown us in a little engraving by 
Chofiard,* where he hung all his collections of engravings, paint- 
ings and drawings. " C'est un va-et-vient continucl," 5icy say, 
*' d'acheteurs, de graveurs . . . au milieu de tout cela des corre- 
spondances arrivant de I'^tranger, des envois si exp^dier par toute 

' N. A., 1873, pp. 408-437 and 457-466. 

* Mim. Wille, May 26t£, 1790. 

* Sec " Raisons puissantcs, etc.," Dumetnil, ut lupra^ p. 387. 

* This 11 the aUegorical engraving which figures in the catalogue of his sale. 
Baian is represented surrounded by all his worlu and encouraged by Mercury, the 
god of commerce. 

35 



db, Google 



Mariette I'Europe, des catalogues k r^diger* des graveurs h. dinger, des 
^** voyages auxquels il faut se preparer, du commerce k surveiller, des 

amateurs k conseiller et souvent ^ instruire ; et Basan, ' melange 
de vivacit^ et de froideur,' trouve moyen de &ire face i tout 
et, sans rien n6gliger, de n^dlger encore un ' Di£tionnaire des 
Graveurs,' bien sommaire du restc." ^ 

From the short notice written by himself in this " Di£tion- 
naire," taken in conjun^on with that prefixed to the catalogue of 
his sale, we are able at any rate to glean fa£ts which not only 
complete the story of Basan's life, but which set it in a light that 
shows us the salient points of difference between the great amateur 
dealer of the past and the great dealer of later days. If one dwells 
on the character and interests of Mariette, who traded and pub- 
lished and made fortune as his fathers had done before him, one is 
struck by its dignity and the immense services rendered to art by 
his sincerity and erudition; if we turn from Mariette to the men 
who handle beautiful things now, there is a great gulf. It is 
bridged by Basan. 

By his clever substitution of intelligence for personal taste, by 
his dexterity in business, his quickness to feel the pulse of the 
public and take advantage of the market, he may be rivalled but 
can scarcely be outdone by his successors of to-day. 

' Poitalis and Biraldi, t. i., p. io8. 



3« 



db, Google 



CHAPTER in 
LE CHEVALIER COCHIN 

THE social successes and the enormous power which 
Cochin fils * exercised through his relations to the Court, 
to Mme, de Pompadour and to her brother, the Marquis 
de Marigny, make his life profoundly interesting, because 
it became the centre of so many other lives and ambitions. He 
came of a family of engravers. His first lessons were received 
from his father and mother, for Cochin pere ^ had married Louise- 
Madelaine Horthemels, and she — as did her two sisters, Mme. 
Tardieu and Mme. Belle — worked regularly with her husband. 

Cochin p^re had an admirable ta£t in seizing the spirit and 
style of the very dissimilar masters after whom he engraved. 
Whether his " sujets des ouvrages en gravure " represent Wattcau' 
or Chardin * or de Troy, he displays the same quick-witted powers 
of sympathetic apprehension ; but his " Pompes funfebres : Celle 
de Madame, Premiere Dauphine, k Notre-Dame. Celle de ladite 
Princesse, k S. Denis. Celle du Roy d'Espagne, k Notre-Dame,"" 
must reckon amongst his best work, and from these we may single 



S 



1715-1790. A. April 29th, 1741; R. November 27th and December 4tb, 
175 1. From the Caulogue of his work by Jombert, we learn that he gave (P. V., 
(j&. 31st, 1761] as his diploma work the drawing of " Lycurgue bless^ dans une 
sjdirion," which is at the Mus^ du Louvre. Sec Salons of 1761 and 1769. He 
also gave on May 31st, 1766, a portrait of Pope Benedid XIV., by Sublcyras. 

* 1688-1754. R, August 31st, 1731, on portraits of Lesueur and Sarrazin, 
Cbal. du Louvre, Nos. 2273, 2279. He exhibited at the Salons of 1737, 1739, 
•740, 1743. J746 and 1750. 

* The best after Watteau is bis "Marine de Village." 

* His engravings of " L'Ecureuse " and " Lc Garyon Caberetier " («V) were ex- 
hibited in 1740. 

' Ex. 1750. Chal, du Louvr^ Nos. 4051, 4052, 4053. 

37 



db, Google 



Le out his very remarkable rendering of the '* Pompe funebre " of 

Chevalier Polixene de Hessc-Rhinfels { 1 735), on account of its extraordinarily- 
brilliant effect of space and air. In like manner, the chief successes 
of Cochin fils were won in the delineation of those court cere- 
monials such as the **quatre FStes du premier mariage de M. 
le Dauphin," which were engraved by the father from his son's 
drawings, and exhibited together with those which commemorated 
the funeral obsequies of the '* Premiere Dauphine." 

Brought up to handle the point and the burin from the cradle. 
Cochin nls showed from the first a brilliant and inexhaustible 
facility. Under his name is grouped an innumerable variety of 
book-illustrations, fashion plates, trade cards, ornament, book- 
stamps and portraits of all the celebrities of the century.^ His 
friend Charles- An toine Jombert,^ the publisher and bookseller, to 
whose industry and zeal we owe catalogues of the work of 
Sebastian Le Clerc and of Belle, prepared that of Cochin during 
his lifetime. In the letter which he wrote with the copy sent 
to Marigny, Jombert says : " Comme j'ay I'avantage d'avoir 6t6 
son camarade dhs I'enfance, et que je ne I'ai guere perdu de vue 
depuis ce tems, personne n'^toit plus k portie que moi de donner 
quelque ordre au nombre considerable de pieces qui forment son 
oeuvre depuis quarante-quatre ans qu'il a le burin k la main. 
J'ay done t^ch^ de d^brouiller le cahos de la quantity d'ouvrages 
qu'il a fait."' 

The letter is dated December i6th, 1770, and, in a note, 
Jombert says that the total of Cochin's work, exclusive of his 
etchings, already amounted to 1,262 pieces. If, however, we 
could add to the list all the work which he produced during the 
last twenty years of his life we should reach a more startling figure. 
His first engraving was, Jombert tells us, made at the age of 
twelve, and he adds that he had preserved a set of sketches, 
" Diverses charges des rues de Paris," which had been executed 
by Cochin when a boy of sixteen. He had been placed at that 
time with Restout to complete a training and discipline which 
seem to have been sufiiciently severe under his father's roof, and 

' *• Recucilde portraits, etc.," Paris, 1755-1 775. See also" Bulletin de Souscription 
au portrait de Louis XV, par C.-N. Cochin fils," 1779. N. A., 1880-1881, p. 131. 

* 1712-1784. Sec letter from Jombert to Mzrigny, witii a copy of his "Cau- 
logue de rOEuvre de Ch.-Nic. Cochin fila, £cuyer, chevalier de VOrdre du Roi, 
censeur royal, garde des Desscins du Cabinet de Sa Majest^ secretaire ct historio- 
graphe de I'AcadJmie royale de petnture et de sculpture. Par Charles-Antoine 
Jombert. A Paris, de rimprimerie de Prault, MDCCLXX." (N. A., 1874-1875, 
p. 3^6). 

• N. A., 1874-1875, p. 320. 

38 



db, Google 



L'OuVRtkKE BN DeNTELLE : 

"DivERSES Charges de la Rue de Paris." 
(Pierre Aveline, after Cochin le fils.) 



db, Google 



db, Google 



, Google 



db, Google 



from the studio of Restout Cochin fils slipped away to the work- Le 
shop of Le Bas. As he went to and fro he made sketches in the £'**J[f^*'^ 
street, and so doing developed that marvellous facility of rapid 
and accurate observation which served him well when he came to 
discharge his official duties as " dessinateur et graveur du Cabinet 
du roy," 

In early work founded on these lessons of the street — such as 
the series representing the trades of the men and women of Paris ^ — 
Cochin seizes on gestures and manners with the same agility and 
vivacity as distinguish his treatment at a later date of the a^ors 
in court pageants, his delineations of which are alive with minute 
suggestions of significant detail. 

His first great popular success was achieved by the brilliant 
rendering of " La Decoration dc Tillumination et du feu d'artifice," 
organized by Servandoni at Versailles, in honour of the marriage 
of Madame Premiere with Don Philip of Spain.^ Cochin nls 
had, however, given earlier proof of an almost equal skill and 
wit. In 1735, the year in which his father was engraving the 
" Pompe funibre " of Polixfene de Hesse-Rhinfels, Queen of Sar- 
dinia — in concert with the Slodtz, by whom it had been carried 
out in Notre Dame — Cochin fils was engaged on the reproduction 
of a sketch by Dumont le Romain of the illumination given by 
Cardinal Polignac in 1729 on the Piazza Navona, in honour of 
the birth of the Dauphin. This work, which was finished by his 
mother, seems to have led to his employment on an engraving in 
commemoration of the entertainment given at Meudon to the 
little Dauphin, in December, 1735, by the Duke of Orleans.* 

This commission, as well as that of engraving the " Pompe 
fiinibre " of another Queen of Sardinia, Elisabeth-Th^rese of Lor- 
raine^ (September 22nd, 1741), seems to have been due to the in- 
fluence of the Count de Bonneval, the contrSleur des menus, for Cochin 
tells us that it was to him that he had " Tobligation d'avoir travaill6 
pour le Roy dfes I'ige de vingt ans, honneur," he adds, " dont 
j'6tois flatt^, ne privoyant pas que je serois toujours fort mal pay6 
dans ce district et que je perdrois toutte ma jeunesse sans profit ^ 
leur service." 

Under a strong sense of obligation to Bonneval, and probably 
with an equally strong sense of his own interest. Cochin had made 
a present to him of his superb drawing of the *' Reception par 

' " Le Taillcur pour fcmmcs," " L'Ouvriirc en dentelle," etc. 
* The fSte took place on August 21st, 1739. The engraving was exhibited at 
the Salon of 1741. Chal. du Louvre, 4014.. Sept. 25th is given by Portalis and BJraldi. 
' CbaL du Louvre, No. 4013. ' Ibtd.^ No. 4050. 

39 



db, Google 



Le Louis XV de Said Mehemet pacha, ambassadeur du grand Turc, 

Chevalier 1742." " It cost me," Cochin says, " a considerable time, and was 
countermanded exactly when it was already sufficiently advanced 
for me to want to finish it, the more so as I saw that it might be 
a credit to me. ... As soon as it was finished, I showed it to 
M. de Bonneval, then controlleur des Menus-Plaisirs du Roy. He 
seemed to want it so keenly, he who was cold and undemon- 
strative, that I gave it him." ^ 

Afterwards, we are told, the Duke d*Aumont " eut envie de ce 
dessein," and as Bonneval did not dare refuse him. Cochin was 
called in to find a pretext for resistance, but he took Bonneval's 
part to his own hurt ; in any case, as Bonneval resigned his post, 
the gift to him of the drawing in question was a pure loss. It 
was exhibited in 1745, and it is interesting to find that it attraded 
the notice of Bouchardon. "J'ay cu aussi 1' encouragement," 
writes Cochin, " qu'il voul6t Men trouver du talent dans un dessein 
que j'avois expose au Salon, qui repr<Ssentoit I'audience de I'ambas- 
sadeur turc a Versailles, et il est certain que cette marque de con- 
tentement de sa part me fit plus de plaisir que tons les ^loges du 
public et mdme des autres artistes." ^ 

Until Sebastian and Paul-Ambroise Slodtz' were placed in 
command at the Menus Plaisirs, very little was done there. It 
was not, as Cochin tells us, until 1745 that the expenditure on 
royal shows became considerable. To the Slodtz fell the conduct 
of the splendid f^tes which then signalized the Dauphin's marriage 
with his first wife, Marie-Th^rfese d'Autriche, and Cochin gives 
us lively piftures of the ceremony in the chapel at Versailles ; of 
the jeu du rot ; of the masked ball which took place in the grand 
gallery ; of the gala representations given in the theatre which had 
been arranged in the riding school, and of the no less splendid 
show of the state ball.* The masked ball^-of which the original 
drawing is preserved in the Louvre — is the most striking of the 
set, each one of which has great interest as showing the immense 
importance attached to these costly royal pageants and the brilliant 
talent lavished on their produdion. 

* See pp. 105 and 106, M^. in£d. This magnificent drawing was <me of the 
most important of the Miihlbacher coUe£lion, and was admirably reproduced in the 
catalcwuc of the sale (No. loi). 

* mira. in£d. j Bouchardon, PP- 93i 94- 

* In the Salon of 1757 ^^ find " Trois portraiu en Medallions, Messieurs Slodtz. 
D*apr^ lei Desseins de M. Cochin. Par M. Can." On the death of Michel-Ange 
in 1765 Cochin wrote a short bi(»raphy of the three brothers, entitled "Lettre aux 
Auteurs de la Gazette Littiraire "^(CSuv., t. ii., pp. 228-240). 

* Chal. dn Louvre, Nos. 4029^4033. 

40 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



I 3 I I 

ills 



db, Google V 



It was a year. Cochin says, in which " chacun fit ass^s bien sa Le 
main : M. de Bonneval, cadet d'une ^mille de financiers, n'ayant Chevalier 
rien, ou tris pen de chose, . . . ce M. de Bonneval en resta 
riche." Plentiful details as to other indecent fortunes made in 
the " tripot des Menus-Plaisirs " follow on this statement, and his 
obligations to M. de Bonneval do not hinder the writer from 
revealing that the said ConirSkur *' avoit une petittesse de gloriole 
ass^s singuliere : sur mes planches dont j'avois fait les desseins, il 
faisoit mettre He Bonneval tTtvenit; on en rioit, personne n'en 
^toit la dupe, mais il itoit content." ' This absurd practice was 
established before Cochin was brought into the Menus, for we find 
" De Bonneval invenit " on the " Pompe funfebre " of Polix^ne, 
Queen of Sardinia, which is supposed to have been drawn as well 
as engraved by Cochin pere. De Bonneval seems to have con- 
sidered that every representation of court ceremonial which was 
"sous sa conduitte" ought properly to receive this stamp. 

In the decorations for the Dauphin's marriage fetes the Slodtz 
had surpassed themselves. Everything after that date of a similar 
charafter was absolutely entrusted to them, and Cochin's share in 
the performance had no less serious consequences as to his future, 
for it brought him direftly under the notice of the Court. He 
had, however, to suffer in more than one way from the ignorance 
and carelessness of his superiors. Anxious as to the effeft of his 
work, he had seledled the printer to be employed by de Bonneval : 
"je I'avois prtJvenu," he adds, "que c'^toit un des plus habiles, 
mais qu'il avoit besoin d'etre veilli." No notice was taken of this 
caution. The printer got drunk and set an incompetent sub- 
ordinate to do his work, with the result that before a hundred 
proofs were pulled, the plates, which had been delicately engraved 
by Cochin pere, were worn out.^ 

The consequences of this disaster are to be felt at the present 
day, for good impressions of the F^tes are exceedingly rare. 
Engravings of the "Mariage" and the " Com^die," together with 
Cochin's drawings of " Le Roy tenant grand appartement " and of 
the " Illuminations des deux grandes Ecuries," were exhibited at 
the Salon of 1750. Cochin had then left for Italy, for his drawings 
had not missed their due effect ; they had brought him the &vonr 

' Mini, itiid., pp. 135-137- 

' "J'en avertis plusieurs fbis," adds Cochin, " inutilement ; il les servit done de 
maniire a miriter punition. Le bon M. de Bonneval lui fit donner une pension. Ce 
qu'il y cut de pUisant, c'est que I'ioiprimeur qui avoit imprimi mon ouvraee, qui avait 
mal servi, fut bicn pay£ et r^ompensj, et que moy je fus oial payd et n eut aucune 
recompense" (M^m. inM., p. I39). 

41 G 



d by Google 



Le of the reigning favourite. " II se fit connottre," writes Mariette, 

Chevalier « jg Mad. la Marquise de Pompadour, qui, ayant r^solu de faire 
faire k son frfere M. le Marquis de Marigny, pour lors appel6 sim- 
plement M. de Vandiires, le voyage d'ltalle, pour y prendre le 
goQt des arts, et se mettre en 6tat de remplir dignemcnt la place 
de direfteur des bStiments du roi, qui lui ^toit destinie et voulant 
lui former une compagnie qui le servit utilement dans ce projet, 
jctta en particulier les yeux sur M. Cochin."^ 

The story of this journey, which lasted nearly two years, has 
been often told. Soumot and the abbe le Blanc, who were also of 
the party, contributed a stock of sober learning, which was a 
barely sufficient makeweight for the more lively parts of the " petit 
Cochin." ^ He had rebelled from the earliest days of his youth 
against the restraints imposed by his father's training, and on more 
than one occasion he found relief from the tedium of copying the 
works of the great engravers of the previous century' in the repro- 
du6lion of sujets ga/ants^ The scarcity of his engraving of Pierre's 
version of " Le Villageois qui cherche son veau " is accounted for 
by the story that his father angrily broke the plate before it was 
even entirely finished. 

Madame de Pompadour could have chosen no more delightful 
companion for her brother than Cochin. He was not only full of 
wit and talent, but he had the manners which made him possible 
at Court and he knew a good deal. Not indeed very exaftly, as 
a curious passage in one of his letters from Italy bears witness. 
" Je me souviens," he writes, ** d'avoir autrefois lii dans un traitt^ 
sur la peinture (je crois de Paul Lomasso) des regies dont il dit 
que le Poussin faisoit usage " — forgetting apparently that Lomazzo 
died at least two years before Poussin was born. 

The letter is in other respe<3s full of interest, for the writer 
criticises chiefs of the contemporary Italian school: — Delia Mura 
at Naples ; Ercole Gratiano at Bologna ; Tiepolo and Piazzetta at 
Venice, and regrets " la couleur outree dans la quelle les Venitiens 
sont tombte." He regrets too — and a vision of Wattcau rises 
before us as Cochin notes — that he has not yet had " occasion de 

' A. B. C. Dario, Mariettc 

' Lcttres dc Madame dc Pompadour. 

* Amongst these it is said that Cochin pire gave to his son ** Le Christ couronnj 
d'^ines de Bolswcrt." It is described hy MM. Portalis and B^raldi as ** d'apris 
Rubens " (t. i., p. 504), but would seem to be the same engraving refinred to bv Wille, 
March i6th, 1775 : ** J'ayacheti i la vente d'estampes de la succession de M. Mariette 
le * Couronnement d'jpines,' grav£ par Bobwert, d*apr^ Van Dyck. Superbe ipreuve. 
Elle m'a cout£ deux cent trente-neuf livres dix-neuf sols. II 7 avoit longtemps que 
je d^irois posajder une par^te ^euve de cet ouvrage ma^ilique." 

4« 



db, Google 



voir la ros^aWa^ ellc a perdue la vue et on assure qu'elle n'aime Le 
point a Stre vue dans cet ^tat." ^ C^^'hf***' 

There is no hint by which we can identify the personage to 
whom Cochin writes with so much freedom combined with the 
deepest respe6l, but as he suggests that Cochin's remarks might 
furnish the matter for a conference at the Academy, he was 
probably a leading amateur-honoraire. The letter is full of so 
much detail that it might indeed be a leaf fallen from the note- 
book out of which Cochin put together on his return the three 
volumes of his " Voyage d'ltalie." ^ 

The return of the party to Paris brought renewed strength to 
the classic rea<£lion. ** La veritable ^poque decisive/' writes 
Cochin, "5'i i\k le retour de M. de Marigny d'ltalie et de sa 
compagnie. Nous avlons vu et vu avec reflexion. Le ridicule 
nous parut a tous bien sensible et nous ne nous en ti^mes point. 
Nos cris gagnirent dans la suite, que Soufflot prScha d'exemple. 
. . , J'y aioay aussi comme la mouche du coche." ' 

This sensational arrival put the finishing touch to the success 
of a most successful expedition. The discovery of de Troy's mal- 
administration and the illness of SoufHot had scarcely ruffled the 
sense of uninterrupted satisfaction. Cochin, who had succeeded 
in capturing the goodwill of Marigny and placing himself on a 
footing of friendly intimacy with him, must have felt that his 
"petites espirances" were in a fair way of realization, and the next 
step in his good fortune brought him the letters patent by which 
he was ennobled, together with the cordon of a " chevalier de 
I'ordre de St. Michel," obtained for him by the all-powerful 
mistress of the King. 

To a man so assured of court ^vour nothing could be refused, 
and the Academy hastened to receive Cochin, although his 
diploma work was still in abeyance. On the 27th November, 
1 75 1, Coypel informed the Society that the work which their 
associate, M. Cochin, had been obliged to take in hand for the 
King, and specially his tour in Italy with M. de Vandi^res, having 
hindered him from completing his diploma work, he found him- 

* See A. de 1*A. fr., t. i., pp. 169-176. The letter is preserved in the Egerbm 
MSS. at the British Museum. 

* ** Voyage d'ltalie, ou recueil de notes sur les morceaux d'architedure, et sur les 
ouvrages de peinture et sculpture, qu*on voit dans les principalea villcs d'ltalie." 
3 vob. In-8. 1754. Cochin 1^ published, in 1755, "Observations sur les 
andquitfa de Hcrcutanum, avec une dissertation sur les mcM-ceaux de peinture et de 
sculpture trouvis dans cette ville souterraine." In-12. See ** LXEuvre de Cochin,** par 
Jombcrt. N. A., 1874.-1875. There are various editions of these works. 

* Mkm. inid., p. 14.2. 

43 



db, Google 



Le self thus deprived of the enjoyment of the instruftivc confirences 

Ch»alier which the Academy gave "sur les diffirentes parties des Arts 

qu'Elle cultive; qu'il supplierott done la Compagnie, en attendant 

qu'il satisfasse ^ ses engagemens, de lui accorder la gr^ce d'assister 

aux assemblies." 

Thereupon all rules were cast to the winds. Cochin was on 
the spot received Academician without any diploma work, and 
simply contented himself with giving a leisure in the following 
spring (March 4th, 1752) on the advantages of an Italian tour. 
Coypel seems to have been prompted by something like a touch 
of gentle irony when he replied that all depended on the person : 
" Convcnons que pour se rendre un tel voyage parfaitement avan- 
tageux, il faut, comme vous, s'ctre pripar6 dis longtemps." 

This pidiure of Cochin's aplomb is amusing if we contrast it 
with his reply to the suggestion made by the unknown corre- 
spondent to whom he writes the letter preserved in the Egerton 
MSS. " Vous me flattez, Monsieur, que mes foibles remarques 
pourraient Stre la matiere d'une conference a I'Acad^mie. Je n'ay 
point cctte vaniti, et n'ay assurement rien a dire que tout le monde 
ne sache mieux que moy. D'ailleurs je ne croy pas que je pusse 
jamais surmonter la timidite (qui m'est naturelle) jusques a ce 
point." Coypel, who had alluded with so much delicate humour 
to the evident advantages of an Italian tour, died shortly after,^ and 
was immediately succeeded by Cochin in the vacant post of 
" garde des dessins du roi." 

Two years later Lipicii, " secretaire et historiographe " of 
the Academy, also died and Cochin was at once selected to fill his 
place. His fellow members felt that they could not have a better 
representative. He himself was so deeply touched by his appoint- 
ment that he was obliged to read instead of speaking his thanks 
and acknowledgements : " Dans les premiers moments de ma 
nomination," he says, " il ne m'eut pas ix.i possible de vaincre la 
timidite qui saisit naturellement toutte personne obligee de paroistre 
pour la premiere fois au milieu de vostre respectable Compagnie." 
Mariette, commenting on Cochin's special qualifications, says he 
was worthy to succeed Lipicii " tant parce qu'il a le talent d'ecrire, 
que parce qu'il a de la souplesse dans I'esprit, et, s'il faut le dire, 
du manfege." 

A hint of something of this charader seems to be given in 

Coypel's speech on Cochin's ele<^on, and his immense social 

popularity would in itself suggest " du manege." At Court or in 

the town Cochin was eqiially welcome. The " bureau d'amateurs " 

* June 14th, 1752. 



d by Google 



at Madame Geoffrin's adopted him as one of their leading counsel ; Le 

his close intimacy with Madame de Pompadour, whom he advised Chwralier 

as to all her purchases and commissions, placed a large amount of 

patronage in his hands, and the influence which he had acquired 

over the young Abel Poisson gave Cochin, when his friend came 

to power, the a£l:ual administration of the fine arts for over forty 

years. 

Mariette, whilst observing that, as far as concerned the 
Academy, Marigny did nothing except what Cochin told him, 
adds that this flattering position had its disadvantages, for it 
induced Cochin to sacrifice his special gifts : " depuis cette 
^poque," he says, " il n'a presque plus mani<^ la pointe ni le 
burin. II s'est content^ de dessiner et d'afFefter dans ses dessins 
d'y mettre ce qu'on appelle de la grande maniire. Mais it y a 
des gens qui regrettent celle qu'il s'^toit &ite autrefois, et qui, 
pleine de gentillesse, paroissoit lui avoir ^t^ di£l<£e par la nature 
seule." In justification of this criticism he cites the noble drawing 
of the '* Reception de Tambassadeur turc," and compares it with 
the allegorical compositions designed by Cochin for the illustra- 
tions of President H^nault's " Histoire de France."* We have 
but to look at these or at any of the tiresome allegories, which 
form so great a proportion of Cochin's later work,^ to feel that an 
Italian tour in the company of archaologists is not always an un- 
mixed advantage. 

After his return from Italy, but before he ceased to engrave. 
Cochin undertook, in concert with M. de Montenault, the pub- 
lication of the " Fables de la Fontaine," * with 276 illustrations 
after the drawings which Oudry " avoit gribouill6 k ses heures 
perdues." M. de Montenault, of Aix in Provence, was a man 
of parts who had wasted his fortune. He had attached himself 
to Darcy the banker, and had induced him, as well as one of his 
confrh'es^ to finance the undertaking. 

To these there joined himself a M. Bombarde, of whom 
Cochin tells us that he was simply " un important nche, de ces 
gens qui font les entendus en tout, sans que Ton s^ache au juste 

* Twenty-nine "esumpes de I'Histoire de France de M, le President Haynaut," 
drawn and engraved by Cochin, were exhibited in 1750. Other drawings for this 
work appeared at the Salons of 1765, 1767 and 1773. 

' See the allegorical drawings engraved by Gilles Demarteau I'ainj : " La France 
timoigne son affe^on a la ville de Li^ge," " La Justice protige les Arts," etc. 

' "Fables choisics oiiscs en vers par J. dc la Fontaine," 1755-1759. It is said 
that the frontispiece only is etched by Cochin Ills, and that the other engravingi 
signed C. Cochin are all by his lather. I note, however, that Cochin pire died in 
»75+- 

45 



d by Google 



Le pour quoy, qui cependant viennent h. bout de persuader aux gens 

Chevalier ^n place . . . qu'on ne peut rien fiiirc de bien sans leurs conseils." * 
Called to attend the meetings which took place at his house. 
Cochin put in an appearance unwillingly: *'Je fus charg^," he 
says, " de re£Ufier Ics desseins oix il y avoit des figures qu'Oudry 
estropioit k mervellle. Mon aiFaire ^tolt rang^e, il nen ^toit 
pas question. Mais la partie tipographique tftoit importante, et 
M. de Montenault, T^diteur (du moins celui qui paroissoit, car 
il n'^toit pas le veritable bailleur de fonds), n'auroit pas cru rien 
faire de passable, sans la direction de M. Bombarde." 

Montenault it seems knew how little the man was worth, but 
he knew also how important it was Co have " les prdneurs bavards 
pour soy *' ; so meetings were held and attended by Berryer,^ then 
Lieutenant de police, and Malesherbes," the son of the Chancellor. 
*' Never," says Cochin, " did I hear so much serious talk about 
nothing . . . the best of it was that after many conferences at 
which nothing was decided, we remained and politely made our- 
selves masters of the edition, wisely enough or we should never 
have finished. The smallest printer knew more than they did." 

At the same time that Cochin was engaged on this enterprise, 
for which he etched the delightful frontispiece of " Esope montrant 
le buste de la Fontaine," which was finished by Dupuis, he found 
time to help Mass6, who was' then absorbed by his magnificent 
reprodu(5tion of the paintings and decorations by Le Brun in the 
" Grande Galerie " of Versailles.* The fine "d^veloppement " which 
opens the series, giving the scheme of the interior decoration and 
the paintings of the ceiling, was drawn, re-touched and partly 
etched by Cochin;' nor could Mass^ have found anyone more 
admirably competent to handle work full of expressive movement 
on a minute scale. 

The incessant demands on Cochin's time, the necessity for the 
stridt fulfilment of official obligations, forced him to seek for some 
one who could not only give him efficient help in his profession 
but take charge of his house. On the death of his father he had 

* M.im. \a6d^ ?• 71. 

* Rcn£ Bcrryer, zpratigi of Madame de Pompadour, who made him Ministre de 
la Marine. 

' The fimious Malesherbes who defended Louis XVI. 

* "Je profiterai de cette occasion, pour vous entretenir des gravures de la galltrtt 
dt ViriaiUtt^ dont I'illustre M. Massi vicnt d'orner le sallon " (Cochin, ^LeHre a un 
amateur, en r^ponse aux critiques qui ont paru sur I'cxposition des tableaux," Sep- 
tembrc, 1753, C£ur., t. ii., p. 4.9, note). See also " Eloge hist, de M. MassJ," t. til., 
pp. 283-323. The work was begun in 1723 and ended m 1753. 

■ " Divcloppcment de la dmiration intoieure et des pcintures du plafond de la 
Galerie de Versailles." ChaL du Louvre, No. 1018. 

46 



db, Google 



given shelter to his aged mother and others dependent upon him i^ 
in his lodgings in the Louvre, where they lacked the attention ^'**'****' 
they required, until Cochin found in the young engraver, Simon **^ °' 
Miger,^ one who was exadlly suited to the place. 

Miger» whom Wille speaks of as " men ^Uve," had been 
employed by Montenault on his edition of the " Fables " both as 
secretary and superintendent of the printers and engravers. He 
had, in h&, relieved his employer of all serious responsibility, 
but there arose between them a mysterious quarrel, and Miger 
only consented to remain with Montenault until the completion 
of the work out of deference to the combined authority and 
influence of Madame Darcy and Cochin. In June, 1760, when 
the last proof had passed, Miger took his leave with inexpressible 
joy, and settled down in the galleries of the Louvre as the 
" commis " of Cochin with a salair of 200 It. yearly.'' 

The household of which he iound himself in charge was ex- 
traordinarily incongruous. *' La maison de mon maitre," he 
writes, ** se composait de M. Cochin ; de sa m^re, ag^e de 80 ans ; 
de sa sceur, personne de 40 ans ; d'une cousine de 50 ans : trois 
femmes bien devotes, et jans^nistes pardessus le march^ ; d'un 
domestique femelle pour ce trio, et d'un laquais pour le chevalier." 
Cochin put in an appearance at this cheerful table scarcely once a 
month. Miger, therefore, had to do the honours regularly for 
those whom his master had christened " les sempiternelles " : ' he 
never went out except on Sunday to dine with Madame Darcy, 
where he usually found Cochin, who was incessantly engaged 
with Marigny by day, and spent his evenings and supped with a 
circle of friends. 

This last allusion points to the house of Madame Geoffrin, 
for, as Alexandre Tardieu tells us, ** Cochin fils fut I'oracle du 

1 1736-1820. R. January 31st, 177S, on the engraving of "The Sa»r 
Martyas," after Carle Van Loo : on February 24tb, 1781 he presented the plate of the 
portrait of Michel Van Loo painting his lather, Jean-Baptiste (Chal. du Louvre, 
No9. 1299,2213). His "Billet Doux," after Boucher, is a pretty example of his 
work. 

* See Emile Bellier de la Cbavignerie, ** Biographie et Catalogue de I'ccuvre du 
graveur Miger," p. 19. 

* Cochin's mother died in 1767. Wille writes on the 4th October of that year: 
** Passistay aux convoy et enterremcnt de Madame Cochin, nie Horthemels, mere de 
M. Cochin, chevalier dc I'ordrc de Saint-Michel, graveur du roi, secretaire de 
I'Acadimie royale de pcinturc et sculpture, ct garde des desseins du Cabinet du roi. 
Elle demeuroit avec M. son fils, aux galeries du Louvre, et fiit entcrr£ a Saint- 
Germain -t'Auxerrois, sa paroisse. Un monde infini, outre I'Acadjmie, accompagnait 
le corps de la difunte. Elle £toit d'une grande douceur et avoit beaucoup et fort bien 
travailli dani la gravure. Elle avoit quatre-vingt sept ans, et il y avoit bien vingt- 
sept ans que je la connoissois et cstimms infiniment." 

47 



db, Google 



Le salon de Madame Geo6frin et I'^me des soupers qu'elle donnait a 

c*'*hr*'*' ^* meilleure compagnie de Paris, soupers si recherch6s plus pour 
cc qui s'y disait que pour ce qu'on y mangeait." 

Yet, whilst playing a conspicuous part in this hrilliant society. 
Cochin's aftivity in various dircftions was incessant. If we look 
only at the innumerable portraits which he drew, we feel that 
they might represent the labour of a lifetime. Not a celebrated 
man, nor charming woman of his day, has escaped the delicate 
pencil which records their features for us — generally in profile — 
with a sincerity invariably tempered by kindly sympathy. The 
work which he did for Marigny in connection with his admini- 
stration of the Fine Arts was onerous and often ungrateful. He 
had to " manager les Anti-Caylus " in the Academy and at the same 
time he tells us that he had to remain neutral " et k me garder de 
leurs conseils qui m'auroient mal pouss^s et m'auroient fait com- 
mettre quelques imprudences." Cochin went, moreover, in some 
fear of his friend Marigny, who was not the man to allow himself 
to be directed by " les conseils d' Amateurs." 

Cochin's work in connexion with the post he held in the 
Academy also made heavy claims on his time, yet he contrived 
to draw incessantly. He put his own hand to nine of the fine 
series — " Les principaux cvinements du rfegne de Louis XV par 
midailles "^-commissioned by the King.^ The number of other 
illustrations, vignettes and portraits by him are not to be counted, 
for on all sides so many applications were made to him, that he 
ceased to use either point or graver and contented himself with 
giving drawings only.^ As we run over the list of his contribu- 
tions to the Salons, we see that from 1777 they consist almost 
wholly of engravings for which he has given the drawings. We 
pass from Delaunay, Augustin de Saint-Aubin, Miger, Ponce, 
till we come, after his death, in 1793, to " la cit, Cernel " — the 
lady concerning whose married life Sergent made indiscreet revela- 
tions to Restif de la Bretonne. 

As we follow the lines of Cochin's brilliant activity we must 
not lay stress on his masterly delineations of court pageants to the 

' Four were exhilnted in 1755. Cochin refers to this series as the ground 
on which he thought himself entitled to succeed Bouchardon as '* dcssinatcur dcs 
mJdailles du Roy." It was secured for VassJ by Caylus (see " French Architeds and 
Sculptors," p. 88), greatly to Cochin's disappointment. "Je ne voyois," he says, 
"gueres d'autre mzniere d'avoir aussi un petit bien-ctre que par le moyen de cettc 
place" (Mim, inii., p. 49). The work was never finished, and in his will Cochin 
leaves to the "Catunet dcs dessins" the allegorical drawings ** qui se trouvent faits 
pour I'histoire mitallique du feu roy '* (M^m. inti., p. 149). 

' His work in the Cabinet des Estampes tills six large folios. 

48 



db, Google 



exclusion of the great share which he had In the transformation Le 
of the illustrated book. In addition to the many volumes the £'*'??***' 
illustrations of which are mainly due to him, innumerable are 
those in which we find unexpe£ted traces of his hand. 

His illustrations of ** Le Lutrin," exhibited in 1742,^ are of 
inimitable wit and spirit : the fat Bishop rolling out of bed when 
aroused by the angry chatare ; the Canons and the Grand chantre 
furiously destroying the offending Luiritt ; the meeting of the 
Grand chantre and the Bishop at the battle of the books on the 
steps of the Sainte Chapelle, are of an amazing liberty of execu- 
tion, free also from the influence which might naturally have been 
exercised by the previous designs of Bernard Picart ^ for the same 
poem. Compared with these transcriptions from the very life, 
the allegoric^ compositions which complete the series are sadly 
inferior, although they are less mannered than the same class of 
work executed from Cochin's designs at later dates. 

From amongst these we may take, for example, the illustra- 
tions of " L'Origine des Graces," ' which show a lamentable want 
of distinction ; but even in his best years Cochin is not really 
interesting when he is busied either with allegory or the classics. 
How inferior is his " Virgil " * to the ** Lutrin," or to the ex- 
quisitely dainty trifling of the cuts in the *' Pastor Fido " ! " 
Although this book did not appear until 1766, the illustrations 
had been executed by Cochin in 1745, and are worthy, such Is 
their elegance, to reckon amongst the triumphs of that famous 
year: the year which saw Cochin designing and engraving the 
miraculously pretty ticket of admission to the " Bal Par6, porte et 
gradins i gauche," ' and setting the great subject of the " Bal " itself 
in the framework of flowers and flights of airy Loves which has 
so much to say to the general beauty of the effect. 

The truth is that Cochin was great in handling scenes of his 

' There is a great difference between the beauty of the impressioni in the early 
cofries. These may be known by the transposition of the vignettes by Eisen at the 
headofSatira VlllandlX. 

' "CEuvres de Boileau," Amst., 1718, fol 

' By Mile. Dionis Dusijour, 1776. There are six illustrations engraved by 
Augustin dc St. Aubin, Simonet, Nw, Masquelier, Detaunay and Aliamet. It is 
noticeable that some are signed "Cochin Jilius and one "Cochin eques." 

* The drawings were exhibited in 1742, 

* ** II Pastor Fido. Tragiconi. Pastor, del Cav. Guarini. In Parigi. Appresso 
Prault. MDCCXXVl." The dtle-pagc, which is an extremely beautiful work by 
Moreau le jeune, is dated and signed ** J. M. Morca [jtc] Le j. 1 766." The six cuts 
are all signed by Cochin with the date 1745. All are engraved \jy Provost, and on 
two be hu added the date 1 765. 

* Chal. du Louvre, No. 2556. 

49 « 



db, Google 



Le own time with the superb courtliness he loved. Of classic story and 

Chevalier mythology his conceptions were vague and unmeaning ; he had 
no more imagination than Boucher ; but let him only touch the 
pulse of those who breathe the same air as himself and he receives 
instant inspiration. No better proof of this can be given than is 
to be found in the admirable drawing of the Life School, ex- 
hibited in 1767, which shows the students competing for the 
Prix d'Expression founded by de Caylus. Every head is drawn 
with as much care as if it were the subject of independent study, 
such as that bestowed in 1787 on the masterly portrait of Fenouillot 
de Falbaire/ now in Mr. Hcseltine's collection, where we also 
find the superb coloured portrait of the famous litterateur, Antoine 
Thomas,^ in the execution of which Cochin has employed and 
balanced red and black chalk with surprising dexterity and skill. 

Great were Cochin's opportunities for amassing fortune. The 
speculation into which he entered with Le Bas' for the repro- 
duction of the " Ports de France," after Joseph Vernet, had a 
complete commercial success, but Cochin remained poor. Wille, 
who always had an eye to business, writes on the n th Oftober, 
1760 : " J'ay retir^ six exempliures des marines que MM. Cochin 
et le Bas ont gravies d'apris M. Vernet. J'ay souscrit de nouveau 
pour six exemplaires des quatre planches suivantes." 

Twenty subjeds were originally promised to the subscribers 
but only fifteen were completed when Cochin took the matter so 
much to heart that he started for Havre (1776) to see what he 
could himself do. " Vous connoissis," he writes to Descamps, 
" les Ports de France de M. Vernet, hi bien, je vais faire un 
essay pour tenter de les continuer. Vous pensis bien que je n'ay 
pas la sottise d'imaginer que je feray des Vernets, ce ne seront tout 
au plus que des Cochins, mais peut-fitre s'cn contentera-t'on faute 
de mieux."* One subject was successfully completed by Cochin 
at Havre and engraved by Le Bas for the Salon of 1781. Two 
others, giving different views of the port and town of Rouen, 
were also executed by Cochin, but the engraving of one, at least, 
was not finished when he died, for in his will, dated April 28th, 
1 790, the day before his death, special provision was made for its 
completion. 

**Je charge mon executeur testamentaire," so runs the clause, 

' The author of " L*honiietc Criminel " and " Lt Fabricant de Londrcs," both of 
which arc illustrated by Gravclot. 
' 1732-1785. 

* See the Scell£ ofLe Bas, 1783. N. A., 18S5, p. 153. 

* Letter cited without refe-ence, Portalis and Bmldi, t. i,, p. 529. 

50 



db, Google 






db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



*'cy-aprfes nommtf, de fairc achcver ct perfeflionner par M. Le 
Chau^rd, graveur, la planche du port de Rouen, qui m'appar- 5'^*^?***'' 
tient,"* Some difficulty attached to the execution of Cochin's 
wishes, and Wille writes on August 1 4th, 1 790 : '* Je dcvrois fitre 
un dcs juges et M. Bervic devoit I'^tre 6galement, par rapport a 
deux planches non achev^es repr^sentant deux vues de Rouen que 
feu M. Cochin et M. Hecquet,^ avocat, faisoient graver en sociiti. 
Cette society ^tant rompue par la mort de M. Cochin, les h^ritiers 
de celui-cy sont en dispute avec M. Hecquet, qui veut avoir 
I'argent avec I'intirSt. MM. Bervic, Hecquet, Bel, avocat des 
h^ritiers, Basan et un autre s'^toient rendus chez moi pour I'ar- 
rangement de cette af^re, mais rien ne put 6tre d^cid^." To 
this passage the conscientious editor of Wille's MS., M. Duplessis, 
has appended a note to the effect that these two planches were 
probably never finished ; that there is no mention made of them 
anywhere ; and that in spite of every search he has been unable to 
find a single proof 

They were, however, most certainly finished and exhibited. 
The catalogue of the Salon for 1793 contains entries of " Vue du 
Port et de la Ville de Rouen, prise de la pointc de I'lsle de k 
Croix," and " Vue du Port et de la Ville de Rouen, prise de la 
petite chaussie." They are described as drawn from nature by 
C. N. Cochin and engraved under the direfiion of Le Bas and 
Choffard. The two engravings arc, we are told, the Nos. 17 and 
1 8 of the collection of the *' Ports de mer de France, d'apris 
Vcrnet, et se trouvent chez Basan." ' 

The enterprise, to the conclusion of which Cochin attached so 
much importance, and which so anxiously occupied his last hours, 
although it had an immense popular success, provoked from the 
first the hostility of Diderot. He did not love Cochin, perhaps 
because he owed him so much. The Chevalier Cochin, says 
Alexandre Tardicu, was the regular source of all Diderot's tech- 
nical information, but again and again he goes out of his way to 
abuse him. In the Salon of 1763 he taxes Cochin with being 
" homme de bonne compagnie qui fait des plaisanteries, des 
soupers agr^ables, et qui neglige son talent." In 1767 he goes 
farther, and brands the two engravers of the " Ports de France " 

^ Mim. tnid^ p. 149, The reason for this anxietjr is Co be partly found in 
Cochin's indebtedness to Descamps, who had advanced money to him which was to 
be paid out of the profits to be made after the completion and publication of the 
" Port de Rouen." He had staved with Descamps at Rouen. 

* Probably a member of the Abbeville femily to which Pierre Hecquet, the 
celebrated dooor, belonged. 

* See Ai^tendix D. 

5' 



db, Google 



Le as " deux habiles gens dont Tun aime trop I'argent et I'autre trop 

cJSS^'' leplaisir." 

Diderot seems to have been prejudiced from the first against 
the style in which the subjeds were reproduced, admirably fitted 
though it is to render the light facility of Vernct's work. The 
engravings are of unequal merit, but some are very happy. I 
never look, for example, at the " Vue de la Ville et de la Rade de 
Toulon " without the most lively admiration for the amusing 
groups of figures by which it is peopled, and without recalling 
Mariette's reference to Cochin's work on the " Ports de France" : 
"il a arrSti sur le cuivre le trait dc toutes les figures qui y 
entrent; c'est la seule part qu'il ait k ces planches parfaitement 
bien ex6cuties." 

Cochin's own letter to Desfriches in 1781 shows merely the 
regret that most men of fine intelligence feel when they have 
taken life too easily. ** Beaucoup d'amtires, des maux d'yeux, des 
soupers en ville, on se couche tard, on ne se I^ve pas matin, des 
dessins ^ faire qui sont presses, ou Ton emploie les parties de la 
journie qu'on ne passe pas k table, car vous savez que qui veut se 
livrer k la sociit^ de Paris ne manque pas d'occasion de gueule ; 
ainsi se passe la vie et apres cela on se plaint qu'elle paraisse 
courte." * 

The pleasures which Cochin loved had no ugly side. Brilliant 
talk and good company did no such injury to his art as was in- 
flicted by the pernicious classicisms and allegories which he brought 
back from Italy. They were more probably necessary to its per- 
fection. In the myriad groups of pleasure-seekers who figure in 
Cochin's representations of royal ceremonies — dancers, sightseers, 
busy gamesters at the table of the jeu du roi — we find a freedom, an 
ease, a style, a liveliness of air which show perfeCt familiarity with 
the ways and customs of those whose pomps and vanities were the 
sut^ed of his pencil. It is this intimate acquaintance with the 
manners of good company, with the shades of bearing which 
difierentiate the various elements which make a Court and which 
distinguish the aCtors from the onlookers, that gives to Cochin's 
work such brilliant interest. 

It is probably this feature that impressed M. de Chennevieres 
when he asserted that Cochin had never been equalled, not even 
by Moreau, for '* la liberty, la fine expression, I'aisance, le galant, 
I'esprit, la variability infinie des mouvements et des poses de ses 
petites figures." Their feces are inexpressive, but every gesture, 
every movement has been caught from life, and we feel that 
' See letter cited, Portalis and Biraldi, t. i., p. 545. 

5* 



db, Google 



wherever Cochin may have been—in Madame de Pompadour's Le 
closet, under the ctc of royalty, escorting Marigny ' or Clairon on S***^^'*'" 
their visits to studios, making one of a party of conjrires to dine 
with de Livry and visit the piftures at Versailles,' or fulfilling 
his official duties — he was equally alert and observant, no indica- 
tion of character, or humour, or habits escaped him ; the changing 
pi^res of the life about him were food for his admirably sug- 
gestive art. 

Cochin's last years were darkened and embarrassed by the 
treacherous robbery of which he became the victim. ** Ce qui 
m'a le plus poignard^," he says, " c'est I'horrible ingratitude de 
ce monstre," and he seems to be referring to a young cousin 
whom he had taken into his rooms out of charity. "Je I'amois, 
je cherchois ^ le former k tous ^gards. II estoit a ma table mSme 
quand j'avois compagnie. N'en parlons plus, le sang me bout de 
rage, cependant je n*ay point porte plainte. Je ne veux point me 
preparer de nouveaux chagrins tels que ceux de M. Pierre lorsqu'il 
a fiut pendre I'ilive qui Tavoit vol6," 

For eight months the cousin had secretly conveyed from 
Cochin's lodgings in the Louvre everything that he could lay 
hands on. Eight to nine hundred proofs of the " Ports de France " 
— unlettered proo6 worth 30 1, apiece— had been sold by the 
thief for 9 1. each ; aquantityof proofs of the "History of France," 
which Cochin was bringing out with Provost, had also disap- 
peared ; and worst of all was the loss of all the proo^ which, 
during an active professional life of forty years, had been pre- 
sented to Cochin by the engravers, his friends — " touttes choses," 
he writes piteously, " devenues rares et de prix." By a lucky 
chance, for which, he adds, " I cannot sufficiently thank God, he 
has touched nothing belonging to the King." 

" You know," he continues, ** that I have in my care about a 
million drawings of the royal collections ; judge of my state, being 
eaten up with this anxiety, all the time that it took to make sure 
that nothing was missing. However, in this respect I have lost 
nothing. It is true that I keep these things more strit^y than I 
do my own goods." The letter concludes with a wish that the 

' See Chap. V., p. 79. Marigny seenu to have always required the attendance 
of Cochin when making visits to studioe. He probably looked to his companion for 
[X'otedion against the weakness of his own judgement. 

* This visit was possibly the result of Cochin's previous work for Massi's 
"Grande Galeric de Versailles," for we find in Wille's journal on July 29th, 1761, 
the following entry : " J'allai a Versailles avcc M. Massj, M. le chevalier Cochin, 
mes anciens amis, et Mme, Basscporte, du jardin du roi. C'^tait pour diner chez 
M, de Livry." 

S3 



db, Google 



Le law were less severe, since if the pain of death were not the 

C*'S^**' penalty exaded for such misdeeds, it would be a duty to proceed 

against the guilty in order to hinder them from injuring others: 

** mais toutte personne qui a de Thumanit^ ne peut supporter 

I'idie de fiiire pendre quelqu'un." ^ 

For four years after this terrible blow Cochin struggled on, 
uncertun now and again whether he could give bread to his 
dependent household. His pension from the King had been 
always in arrears ; his readiness to oblige had led him to take 
gratuitous work which absorbed a third of his time, and besides 
the charge of the cousin who had so ill requited his generosity, 
he had the care and maintenance of the sister who could do 
nothing for herself, as well as that of an aged housekeeper and 
other old servants — in all, it seems, some eight or ten persons 
looked to him for support. Out of his great loss he could recover 
nothing. His fine library alone remained to him, but in the 
troubled days of revolutionary ferment it was impossible to find 
a purchaser. In these hard circumstances he dted.^ 

On the ist of May, 1790, Wille enters in his journal: "J'allay 
k I'assembUe de notre Academic royale, ou il n'y cut ricn de 
nouveau. Le secretaire inscrivit seulement sur les registres la 
mort de M. Cochin, chevalier de Saint Michel, dessinateur et 
graveur du roy, d^c^di deux jours auparavant, igi de soixante- 
quinze ans et quelques mois . . . notre connoissance datoit de 
1738, par consequent il y a cinquante deux ans." The passing 
away of one who had for so long held so great a place made very 
little impression ; those who survived him were most deeply in- 
terested in the question as to who should succeed to his official 
post and to his lodgings in the Louvre. 

*' I learned at the assembly," continues Wille, " that his lodgings, 
which were a double set, had been divided ; that one half, with 
the post of 'garde des dessins,' had been obtained by M. Vincent, 
and the other allotted to M. Dumont,^ whom we have lately 
received as a member of the Academy and who does little minia- 
tures." Further than this Wille dares not go in disapproval of a 
&vour bestowed in consequence of the active and ill-advised inter- 
vention of the Queen, " On leaving the Assembly," concludes 
Wille, " I went to our distrifl." 

Our district was that of the Cordeliers, presided over by 
Danton, of whom we get a glimpse in the journal a day or two 

■ Letter to Descamps, Julx i2th, 1786, cited by Portalis and B£raldi, t i., p. 548. 

' Mim. inM., p. 147 " '*9- .. „ „ 

• Francois Dumont de LiuieviUe. R. May 3181, 178B. 

54 



db, Google 



earlier, when the deputies of other distri^ presented themselves Le 

to give in their adherence to certain resolutions which laid down Chevalier 

that ** le Ch^telet ne devoit pas se mSler de connottre des crimes 

de l|^se-nation," and Wille remarks that the president had thanked 

them with " Eloquence, fermcti ct politesse." * When there was 

such entertainment as this to be had, the death and ruin of brother 

Academicians was a matter of little moment. 

' M^m., April a4th, 1790. 



55 



db, Google 



CHAPTER IV 
THE DREVET AND JEAN-FRANCOIS DAULLE 

THE influence of the great amateurs, backed by the great 
publishers, could not ^1 seriously to affe£t those who 
worked for them, but the contemporaries of de Caylus 
and Mariette had been nourished like themselves in 
great traditions. They were men who had learned their lessons 
in the school of Edelinck, of Nanteuil or of Gerard Audran, and 
the severity of their training made possible the achievements of a 
later day — the triumphs of Choffard's fairy-like point and the 
miniature excellence of Gaucher or of Ficquct. The variety of 
purpose which claimed the services of the engraver as the years 
went by demanded variety of method, but the training of the 
elder school gave to the elegances of later eighteenth-century 
work that irreproachable distinfiion which is not the least of its 
claims to consideration. That is why it is well here to mention 
the Audran, and although much of their work belongs in truth 
to the days of the "Grand Monarque," not to forget either Pierre 
Drevet or his even more gifted son. 

The masterly execution of Gerard Audran — the engraver of 
the " BataiUes d Alexandre "—calculated with admirable economy 
of resource, had given perfed expression to the formal and rhetori- 
cal art of the " great century,"^ Gerard's nephew and pupil, Jean,* 
shows also something of this skill in the engravings after Jou- 
venet,' which he presented to the Academy in 1726, together with 
those of the graceful " Twelve Months," after his brother Claude, 

' See "Art in the Modern State," pp. 180 and 182. 

' 1667-1756 (see P.V., June 26th, 1756). R.June 30th, 1708. 

' CliaJ. du Louvre, Nos. 981 and 982. 

56 



db, Google 



the famous decorator for whom Wattcau worked at the Luxem- The 
bourg. The same qualities are even more marked in the " Seven ^"^X** 
Sacraments," after Poussin^ by that third brother, Benolt,^ who was PrancoiB" 
also sent by his fother to his uncle Gerard, at the age of seventeen; Daull*. 
but Benolt is better known as the engraver of the drawings attri- 
buted to the Regent in the " Daphnis and Chlog" of 1718, 
although in this much overrated book, as in his later work, he sinks 
almost to the level of his nephew, BenoJt II.'' — a very inferior artist. 

The teaching of Gerard Audran was better assimilated by his 
pupil, Pierre Drevet,' than by any member of his own family. 
No better work of its kind exists than the superb series of portraits 
which Pierre Drevet engraved after Rigaud* and Largilliire. 
Beginning with that of Maximilien Titon and the young Duke 
de Lesdigui^res," we pass to those of F^libien des Avaux and of 
Colbert, archbishop of Rouen, which are even superior to the two 
celebrated portraits of Louis XIV.* or to that equally remarkable 
work, the portrait of Louis XV. 

The most complete account of the family of engravers to which 
Pierre Drevet belonged was given by M. Ambroise Firmin-Didot 
when he published the " Catalogue raisonnd " of their work, 
which is still the best we have, although we owe fresh documents 
to M. RoUand, greffier de faix h Graors " — whose " arrifere-grand'- 
mere " was the niece of Claude Drevet.' 

" Vous remarquerez," writes M. Rolland, " d'aprfes les adtes 
dont vous avez la copie, que la famtlle Drevet de Loire a 6ti de 
tous temps une des premieres femilles du pays." They were, he 
says, men who tilled their own land and were in possession of their 
little " tuilerie et k temps perdu, et surtout les jours de pluie, ils 
fabriquaient de la tuile."' At Loire, Pierre Drevet was born. 

' i66i-i72i. R. July 27tli, 1709. He lived in the Luxembourg with 
Claude. 

' 1700-1772. He was the son of Jean Audran, who lived at the Gobelins. He 
began, like most young engravers, by doing portraits for Odieuvre, but we find hit 
name on various prints after Wattcau. See N. A., 1885, p. 18. 

* 1663-1738. R. Aug. 27th, 1707. 

* When Roszlba was staying with Crozat, Rigaud gave her a collection of por- 
traits engraved after him by Pierre Drevet, and sent Uie rest on to her at Venice 
(** Diario della Rosalba," p. 67). 

* No. 242, Galerie Lacaze, Musie du Louvre. 

* In the invtntairt of Oudry we find "une esumpe reprisentant Louis XJV. 
grav^e par Drrvit d'apres Rigaud^ sous une ghice et dans une bordure de bois dori " 
(N.A., 1884, p. 207). The pidurc itself is No. 475, Music du Louvre. No. 96, 
Mus^ de Reims, is a duplicate. 

' Arch, des Arts, 1890, pp. i8&-i93. Scealsojal, usually a trustworthy sourceof 
information. 

* " La terre de ce pays est tris propre a ce genre de labricadon et de tous temps 

57 « 



db, Google 



The The son of "honneste Estienne Drevest et dc dame Catherine 

and^Tean- ^^*^"'^" " ^^ * delicate child, and we find that he received, on 
Francois ^^^ i6th August, 1663, the complement of the ceremonies of 
Daull6. Holy Baptism, having been christened " k la maison propter 
imminens mortis pertculum'* on the 20th of the preceding July.^ 

A weakly constitution probably retarded the development of 
Pierre Drevet's remarkable powers. His training, which had be- 
gun under Germain Audran at Lyons,^ was completed in the school 
of the famous Gerard Audran in Paris, but he was forty when 
we first find his name on the books of the Academy. Up to that 
time his situation must have been rather uncertain, yet, amongst 
the engravings executed by him, under the proteftion of Gerard 
Audran, there are several that must rank with his best work." 

Portraits have always held a prominent place in French art. 
At the beginning of the century a special impulse was given to 
their production by their selection as the subjedl for the diploma 
works of engravers. " MM. Ics graveurs " had appealed against 
the varied tasks at first imposed upon them, and Drevet was one 
of the first to avail himself of the permission to engrave portraits 
only. 

He had presented himself on the 28th September, 1703, and 
was obliged to claim the protection of the Society, two years later,* 
against the vexations of the imprimeurs en tailU douce^ who were 
unwilling to recognize the freedom of an <i^//. In spite of this 
need for protection there was an immense delay before Pierre 
Drevet fulfilled his obligations. The portrait of Robert de Cotte, 
after Rigaud — proposed in 1703 — he undertook to engrave in 
1707, but it was not delivered by him until fifteen years later.' 
Meanwhile he had left in pledge with the Academy the plate en- 
graved by Edelinck after Largilliere's portrait of Le Brun, together 
with one hundred proo^, but he was not allowed to withdraw 
the plate except on condition of pulling a second hundred proofe 
from it as a gift.' 

il y eut des tuilerieB ; c'itait la qu'itaient les tuileries des Romains de Vicnnc " 
(RoUand, "Arch, des Arts," 1890, p. 189). 

' Rolland, " Arch, des Arts," 1890, p. 191. 

' There was a family connedian with the Audran of Lyons {ibid.t p. 193). 
Germain (1631-1700) was the son of Claude le pire and brother of Gerard, but an 
indifferent workman who never left Lyons (A. B. C. Dario, Mariette). 

* The portraits of the Duke de Lesdiguieres and of his mother, diose of Keller, 
with the equestrian sutue in the background, of Mme. Keller and of that delightfully 
insolent old lady " Marie par la grace de Dieu, Souveraine de Neuf-chitel et VaTlangin, 
Duchesse de Nemours," all belong Co this period. 

' P. v., Jan. 31st, 1 705. • P. v., Feb. 28th, 1 72a. 

• P. v., July 30th and Aug. 17th, ijoji Feb. 28th, 1712. 

j8 



db, Google 



Portrait nv Bossuet. 

(PiERRE-ImBERT DrEVET, after RlGAOD.) 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



The same obligations were imposed on Drcvct le fils,' when he The 
in his turn presented himself. On the 30th December, 1724, he '^'j^f 
was directed to reproduce the portraits of Rigaud and Barrois and, Francois ' 
although his engraving of de BouUogne's picture of " The Puri- Daulli. 
fication " was accepted from him in June of 1726, he received a 
few months later, in company with Larmessin, reiterated instruc- 
tions respeding the two portraits still due as his diploma work.^ 

Pierre Drevet found in his son, Pierre-Imbert, his own rival. 
In the great series of their work it would be difficult to separate 
that of the &ther from that of the son, or that of either from that 
which they produced together, were it not for the evidence of 
dates and signatures. Throughout his life the father bad had the 
command, as engraver, of all the most important work that was 
produced in France. His son had, therefore, before his eyes, from 
his earliest days, examples of a class calculated to stimulate his re- 
markable talent. As Mariette tells us, he received from his father 
daily lessons, not only in skill but in unwearying patience and 
conscientious devotion to his exadting art. If he could only 
attain his ends, he counted as nothing the time and the labour — 
often mere drudgery — which he had to give to his work. 

Pierre-Imbert, thus trained, distinguished himself at an age 
when others are but feeling their way. At twenty-six he had 
already produced his superb portrait of Bossuet," a work which 
shows all the quality of his father's admirable handling of the 
graver. There is the same brilliancy, the same economy of means, 
the same freedom and breadth in the treatment of the voluminous 
draperies — in which his model, Rigaud, delighted — and the same 
delicate precision in the rendering of head and hands. These 
admirable charafteristics distinguish his even more celebrated 
portrait of Adrienne Lecouvreur, executed in 1730. She had 
died on the aoth March In that year. On the 24th Mathieu 
Marals writes : " I keep for the last the death of Mademoiselle 
Lecouvreur, who was ill but three or four days, who died in the 
arms of the comte de Saxe, who loved her no more ; and not 
having had the time to renounce the stage, it was impossible to 
obtain a little earth to bury her." 

Coypel had painted her In the charafter of Cornelia, weeping 
over the urn In which she carried the ashes of Pompey and 

' 1697-1739. He was succeeded in his lodgings in the Louvre by his cousin 
Claude, who was an indifferent charader and produced very little. He died in 1781 
(N. A., 1885, p. 129), having squandered almost the whole of the fortune amassed by 
his uncle and cousin ("Arch, des Arts," 1890, p. 190). 

' P. v., Dec 30th, 1714.; June 13th and Nov. oth, 1726; March 6th, 1728. 

' This portrait of Bossuet by Rigaud is in the Mus£e du Louvre, No. 477. 

59 



db, Google 



The it was decided to engrave this portrait as a tribute to her memory. 

Drevet jjad it been a less remarkable work, the pathetic nature of the 

Pranfiois circumstances under which it was produced would no doubt have 

Daulli. given to this engraving a great popular value : even now one can 

only dare to suggest that it is — and perhaps properly so — less virile 

and splendid than the Bossuet, which remains one of the finest, if 

not the finest work of Pierrc-Imbert Drevet ; it is, indeed, finer 

even than his magnificent reproduction of Rigaud's portrait of 

Samuel Bernard.^ 

No happier phrase can be found to describe the peculiar 
quality and charm of the Bossuet than that used by Mariette, who 
had made a collection of everything executed by these two 
engravers. " Son burin," he writes of Picrre-Imbert, " est d'une 
couleur extrSmement douce et brillante et Ton ne peut regarder 
sans etonnement les recherches dans lesquelles il est entr^, et avec 
quelle l^giret6, quelle precision, il a ex^cut^ chaque objet suivant 
le caraCtferc qui lui convcnoit."'' 

Something of the wonderful success of the Bossuet engraving 
must be credited to the extraordinary pains taken by Rigaud to 
ensure the perfect reprodufiion of this portrait. One usually 
expe^ to find that the engraver has himself made the drawing 
from which he has worked, but, in this instance, the painter per- 
formed this task, and performed it as Rigaud alone was capable of 
doing. Wille, the engraver, who was known to Rigaud, and who 
is certain to have understood what he was writing about, tells us 
that on the 2nd of January, 1762, he is exhibiting at his own 
house the original drawing made by Rigaud ** pour la gravure du 
beau portrait de Bossuet, ^v6que de Meaux, chef-d'oeuvre de 
gravure de M. Drevet, le fils. J*ay fait I'acquisition," he says, 
'< de ce magnifique dessein en vente publique, provenant de la suc- 
cession de M. Rigaud," and adds that his purchase was keenly 
contested ; that be bad been ofi^ered 300 It. for it, but that he would 
not take double the money, because of the pleasure it gives him. 

The portrait of Adrienne Lecouvreur was the last important work 
of Pierre-Imbert Drevet. As far as the dates can be pieced 
together, it was in 1726 that he sufi«red the sunstroke, during a 
ftte at Versailles, which for a time deprived him of reason and 
from which he never completely recovered. If this is corred, 
then this fine portrait must have been executed, with the help 
possibly of his father, during an interval of suffering. 

His madness was not, we are told, " une foUe complete, mais 

* Described as br Pierre Drevet sometimes, but it is signed " Pierre-Imbert Drevet." 

* A. B. C. Dario, Mariette. 

60 



d by Google 



bien une imb^cillit^ intermittcnte," and when at Loire he would The 
often have himself rowed out to the middle of the Rh6ne. There, ^*?ean 
with a glass, he drank water dipped from the midstream, believing Francois 
that it would bring him back his wits.^ If, as they say, he was Daulft. 
but twenty-nine when this happened, we have to count thirteen 
terrible years of conscious suiFering before Pierre-Imbert was 
released by death. 

With him the last representative of what one may call the 
fixity of style which was a mark of the school of Gerard Audran 
passed away, nor can one speak of any who succeeded him as 
showing the same faith in and perfed intelligence of the resources 
of pure line. Franfois Ch^reau,^ the best of Pierre Drevet's 
pupils, died nine years before his master. The learned and 
decisive execution of his fine series of portraits after Rigaud — 
amongst which the masterly " Nicolas de Launay " may be cited 
as an example — give him a serious claim to notice, for they show 
admirable dexterity in handling the burin, and this dexterity, like 
his drawing, is devoted to the cxad rendering of his subjed. 
His brother Jacques * sustained the traditions of his training by his 
fine engraving of Van Loo's portrait of Marie Leckzinska, but the 
third pupil of the Drevet, Simon Vallie, was carried away by the 
attractions of the etching needle. 

Simon Valine was not the only one in whom at this date a 
certain impatience of the long labour imposed by work in pure 
line declared itself. The use of the process of etching for the 
preparation of the plate had had the authority of G6rard Audran, 
but gradually the temper of the day sought out more adventurous 
methods. The Academy even discussed the possibility of imitating 
with the graver the pi^uresque values and lively charader proper 
to an etching. Nicolas Dupuis* took up the challenge and 
engraved " En^e sauvant son pire," after Carle Van Loi>— which 

' ** Arch, des Arts,** 1890, p. 189. See also Didot, *' Les Drevet," pp. xviii, xix. 

* 1680-1729. R. Mzrch a6th, i7i8,ontheengraved portrait ofdeBouUonenele 
jeune": he died without having executed the second, which should have been that of 
Alexandre, after Louis de BoulTogne (A. de I'A. fr^ t. ii., p. 363). 

* 1688-1776, He does not seem to have been received oy the Academy, having 
left France for England, where he joined Dubosc, Bcauvais and Bernard Ljptcie. 
He assisted to engrave the cartoons of Raphael at Hampton Court ; bis name appears 
also on a print of George I., after Kneller, which was probably executed by him 
during his stay in London. 

* I696-I77I. R. June z8th, 1754. Curious details of bis agreement to engrave 
the Louts XV, monument by J. B. Lemoyne at Rennes are given in A. de I'A. fr., 

■ t. vi., pp. 113, 123, 124.-126, 131. He exhibited this engraving, together with his 
portrait of de Tournehcm in 1755, and in 1759 sent to the Salon another after Le- 
moync's " Sutuc equettre du Roi, £lev£e dans Ja Place de Bordeaux." 

61 



db, Google 



The be exhibited in 175 1 — on this fashion, and his friend Gaucher* 

^d^Tutn ^^"''^ "^ '^**> " although this engraving is wholly executed by 
Francois ^^^ graver, one can recognize the wit, lightness and happy 
Daolli. audacity of a skilled needle." 

Other work by Dupuis is not unattractive — if one does not ask 
too much — as, for example, " Le Glorieux," after Lancret, which 
he sent to the Salon of 1741 with " Le Philosophe Mari^," en- 
graved by his brother Charles. In the small portraits, such as that 
ofWouvermans — piftor Batavus — which he framed in ornamental 
borders, his work is often slight but always intelligent, and the 
remarkable engraving of " Le Roi gouverne par lui-mfime," which 
bears his name in the " Grande galerie de Versailles," justified 
Masse in urging Dupuis to present himself at the Academy, where 
he was received on the portrait of de Toumehem after Tocque, 
which is one of his best works. This fine print, dignified and 
sound in execution, has yet a somewhat commonplace aspedt if 
one sets it beside the work of either of the Drevet. 

It is amazing to learn that Rigaud, who had been so brilliantly 
interpreted by the father and son, should have cooled towards 
them in his later years. He imagined, it is said, that they ceased 
to pay him as much respeA and to serve him with as much zeal. 
Whilst he was in this state of irritation, it so happened that a 
proof of the engraving by Jean Daulle ^ of Mignard's portrait of 
his beautiful daughter, the Countess de Feuquieres, fell into his 
hands. He was enchanted by the facility and brilliancy of 
Daulle's execution, and at once decided to put his work for the 
future into his hands and make him his engraver.^ 

Daull6 had arrived from Abbeville, that nursery of great 
engravers, fairly skilled in his art. Hecquet,* who was his 
countryman, gave him food and lodging, and set him to engrave 
large "planches de theses." Under his direi^ion Daull^ acquired 
extraordinary pra^cal facility and Hecquet, it would seem, both 
procured him the portrait of Mme. de Feuquieres to engrave and 
arranged that it should be seen by Rigaud, of whose coolness 
towards the Drevet he was probably aware. 

' i740-i8o2(?). R.A. Lond A pupil of Le Bas. See Renouvier, "Hist, de 
I'art pendant la Revolution," t. ii,, p. 328. He was not only a remarkable engraver, 
but knew a great deal about his art. He contributed to the ** Diilionnaire dcs Artistes " 
of the abbe de Fontenai, from which the above passage is cited, and exhibited at the 
Salon of 1793 ** Portraits gravis,"" Portraits dessines" and^Estampes d'apris difTirens 
maitres." 

* 1703-1763. R. June 30th, 1742. Mariette gives date of birth 1711 j Portalis 
and Biraldi, May iStli, 1703. See Jal. 

* Mariette, A. B. C. Dario. * liiJ. See also p. ji, note 2. 

62 



d by Google 



Adrienne Lecouvreur as Cornelia. 
(Fierrk-Imbekt Drevet, aiter Covpel.) 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google' 



The " Comtessc de Feuquicres" bears date 1735 and was The 
therefore executed about four years before the death of the younger ^'j^^jj 
Drevet, who had engraved Rigaud's iine Bossuet ; his father must pran^ois 
have witnessed the preference given to Daull^ and seen his first Daulli. 
success with the portrait of Gcndron, the oculist, which he com- 
pleted, after Rigaud, in 1737.^ In the execution of this fine work, 
as in others produced during Rigaud's lifetime, DaulU no doubt 
enjoyed the enormous advantage of the painter's diredt and skilled 
supervision. " Sous la conduite," says Mariette, " d'un peintre si 
intelligent, DaulU fit plusieurs chefs d'ceuvre, qui lui m^rit^rent 
une place dans I'Acad^mie royale de peinture et de sculpture." ^ 

The work which Daulte engraved for his reception is well 
known. No more taking subject could have been found than that 
in which Rigaud has represented himself painting the portrait of 
his wife, Elisabeth de Gouy.^ It is not, however, without some 
surprise that we find that tlie painter who had been so fascinated 
by Daull^'s talent was adually employing Wille, at the same time, 
to also reproduce this picture.* As Rigaud died in 1 743, it is prob- 
able that he never saw the plate engraved by his special p-otigi^ 
and the work has a certain lack of accent in the treatment of the 
heads — especially in that of Rigaud — which compares unfavour- 
ably with the handling of the portrait of Gendron. That is 
perhaps the best of DaulU's portraits, if we except his charming 
*• Comtesse de-Caylus,"" though even in that we find some weak- 
ness in the charader of the head, which is not the best part of 
the work. 

De Caylus himself had probably commissioned the engraving 
of this portrait of his mother at not too high a price, and it 
enjoyed a success which again may have owed something to the 
attractions of the original. It contributed to cause that press of 
work which obliged Daull^ to seek for outside help in order to 
fulfil his engagements. Fortunately, he found in Jean-Georges 
Wille, the famous engraver of the " Satin Gown," an assistant 
whose style of execution bore the closest likeness to his own. 

Wille, who had not been long in Paris, was leading the usual 
student's life, getting his daily bread from Odieuvre^ who, he 
says, did not pay much, but did pay. In his own time he 
worked on the engraving — from which he hoped to build up 

' Ex. Salon, 1742, together with " Mnie.de Feuquicres" and "Rigaud ct son 
Spouse." 

' A. B. C. Dario, Mariette. • Chal. du Louvre, No. 2271. 

* N. A., 1884, p. 57; "French Painters, etc.," p. 141. 

* See pp. 4 and 5. 'See Chapter V. 

63 



db, Google 



The his own fixture — of the portrait of the Duke de Belle-Isle, which had 

^^"* been entrusted to him by Rieaud. In this conjuncture DaulU. 
and Jean- Tir-n t-j jl- «_• 

Francois says Wille, came to see him and entreated him to come to his rescue 

Daulii. by helping to engrave the portraits of " the Pretender and his 

brother the Duke of York." Wille was to do everything but the 

heads, and he seems to have felt aggrieved at the arrangement. 

'* Je dois observer ici," he adds, " que M. Daull^ s'^toit riservd la 

gravurc des tStes de ces princes ; et les ayant finies, il mit son nom 

sur des planches ainsi fagot^cs, et dont je pouvois 6tre jaloux." ^ 

His irritation did not, however, prevent him from again accepting 

the same sort of work from Daulli, at a later date, on the portrait 

of Maupertuis, in which we have another example of the usual 

defeat of his portraits, even when executed wholly by himself, for 

the furs and other accessories strike the eye more forcibly than the 

head of the man who wears them.^ 

It is clear from the way in which Daull6 divided labour with 
Wille that no want of confidence in his own powers led him to 
abandon his work on portraits and to take up the engraving of 
subjects. " He was yet," says Mariette, " in the prime of life 
when he became disgusted with the style of portraits, which 
appeared to him to require a slavish constraint." He began with 
some prettily arranged subje6ts after Boucher, such as " Les 
Amours en gayeti," dated 1750,' and one of a couple referred to 
by Mariette as having been engraved by DauUi from drawings by 
Jeaurat, after Poussin, is to be identified with the " Nymph and 
Love asleep, surprised by Satyrs," which belongs to the National 
Gallery. 

These are not works which can add to Daull6's reputation. 
Many show an incredible carelessness, and even the best, such as 
the subjects which he engraved for the "Galeric de Dresde,"* be- 
tray something of his lack of that science du dessin without which 
no man, however skilfully he may " cut the copper," can become 

' The two portiaits in question appear to be the pair, Ko«. 112 and 113, Fortalis 
and B^aldi. DauUi had previously executed one of the " Pretender " on a larger 
scale. No. ili, ibid. 

' Maupertuis, on his return from his journey to the Ar^c rwions, had his 
portrait painted in the costume which he had worn in Lapland. Ex. Salon, 1743. 

' There are also the " Elements," which appear to have been executed about the 
same time. They are dedicated to the Count dc Bruhl. " Les Amours en gayct^ " 
appeared at the Salon of 1750, together with the " Naissance ct triompne de 
V^nus d'apres I'esouissc de M. Boucher." 

* This magnincent colle^on of engravings after the finest works in the Gallery 
was underuken at his own expense by Heineckcn, the secretary to Count de Briihl, after 
he was made, in 1746, Diredor of the Gallery at Dresden. He would have been 
ruined had not the King (Augustus III. of Poland) come to the rescue. 



d by Google 



a great engraver. The portraits— of which not all the best were The 
produced under the keen eye of Rigaud— will always be the better ^'fV* 
part of Daull6*s title to remembrance. Fran?""" 

"DaulU, Gaillard, Tardieu," suggests Wille in 1759, when DauUi, 
refusing to himself engrave, for the second time, the portrait of 
the Duke de Belle-Isle : ^ and although there was an unfortunate 
episode in 1761 regarding the portrait by Roslin of " S. A. S. 
Mme. Anastasie, landgravine de Hesse-Hombourg, n6e princesse 
Troubetskoy," * it can hardly have put an end to Daulle, as Ma- 
riette affirms — " c'est par ou tl a fini sa triste carriire " — since his 
fine portrait of La Peyronie was executed two years later. Mariette 
is, most likely, rather hard on Daull^, who had reason to complain of 
the terms for the engraving of the portrait of " Anastasie." These 
had been the subjeS of one of those arrangements by his friend de 
Caylus which excited the wrath of Cochin and the indignation of 
those who were trapped into accepting them. 

The circumstances of DauIM's bad bargain were so disastrous 
that Cochin sele^s it as an example *' entre plusieurs marches 
dontj'ay eu connoissance de lafayon de M. de Caylus." The work 
was first offered to Willc,' but as Cochin puts it, " M. Villc dont 
la vue . . . finissoit, ne vouloit point se charger de grands ouvrages, 
^ moins que ce filt pour lui des coups de fortune. . . . M. Ville 
done demanda d'abord un prix exhorbitant, trente mille livres ; 
mais enfin il se restraignit k seize " ; but this price was still too high 
for General Betsky,* at whose cost the work was to be done. 
Cochin describes M. de Caylus as furious, as abusing Wille, and as 
seeming to think that the purse of the Russian ought to be 
spared even at the expense of French artists. Then, says Cochin, 
de Caylus went off to Daull^ and bullied him until he managed 
to get from him a written undertaking to engrave the picture for 
4,000 It. 

When the work approached its termination, nobody was satis- 
fied. Daull£ had soon discovered that, even working as hastily 
and as slightly as he could, it was impossible not to be a loser. 

• See Chap. V. 

* This princess was the friend of the Empress Elizabeth, whom she accompanied 
on the night of her attack on the Emperor Ivan, See ** French Archite^ and 
Sculptors, etc^" p. 125. 

' He had already refiiscd to engrave work for Roslin himself. On June 27th, 

1 759, he writes : " M. Roslin, peintre de notre academic, me proposa deux portraits 

a graver j mais je fiis obtigi de les refuser, avant trop d'occupation." 

^ * The Diredor-General Betsky. See ror his treatment of Falconnet " French 

Archite£b and Sculptors, etc,** p. no. His portrait by Roslin was engraved by Nicolas 



Dupuis. 



65 



db, Google 



The He therefore demanded some sort of compensation. The General, 

Pj*'*' supported by de Caylus, appealed to the terms of the agreement. 

Francois' Finally Mariettc was put between the two to see if it were not 

DaulK. possible to arrange the matter. The print was brought to Madame 

Geoffrin's, where, as Cochin says, sat " le bureau d'amateurs." 

Even then it was not easy to find a way of conciliation amidst so 

many conflicting interests. Betsky, who had doubtless intended to 

pay his court to the Empress Elizabeth by a flattering image of 

her friend, found &ult especially with the head of the figure, 

whereupon Cochin, ever ready to oblige, offered to retouch the 

proofs, hoping probably that if Betsky and the bureau of amateurs 

were content, DaulU might obtain some satisfaction. 

On this point Cochin found Caylus deaf to all entreaties. 
He insisted on holding Daulle to the original agreement, although, 
as DaulU said, it had been extorted from him. In vain Cochin 
proved to him that thirty years earlier the price of such work 
would not have been less than 6,000 1., and that the '* prix de Tin- 
dustrie devoit £tre augment^ " in proportion to the rise in the 
price of every article of food. " I was met," he says, " by that 
contempt which, I know only too well, is felt by men of birth, in 
spite of their fine seeming politeness, for all who are, like artists, 
but of the bourgeoisie." ^ 

Whether or no DaulU obtained any " gratification " such as he 
well deserved Cochin cannot say, but he reports that Betsky, 
though a good sort of man, did not seem inclined to be generous, 
and he conjectures that when Daull^ died, in the spring of 1763, 
he was still pleading in vain for the payment of such a sum as 
might indemnify him for the loss of his time on the plate.' 

He died of a putrid fever which carried him off on the ninth 
day of his illness, and left his family but ill-provided for ; and on 
May 20th Wille tells us that the sale began, " chcz madame 
Daull^, des effets d^laiss^s par feu son mari, qui ^toit mon ami, 
I'ayant d6ja frequent^, il y a plus de vingt-quatre ans,' dans ma 
grande jeunesse, et lequel est mort 11 y a environ un mois. Sa mort 

' Cochin wound up with : ** Si vous voul& que Daull£ ne mange que dcs harangi 
sores, j'y conscns, mais au moins songis que, lonqu'on payoit deux mille icus, ib ne 
valwent que deux liards et qu'a- pr^nt ils valent au moins dix-huit dcnien." 

* M^m. in6d,, pp. 75-78. 

' There is only one allusion — with the exception of that referring to the portrsut 
of the Duke de Bell^Isle — in Wille's journal to his relations with Daulli. It is on 
January 3rd, 1762. The Academies had paid their New Year's visit to the Marquis de 
Marigny. " Au sortir de li," writes Wille, " M. Daull£, graveur, MM. Challe, Tun 
peintre, I'autre sculpteur, vinrent avec moi, et nous dinimcs chez Lendel, rue de 
Bussi." 

66 



d by Google 



Portrait of Cochin le fils. 
{Jean Daull£, after Cochin lk nLS.) 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



m*a viritablement attristi, ct je plains la veuve et ses deux fillcs. The 
d'autant plus qu'ellcs ne sont pas bicn k leur aise." ^Y* 

Wille, whose own talent was of a character analogous to that Pranfois' 
of Daull^i had a high opinion of his powers* which is worth Daull6. 
citing because it gives us the measure of his ability from a purely 
technical point of view. He notes admiringly that Daull6 was 
never ill and was an extremely rapid worker; then adds that his 
work reckons nearly three hundred pieces, amongst which are 
many of great reputation, well-executed and much sought after. 
" C'est dommage," he concludes, " que sa grande facility dans 
I'exicution I'ait quelquefois emport^ k n'Stre pas assez difficile," 
but he goes on to say that DauIU must, in justice, be reckoned in 
the number of good engravers in his day, and to cite the portraits 
of Gendron and of the Countess de Feuquieres, together with the 
" Quos Ego," ^ the " Magdalen " " and the " Children of Rubens " 
— the last three for the " Galerie de Dresde " — as works which must 
carry Daull^'s name down to posterity. 

I know that it is usually said that DauU^'s point is cold and 
brilliant. I recognize the force of this criticism as applied to a 
certain class of his work, such for example as the ** Berger Na- 
politain " engraved after Boucher, impressions of which, when as 
fine as that in the Print Room of the British Museum, may well 
deserve the epithet brilliant. When, however, one turns to Daull^'s 
portraits — and one must remember that it was the promise of 
his portraits that took Rigaud's &ncy — one would be inclined to 
describe their air as rather soft than brilliant, and their execution 
seems to show a tiresome tendency to mechanically dexterous re- 
petitions of line, and in the display of this elegant dexterity the 
engraver seems to have found a more lively interest than in the 
forms which his line should express. 

Let us take " Hiacinthe Rjgaud, Ecuyer, Chevalier de I'ordre 
de S. Michel, ancien Diredeur, et RcSeur de I'Acadimie Royale 
de Peinture et de Sculpture, avec son Epouse, peint par lui-mSme," 
and set this celebrated print beside the " Samuel Bernard, Chevalier 
de rOrdre de Saint-Michel," engraved by Pierre-Imbert Drevet, or 
the " Nicolas de Launay," by Franfois Ch^reau. The impression 
we receive from the engraving " Rigaud painting his wife " is that 
of grace and skill, and even loving finish. DauUe cannot be accused 
in this instance of haste, or of having scamped his work in order 
to get the better of a bad bargain, but the moment we look at the 

' Ex. Sslon, 1753, "'Depart de Marie de M&licis,' Apptli communjoient le 
* Quos Ego' i d'apris Rubens." 
' Ex. Salon, 1753. 

67 



d by Google 



The man's head, and compare it with that of Samuel Bernard, or of de 

^^Y* Launay, we recognize the science and power which have enabled 
Francois Drevet and Ch^reau to seize on the very heart of their subjects and 
Daulfi. put into their features a vitality that grips us as if with the real 
presence of the men. 

Nicolas Dupuis had something of the secret, as we may see in 
his lordly " Lenormant de Tournehem," but Wille puts no such 
insistent force of life into his portraits. Nor, indeed, are any later 
works of this class, on the same scale, worthy to be compared with 
those of the Drevet and Francois Ch^reau. We must come to the 
marvellous miniatures of Ficquet, such as the amazing La Fontaine 
and equally amazing Eisen of the " Contes," before we find their 
equal. 

Under the magnifying glass we see that the method of execu- 
tion in these microscopic chefs-^eeuvre is identically the same as that 
employed by the great masters of line. The heads of the portraits 
in the " Contes " are modelled by the simple sweep of curved lines 
divided by other broken lines running between them. 

That is exaftly how Drevet has rendered the superb charafter 
and expression of his Samuel Bernard : in like manner Fran9ois 
Ch^reau has treated his de Launay and Cardinal Fleury, and 
Nicolas Dupuis, even in his slighter works, docs not lay his lines 
otherwise. DaulU works differently. He is, as it were, preoccupied 
by his own skill ; his lines succeed each other with marvellous 
mechanical regularity, and his calculated excellence of craft is so 
obvious that one might almost suppose that this alone detracts from 
the importance of the head in all his portraits, even in those done 
under the direction of Rigaud. For the true reason of DauUe's 
inferiority we must, however, look beyond any mere question of 
execution ; " il p6choit," says Mariettc, '* par le dessin." That is 
to say that Daull^'s training was defedlve on the most important 
side. 

The painter may possibly appeal to us by colour, but no 
amount oimStur can justify the etcher or engraver who is wanting 
in what has been described as " la probit6 de Tart." This charge 
of something like want of honesty may also be extended to another 
point. Daull^ and men of his type took no exa£t account of the 
difficulties they encountered. Should a fold of drapery demand 
an inconvenient exercise of skill it was "fudged" wiuiout scruple. 
The pure sincerity of their great predecessors was unknown to 
them. 



68 



d by Google 



Froktispick: "Fables de la Fontaine," 1755-1759. 
(Nicolas Dupuis, after Oudrv and Cochin le fils.) 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



CHAPTER V 
WILLE AND HIS PUPILS 

JEAN-GEORGES WILLE' was a lad of fifteen when Pierre 
Drevet engraved his Adrienne Lecouvreur. A Hessian by 
birth, he came to Paris — as did his friend Georges-Fridiric 
Schmidt'* — so young that his training was praftically French, 
and, having assimilated all that the school could then teach, he 
exercised in turn an extraordinary influence over his teachers, 
becoming the master of the masters of the modern school. 

In early years, the inconstancy of his interests, the vivacity 
with which he pursued diverse occupations, gave no promise of 
that serious devotion to a profession which he afterwards displayed. 
A series of ventures, in which he exhibited great intelligence and 
an even greater love of change, culminated in his departure for 
Paris, where he amused himself with delighted curiosity until he 
found that he had wholly exhausted his resources. To his appeals 
for help his father turned a deaf ear. " Enfin mon fils," he repjied, 
" tu es done sorti de ta patrie sans me consulter et mSme sans 
m'en avertir, je dois done croire que tu te trouves en itat de te 
soutenir sans mon intervention, et si j'avois la foiblesse de t'envoyer 
de I'argent, je ferois une faute capitale ; je connois ton inclination 
de briller partout,je vcux ctje dois t'empScher de fairedes d^penses 
sans necessity et sans utility. . . . Au reste, mon fils, n'abandonne 
jamais le chemin de la vertu que je t*ai enseign6, . . . fais voir en 
toute occasion que tu es le fils d'un honndte homme."^ 

1715-1808. R. July 24th, 1761, on portrait of Marigny aner Tocqu^ No. 



2236, Chal. du Louvre. 

• 1712-1775. R. . , 
No. Z245, Chal. du Louvre. 



17I2-1775. R. July 30th, 1744, on portnut of P. Mignard after Rigaud, 
t245, Chal. du Louvre. 
hiim. Willc, t. i., p. 63. 

69 



d by Google. 



Wille The letter took effeft -as old Wille knew it would. His son, 

and his finding that his father would give him nothing but rebukes and 
P' ■ advice, promptly raised money from a "bon juif" on some very 
fine silver medals which he had brought with him from Germany.^ 
Reassured by the possession of funds, with which " PincHnation 
de briller partout " at once reappeared, the young Wille dressed 
himself in his best and boldly presented himself at the magnificent 
h6tel of Largilli^re, to whom he explained that his desire to see 
one so celebrated was the only justification for such a step. 

Largilliire, adroitly flattered, lent him a pidlure to copy, and 
after its return would have lent him another, only Wille, fore- 
seeing that he must shortly do some remunerative work, in- 
geniously declined the offer on the ground that he meant to give 
up all the winter season to drawing — a pretext which, of course, 
elicited from Largilliere the strongest approbation.^ Not, how- 
ever, until winter drew on, and all the resources obtained from the 
" bon juif" were exhausted, does Wille seem to have decided that 
he must work. A friend, to whom he had brought a letter on 
his arrival in Paris, and who knew that he had, as a youth, been 
employed in the engraving of ornament on guns, found him a 
place in the shop of an arquebusier on the Pont Marie. That 
quarter was, however, too dull for a young gentleman who went 
constantly to the Comidie Fran9aise, where Wille knew several 
aftors who had given him his entrhs gratis. 

Another move was accordingly made to the shop of M. Blet- 
terie, in the same street as the theatre. Even then Wille does not 
seem to have been quite decided as to his occupation. " Une id^e," 
he says, " mal con^ue, plus mal digirie, m'^cartoit pendant quelque 
temps de la route que je m'etois trac^e, preuve de ma ligeret^ ou 
de mon inconstance. Enfin, je d^sirois travailler dans Thorlogerie." 
It seems that he had supposed that a watch from the beginning to 
the end of its construflion, including the chasing and engraving 
of the case, was the work of a single man ; so after having spent 
weeks doing nothing but turn pieces of steel of the thickness of a 
hair, he gave up his new trade in disgust. 

At this point the real career of Wille begins. " I went back," 
he says, " to my little room, where I drew a fictitious portrait. 
This I engraved on a small plate, and had printed. I showed a 
proof of this to a printseller, who had a great deal of work done 
and paid very little ; he was called Odieuvre, and lived on the 
quai de I'Ecole, opposite to the Samaritaine of the Pont Neuf." 

Odieuvre instantly recognized the value of Wille's work. 
• Mim. WiUe, 1. 1% p. 64. ' Ihid^ p. 66. 

70 



d by Google 



'* Qa. n'est pas mauvais," be said, and added the offer of employ- Wille 
ment — at the rate of twenty francs a plate — on the series of l"**.^'* 
profiles of the Kings of France which he was then in the course 
of publishing. 

The payment was not liberal and the reception by Odieuvre 
of those he employed far less so. Wille has described how, when 
he brought in his first commissions, Odieuvre — not having enough 
money in his drawer to make up the required sum — called to his 
wife, who, old, bent and deaf, was sweeping the kitchen: "*Ma 
poule, n'as-tu pas quelque argent dans les poches de ton tablier, 
car je veux payer ce jeune homme qui travaille pour la boutique.' 
* Oui, mon ange,' r^pondit-elle, et mit sur le comptoir ce qu'elle 
avoit, dont il me paya en g^missant et disant toujours : * H61as ! 
que I'argent s'en va promptement ! ' " 

It took Wille nearly three weeks, he tells us, to engrave a 
couple of these heads, with which Odieuvre kept him incessantly 
supplied. The work was too intolerably wearisome, so that when 
he found some copies of portraits by Largilliere, in the room which 
Schmidt had invited him to occupy on Eckhardt's' departure for 
England, he at once began to engrave that of Largilliere himself, 
and also, on a larger scale, that of his daughter.^ These he pre- 
sented to Largilliere, and at his suggestion offered to his son a 
proof of his sister's portrait in a gilt frame, a civility which was 
rewarded by the gift of "quatre louis d'or."' 

Wille's next step was to get Schmidt — who was engraving 
Rigaud's portrait of the Count d'Evreux* — to present him to that 
famous painter. He had never lost sight of Schmidt, to whom he 
had attached himself at Strasburg on his way to Paris, and had 
frequently visited him when he was working for Larmessin on the 
1738 illustrations of the Contes de la Fontaine.^ With that naked 

' (f)-l779. Jean^Gewges Eckhardt was born at Darmstadt, but settled in 
England, where he acqiiireda considerable reputation as a portrait-painter. 

* This engraving is dated 1 738. Another portrait of Marguerite-Elisabeth painted 
with those of her mother and himself is one of Largilliire's best known works. See 
"French Painters, etc.," p. 145. 

' idim., t. i., pp. 70, Ti. 

* Second son of the Duke de BouiUon and Colonel g^iral de la Cavalerie. 
He married Mile. Crozat. See "French Decoration and Furniture, etc.," pp. 
29, 30. 

* M^m., t. t., pp. 51, 62. Larmessin h^d undertaken to engrave as a uniform 
collection various subje& from the " Contes," painted by Boucher, Lancret, Pater, 
Vleugfaels and otheis. Larmessin reserved for himself those by Lancret, and on 
these he was helped by Schmidt. Crayen in his Catalogue of Schmidt's w<H'k goes 
larther, and sives to Schmidt " Nicaise," " Le Faucon " and ** A femme avare, g^nt 
escroc," the lover in which last is said to be a portrait of Schmidt, the husband that 
of Lancret*! brother. 

7' 



db, Google 



Wille frankness which makes Wille's *' Memoires et Journal " such 

5?^.^'* amusing reading, he would probably have said of Schmidt as he 

did of nis own fether, *' son amiti^ m'^toit pr^cieuse et n^cessaire," 

for he certainly had a liking for his friend, fortified though it was 

by a strong alloy of self-interest. 

With his engravings after Largilli^re in his hand and backed 
by the kindly Schmidt, who was four years his senior, Wille came 
before Rigaud, who, after a prolonged examination of his work, 
remarked: "Vous miritcz bien, monsieur, k fitrc cncouragi"! 
Wille seized his chance, and at once declared that he would be 
only too happy were he permitted to engrave a single portrait 
after one of Rigaud's paintings, even if it were at his own 
expense, 

Rigaud was completely conquered ; he held out his hand to 
Wille with a royal compliment. "Je veux vous Stre utile," he 
continued ; " voicy le portrait du due de Belle-Isle sur ce chevalet, 
auquel je dois retoucher quelque chose ; 9a sera bient6t fait, venez 
me voir au bout de huit jours, en attendant je ticherai d'obtenir 
de M. le due la permission de vous remettre son portrait, afin que 
vous I'ex^cutiez soigneusement en gravure ; et ce seigneur ne 
doit-il pas en gtre llatt6 ? " 

In my brief account of Rigaud,^ I have already referred to 
the exaft record of scenes and even words given in Wille's 
" Memoir.*' He takes us back with him again to leam from 
Rigaud that the desired permission is obtained; we see him 
seize on the pi£lure, desiring to carry it off on the instant; we 
hear Rigaud remonstrate, " Doucement, la vivacit^ est bonne, mais 
un peu de patience Test aussi quelquefois ; voicy mon valet de 
chambre qui apporte le C2£6, nous le prendrons ensemble, si vous 
le voulez bien " ; and the breakfast hour passed with such certain 
assurance of protedtion that Wille — though his pockets were 
empty — returned to his own rooms in perfect confidence as to the 
successful accomplishment of the task he had undertaken. 

It must be understood that the execution of an important 
engraving such as that of the portrait which Wille proposed to 
reproduce was — if we consider only the time which it required— 
a very costly matter. When Schmidt came to him as to the 
portrait of the Count d'Evreux, Rigaud's first thought was to 
inquire whether he had " les moyens d'entreprcndrc un ouvrage 
de longue haleine." Wille, who had no regular employment, was 
obliged to make money at once by selling to Odieuvre, for a 
humble sum, the plate of the portrait which he had engraved after 

' "French Painters, etc.," pp, 138-142, 

72 



db, Google 






db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google i ' 



Jill .m*'.'-.¥aim^m'9mm 



d by Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



Largilliire, and could only obtain that by undertaking to execute Wille 
two others — Cromwell and the Prince of Dessau — at the same «"* hia 
price. He received, however, some moneys from his father, to 
whom he had sent a proof of his portrait of Largilli&re in that 
expectation, but they were soon spent. A portion went on the 
purchase of fine medals, but the most was squandered by Wille 
on eating and drinking and smart clothes, including the purchase 
of a silver hilt to his sword. He was incited to the possession of 
this last elegance possibly by rivalry with Schmidt, who was the 
proud owner of the uniform of a Prussian bombardier. 

The two friends, who had for some time occupied the same 
lodgings, now parted company. The success obtained by Schmidt's 
" Comte d'Evreux " led to his admission — though a Protestant — 
into the Academy by royal command.^ This was in May, 1742, 
and he at once told Wille that he must have rooms suited to 
his new dignity, in which he could fitly receive his fellow 
academicians.^ 

This date gives us the exaCl time at which Diderot was, as he 
tells us, living in an attic with Prcisler' and Wille.* The move 
made by Schmidt had disturbed Wille, who went about look- 
ing for other lodgings, and presently he was joined by Preisler 
and another friend in a house of the rue de I'Observance, where 
lived " un jeune homme fort affable qui, dans la conversation, 
m'apprit qu'il cherchoit a devenir bon litterateur et encore meilleur 
philosophe s*il ^toit possible . . . ce jeune homme," adds Wille, 
" 6toit M. Diderot, devenu c^lfebre. par la suite." ^ 

The date, 1740, given by Wille (p. 90) for this encounter is 
obviously wrong, for the circumstances by which it was preceded 
were a consequence of Schmidt's " agr^ment " by the Academy in 
May, 1742. It has some importance, because it enables us to fix 
the year in which Wille was employed by Daull^, who came to 
him in the rue de I'Observance with the proposal that he should 
prepare his portraits of the " pretendant et le due d'York, son 
frire." ' It shows us too why Wille, though disliking it, decided 
to take the work. He was still dependent on Odieuvre, and 
obliged to accept anything he could get in order to maintain him- 

* See the letter from Ony of May 3rd, 1742. P. V., May 5th, 1742. 
' Mim., t. i., p. 82. 

' 1715-1794. Born at Nuremberg; came to Paris, 1739; called to Denmark 
in 1744* One of his best works is the engraving of tne equestrian statue of 
Frederick V. erected at Copenhagen by Saly. See** French Archite£h and Sculp- 
tors, etc.," pp. 112, 114, 196. 

* Diderot. Salon, 1765. * M^m., t. i., p. 91. 

* /4iV., pp. 98, 99. See Chap. IV. 

73 ^ 



d by Google 



Wille of which no doubt also contributed to bring this clever German 
Mid his engraver the exceptional favour which he seems to have enjoyed 
with those in power. 

Neither of these portraits is equal to the remarkable reproduc- 
tion of the portrait of Mtgnard, by Rigaud, which Schmidt 
executed as his diploma work.^ It was presented by him on the 
30th July, 1744. Two months later, in spite of all the efforts 
made to retain him, he had left France for Berlin. Willc's 
" M^moire," from which one would expert some light on this 
decision, breaks off, as we have seen, in the middle of his last 
interview with Rigaud and — as a volume has been lost — the 
"Journal" does not begin till the 31st May, 1759. We are, 
therefore, left with a gap of sixteen years, during which all we 
know of Wille's life is to be reckoned by the dates on hts 
engravings. It is, however^ certain that his friendly relations 
with Schmidt had not been disturbed, for Schmidt's name appears 
on one of the earliest pages,^ and recurs again and again tilt we 
come (March 26th, 1775) to the entry of the letters written by 
Wille in reply to correspondents who have announced the death 
of his "ancien ami."' 

Schmidt, on his side, had preserved a grateful memory of his 
days in Paris, " car il avoit de I'esprit et surtout le gout fin." 
Crayen, the Leipzig dealer, to whom we owe the record of his 
work, tells us that Schmidt died of apoplexy at the moment when 
" il songeoit k faire son testament en faveur de plusieurs de ses 
anciens amis, et dans I'lntention de I^guer tous les objets qui 
concernent les arts k I'Academie royale de peinture de Paris." His 
life in Berlin had not been so full of satisfactions that it could 
efface the impressions of that joyous youth of which Wille says : 
" Nous 6tions tous de jeunes artistes, peu sujets aux inqui^tucies, 
quoique souvent sans pecune, mais toujours pr6ts k nous r^jouir 
honn^tement, selon les circonstances, et sans que nos Etudes en 
souffi-issent." * 

Common studies had brought about a close resemblance in 
the work of the two friends, both as to their merits and defeats. 

to the see of Cambnii was one of the scandals of the day [MJm. Mathicu Mantis, 
t. ii., PP- 5o,5ij 139; t. iii., p. 36). 

' Chal. du Louvre, No. 2245. 

' This entry on' January 4th, 1760, shows that Wille was selling Schmidt's en- 
gravings for him: "j'ay les 'Amours des Dieux,* par Schmidt, i quatre-vingt-dix 
Uvra.*^ 

' These were "C.-L. Troschel, conseiller du roy de Prusae et avocat a Berlin," 
and " B. Rode, peintre du roy de Prusse i Berlin," 

* Mim., t. i., p. 79. 

76 



db, Google 



Pure line, with rare exceptions, is employed by both, and both Wille 
show the same treacherous dexterity. In his best work — and I *"<* .^'* 
take it that we may reckon as such his superb ** Maurice de Saxe " 
after Rigaud, his "Prince de Gallcs" after Tocqu^, his "J. B. 
Mass6 " and his " Marigny " ^ — Wille achieves a marvellous 
brilliancy. Schmidt, on the other hand, has better feeling for 
colour, and he draws, I think, better.^ Yet, just as Wille uses 
the graver as a witness of skill rather than as a means of expres- 
sion, and gets sometimes a metallic cfFe£l for which not even his 
brilliancy can atone, even so Schmidt makes free with his sub- 
jects, treating them as a means for the display of his command 
over his tools, and the glitter of his work is to me often very 
unpleasant. 

We may leave on one side the poor vignettes which this great 
engraver — carried away by the fancy of the day — produced in his 
last years,^ but his etchings, some of which are of value, cannot 
be passed over. They show, nevertheless, that Schmidt was 
hampered in their execution by the mechanical excellence of his 
habitual practice. There is not the slightest trace of the hand 
which engraved Lancret's " Nicaise " in the " Contes " with such 
splendid brilliance. Long after Schmidt had left for Prussia, 
Wille notes that a friend, M. Esperendieu, coming from Berlin, 
had brought him two engravings from M. Schmidt de sa fa^on, 
the one a portrait of a St. Petersburg doftor,* which was good, 
the other " le buste d'une vierge d^die au comte d'Esterhasy, mais 
qui n'est pas bien . . . selon moi," ^ and if we look at this print 
we see that Wille probably recognized in another that failure to 
reproduce with simplicity the aspeft of his subjedl that was his 
own besetting sin. 

" C'est I'air brusque et dur de Wille," says Diderot of the 
famous portrait by Greuze, now in the collection of Madame 
Andre, " c'est sa riche encolure, c'est son ceil petit, ardent, effar^." ' 
This roughness, harshness and ardour are reflected in his work, 
and gave him an immense influence over his numerous pupils. 

* Ex. 1 761. 

* Many of his engravings are from his own drawings, as, for example, his portrait 
of the abbt Privost, " dessin^ a Paris d'apr^ nature, ct gravi \ Berlin, par Schmidt." 

* The JUitnns and cuh de lampt of the *' M Jmoires de Brandebourg, Berlin, 
1767," are bv Schmidt. 

* Probably drawn on his visit to Saint Petersburg, where Schmidt was called by 
the Empress Elizabeth in 1757. 

' Mim. Wille, Sept. loth and Nov. loth, 1764. This work represents the 
Sassoferrato of the Esterhazy Gallery. 
. * Salon, 1765. This portrait was exhibited at Paris in 1888. 

77 



db, Google 



Ville He had the great force of unreasoning conviflion and the best 
and his men went to him. Jean Massard,^ one of the best interpreters of 
Grcuze, the engraver of " La Cruche cassie," " La Dame bien- 
^isante," " La Merc bien-aimie," owed his training to Wille ; so 
did Pierre-Alexandre Tardieu,^ whose " Marie- Antoinette, archi- 
duchesse d'Autriche, reine de France," begun, after Dumont, in 
1792, was finished in 1815.' To him is due, also, the partially 
completed engraving of David's " Lepcllctier de Saint-Fargcau 
mort," which is the sole record of a work which, it is conjedured, 
was hidden or destroyed by the &mily, to whom the story of 
Lepelletier's career was a cause of shame. Avril,* " fervent 
adepte du genre ennuyeux," and Berwic," the acknowledged 
master of the men of our own time, went forth from the work- 
shop of Wille. 

With Berwic, as with nearly all his pupils, Wille maintained 
relations of the most friendly intimacy. We find in his journal, 
under the date of February 24th, 1788, note of a dinner given in 
honour of Berwic's marriage. " Ce jour j'ay donni," writes 
Wille, " un repas i M. Bervic et k sa jeunc et aimable Spouse. 
Je Tay fait avec plaisir, d'autant plus que M. Bervic est un de 
ceux de mes elfeves qui m'ont fait le plus d'honneur, et qu'il est 
d*un cara£t^re franc et sans detour. U est instruit et son esprit 
est solide." Berwic — whose real name was Charles-Clement 
Balvay — was, in fa£t, the most important pupil taught by Wille. 
He worked with Le Prince, the inventor of the gravure au lavis, 
but after much study of Nanteuil devoted himself unreservedly to 
pure line, and his "Louis XVI.," after Callet, exhibited in 1791, 
is as brilliant and certainly as interesting as anything done by his 
master. 

Wille himself had at first given to the engraving of portraits 

' 1740-1822. He worked also on the '*C£uvres de Voltaire" [1768); "Les 
Graces "(1769); Anacreon (1773); Ovid (1767-1771). He engraved "Le Lever," 
after Baudouin, in 1771. 

' 1756-1844. His **Lord Arundel," after Vandyck, is a fine piece of interpre- 
tation. 

* Chal. du Louvre, No. 2232. It represents Marie-Antoinette costumed as a vestal 
virgin, standing bjr an altar and holding a branch of lilies in her hand. The heavy 
Austrian type of the features is accentuated by these inappropriate surroundings. 

* 1756?-! 823. 

* 1756-1822. A., 1784. His "CWopatre," after Netscher, closely follows the 
style of Wille in the satin of thegown (**Corres. Utt.," t i., p. 246). He exhiKted 
only in 1785, 1791 and 1798. Tne "grand prix de gravure en taille-douce " was 
founded by him. See his letter to Rosaspina (N. A., 1877, p. 365, and "Not. hist,," 
t. i., p. 254). He engraved " Le Sennent, after Fragonard, with feeling as well 
as skill. 

78 



d by Google 



La S<kur de la bonne I-'emmk de Nokmanhie, uitk 

"La Femme X LA Tulipe"; 1773. 

(Jkan-Georges Wn.i.E, akter Wii.i.k kils.) 



d by Google 



"'I 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



.Google 



the most important place in his work. In 1755, as we have seen, ^^Ue 
he executed one of his best, that of Jean-Baptiste Mass6, after ^^ .^*' 
Louis Tocqu^, and he engraved later — for his reception by the "^ 
Academy — that of Marigny, after the same painter.^ , 

Shortly after this date, Wille decided to devote himself to 
what he called historical engraving. In June, 1759— although 
he was then probably at work on the Marigny portrait — he sends 
M. le Cat, of Rouen, to Ficquet, declaring that he himself cannot 
possibly do a portrait. He next tells us that he has been requested 
to engrave that of a great personage of Holland^ but "je me suis 
excus^ en recommandant M. Tardieu " ; and finally he refuses 
even crowned heads. " Replied," he notes on Odlober 20th, 1761 
— only six months later than the visit of Marigny — " to M. Ziesenis, 
painter to his Britannic Majesty in Hanover, who offers me the 
portrait of the Queen of England. ... I have said that I do no 
more portraits, but will get it done, and he can, if he likes, send 
me the pifture." 

Even Mile. Clairon, who came, escorted by Cochin, to solicit 
Wille in person,'' was firmly refused. " lis firent," he says, " tous 
deux, tout ce qui est possible pour m'engager k faire le portrait de 
cette fameuse a^rice dans la grande planche que grave M. Cars," 
d'aprfes M. Vanloo, oii elle est representee en Med^e,* et dont la 
tSte a d^j^ 6U eifac^e quatre fois. Je me suis d^fendu longtemps, 
malgr^ les discours s^duisants et les ^loges de I'un et I'autre. La 
planche resta chez moi, mais le lendemain j'allai chez M. Cochin 
lui representer qu'il m'^toit impossible de faire la tSte, ^ cause de 
ma vuc trop courte, pour pouvoir atteindre au haut de cette 
planche, et le ri^ultat fut que je lui envoyai la planche au retour 
de chez moi." 

The excuse made by Wille to free himself from the impor- 
tunity of Mademoiselle Clairon and her friends may have had 
some foundation, but it is just as likely to have been a pretext, 
though Cochin seems to have believed that Wille's sight was 
really at fault. At the same time we must remember that other 
work was more lucrative. The publication of " La Liseuse "' from 
the painting by Gerard Dou, which had been lent to Wille by 
de Julienne, had an enormous success. He had executed it as a 
companion to *' La Dividcuse," engraved many years before, and 

' These two engravings are Nos. 2236 and 2239, Chal. du Louvre. Wille was 
in close relations both with Tocqu^ and Mass£. See his journal, July 7th, 1759, and 
July 2jth, 1761. See also Chap. III., p. S3, note t. 

* rcbruary 2nd, 1763. * See Chap. VI. 

* Sec "French Painters, etc.," p. 46. ' Ex. 1763. 

79 



db, Google 



Wille he notes that more than three hundred proofs had been taken up 
and his on the same day.^ 



Pupils. 



This success encouraged him to devote himself exclusively to 
a class of work in which he was without a rival. The vogue 
which his interpretations of popular masters enjoyed in Paris was 
outstripped abroad. Schmuzer,^ a young engraver coming from 
Vienna — sent, in fa6l, by Kaunitz that he might study under Wille 
— informed him that prints of *' La Tricoteuse " and " La Devi- 
dcuse," ' which were sold by him in Paris for 3 It., were fetching 
15 It. apiece in Vienna; that " Le petit Physicien"* and "La 
M^nagere" — sold in Paris for 2 It. — reached as much as 13 It. 
10 sots., and finally that Kaunitz himself had paid seven louis 
d'or for a proof of Willc's portrait of Saint-Florentin — a fine early 
work.'' To a suggestion from Kaunitz, received a few years later, 
we owe the fine print after Terburg, " L'Instruition paternelle " * 
— sometimes called "The Satin Gown"' — which Wille dedicated 
by his direftions to the Dowager Empress of Austria, from whom 
he received in acknowledgement a superb diamond ring.* 

It became the rule for all "patrons of the arts" and "people 
of taste" to call on Wille when they visited Paris. The Duke de 
Deux-Ponts — in German, as Wille reminds us, " Zwey-Briicken " 
— not only visits him but joins a party for sketching in the 
country; he is presented to the Prince of Monaco by the abb^ 
de Grimaldi, who is a frequent visitor ; the sons of Kaunitz, Count 
and Countess Harrach, arrive from Vienna ; Prince Poniatowski 
and Prince Czartoriski represent Poland ; Count Moltke, Den- 
mark ; Prince Galitzin, Russia ; the names of Gluck and Goldini 
jostle those of the unfortunate Struensee, of the Prince d'Ysembourg, 
Count Reuss XLIIL, the Princess Kinski, the Prince of Saxe- 
Weimar and the Margrave and Margravine of Baden-Durlauch. 

' Mim., July r6th, 1762. 

' Wille writes, November 19th, 1762: "Aborda chc* moi, vers le soir, M. 
Schmuzcr, graveur de Vienne ... II me fit en entrant bien des riviiaica gothi<iues, 
me voulant baiser le bas de ma robe de chambre, me nommant tantot Vocre Excel- 
Icncc, tantot Ihrt Gnadtn. J'^tois honteux de toutes aes civilit^.** 

* These two prints wtfe exhibited, together with ** La M^nagere," in 1 757. 

* Ex. 1 761. 

* MJm^ Nov. 19th, 1762. Thb portrait was engraved in 1749, and after thirteen 
years the plate — so injured by verdigris that it had to be reworked — was brought to 
Wille, in order that he might pull i6o prints from it for the town of Marseille 
{ibid., March tsth, 1763). 

* Ex. 1767. Sec mtm. Wille, March 14th and April 27th, 1766. 

^ **J'ai rendu justice au burin de M. Wil et i sa maniire unique de rendrc les 
^offes" C^Lcttre oe M. Raphael," Salon, 1769, **C£uvres de Cochin," t. li., p. 308). 
' M£m., July 27th, 1760. 

80 



db, Google 



The honours paid to Wille by all these exalted personages and Wille 
their frequent visits did not make his intercourse with his brother *"** .^'^ 
craftsmen less close or constant. Not only did he live on the best "*" *' 
terms with the chief men of the French school, but his journal 
shows his friendly relations with strangers and especially with the 
English. He was present when Robert Strange, " n^ dans Tlsle 
de Pomone, Tune des Orcades," was agr^^ by the Academy. 
Strange — by whom he sends letters to Winckelman and Mengs ^ 
— is described by Wille as " an old friend and a brave worthy 
man." After Strange comes WooUet, " excellent graveur," ^ 
Vivares,' Ryland and Smith * are his friends, and Byrne became 
his pupil.^ Of Ryland^ — "graveur du roi d'Angleterre " — who 
was afterwards hanged for forgery, Wille tells us that he had a 
commission to buy for the King " mes pieces historiques ; mais des 
premieres et magnifiques ^preuves, et je les ay fournies comme 
pour un roi." In 1787 Basan calls on him with Alderman Boydell, 
who brings with him his daughter and his niece. The daughter, 
Mrs. Nicol, is married to a bookseller, and when Wille dines, on 
the 20th September, with the party, he notes : '* C'est dommage 
que Mme. Nicol ne sAt pas le fran^ois, cela n'empScha pas qu'elle 
ne me fit mille caresses." 

Dealers, in every town, were his regular correspondents, and 
he bought and sold for them. Sometimes their commissions were 
embarrassing. M. Gier de Bordeaux, he notes, " has sent me some 
gouaches by Mile. Dietsch, to sell, but ..." The but is ex- 
pressive, and one is not surprised to find that Wille — after some 
hesitations-excused himself, telling Gier that " les petits tableaux 
de I'espfece qu'il m'a envoy^s ne sont pas rates i Paris." He even 
bought for these correspondents at sales as well as for himself. 
No great sale, such as that of an amateur like de Caylus, or de 
Julienne, or of brother artists such as Surugue,' took place with- 

' August 31st, 1760, and December 31st:, 1764. Strange (1723-1792), who was 
then a student with Cooper in Edinburgh, followed Charles-Edward in 1745, took 
refuge in Paris after Culloden and became a pupil of Le Bas. 

' November 6th, 1769(1735-1785). 

* June 27th, 1763; November i8th, 1763; July 4th, 1776(1712-1782). 

* September ist, 1787. 

* Oftober loth, 1769. 

' April 1 8th and May 9th, 1 765. Wille dines Ryland and says that he is " fort 
i son aise. II a cinq mille livres de pension de son roi, qui lui paye non seulement 
gjnjreusement les ouvrages qu'il lui commande, mais lui &it aussi pr&ent de Touvrage 
m£me, lorsqu'il est fini. Chose sans exemple ! " 

^ 1686-1762. R. July 30th, 1735, on the portraits of Christophe and BouUogne 
pire. Exhibited at the Salon from 1737 to 1761. He had spent some time workme 
for Bernard Picart at Amsterdam, but married and returned to Paris in 1715, ana 
81 M 



d by Google 



Wille out his attendance. Of. the latter he writes : " I have spent all 
andhiB my time lately at the sale of prints belonging to the late M. de 
"^* "' Surugues [stc] in the house of his son. I have bought many for 
myself pour ma curiosity." Minor occasions, however, were not 
neglected, and Wille could spare an hour even to visit the sale of 
the pi6tures in the colledion of the " Comtesse de Farvaques," 
though he regretfully remarks : "Je n'en ay pas acheti un seul, 
car je n'aime pas les croutes." 

It is to be wished that his taste had always shown itself equally 
severe, for Wille, whom his friends delighted to hail as the 
greatest buriniste de rEurope, often applied his skill to the repro- 
duftion of work not of the first class, such as that produced by 
his friend Dietrich of Dresden,^ or — betrayed by paternal afTeftion 
— those equally unworthy subjefts which were furnished by the 
work of his son Pierre-Alexandre.^ In spite of the long life in 
Paris, in spite of his French marriage and surroundings, Wille 
always remained intensely German. His atelier, his household, 
his manners retained this stamp — " I'honnfite logis," say the de 
Goncourt, " Taimable 6cole d'art, la bonne franc-mafonncrie alle- 
mande que le n° 29 du quai des Augustins,"' but there is a 
reverse to the medal. When Wille arrived in Paris he accepted 
French direction, French teaching, French influence, but, as he 
built up his own position, his self-confidence returned, and when 
he became the acknowledged head of his profession his choice of 
subjeft suflfered from it., 

His journal, whilst it shows that his talent had placed him in 
contact with all that was most distinguished and most interesting 
in Paris, shows also how incapable the writer was of profiting by 
his unrivalled opportunities, how limited was his scope of interest, 
how narrow his held of vision. Wille is absorbed in his commi&< 
sions, his purchases, his dinners, his excursions and the details of 
his family aflfairs. The engagement of Basan's old cook, ThiJrese, 
cramp in the calf of the leg and the consequent inconvenience of 
falling asleep on the edge of the bed, whilst holding on to the 

established a printselling business. He died at Grand- Vaux, near Savigny-sur-Orge. 
Hislonwas Pierre- Louis Surugue, 1716-1772, R. July 29th, 1747, on the portraits 
of Guillain and Frimin. Some of his best wort is after Chardin, and he was the 
engraver of the enchanting " Mme. dc • • • en habit de Bal," after Coypel, in 1 746 
(Scell^, N. A., [885, p. 30). He exhibited at the Salon from 1742 to 1701. 

' Chritien-Guillaume Dietrich or Dietency, 1712-1774. He was proteded by 
Count V. Briihl and was painter to Augustus, King of Poland, 

' i748-(?). A., June 25th, 1774. His simple studies, such as that known as 
"La Femme a la Tulipe" (see illustration), engraved by his father in 1774, are best. 

' In a note by Wille he gives the number of his house as 35. 



d by Google 



offending member, these are matters to be set down minutely, Wille 
undisturbed by any public calamity or private sorrow. He notes, »"<* his 
it is true, on the loth May, 1772, the arrival in Paris of the news 
that the " comtes de Struens^e et Brandt avoicnt ^t^ ex^cut^s k 
mort k Copenhague," but he immediately adds, " Je marque cecy 
icy parce que j'ay connu personellement Ic comte de Struensie." 

For his excellent wife, Marie Deforge, the old engraver seems 
to have had something like teal aiFeftion. " Ce jour, 29 d'odobre 
1785," he writes, " a 6t6 le jour Ic plus fatal et le plus malheureux 
de ma vie. — Ma femme, la plus excellente femme possible, s'est 
endormie avec la ferme confiance en la bonti de son Cr^ateur. — 
Dieu ! que de larmes me coute cette separation ! " His attachment 
to her seems, however, to have caused him some surprise. In 
February, 1787, he notes: " Depuis le mois de dcccmbre 1785, 
je n'ay presque rien ^crit dans ce Journal, ayant toujours eu la 
tristesse dans le coeur a cause de la pcrte de ma tres-chire femme, 
qui je ne saurois jamais oublier. Et nous voila au moi de mars 
de 1787." But even as one reads these words one remembers 
that he had told us on an earlier page how deeply he loved his 
brother, yet when the widow wrote to say her husband was dead 
(June 24th, 1769) Wille allowed nearly seven weeks to elapse before 
he acknowledged the announcement. Of his own sister he says 
— when dating a letter to the cousin with whom he usually cor- 
responded — that she is the only one of his relations whom he 
remembers, adding: "Je prie mon cousin de dire a cette soeur 
que ses lettres n'ont nul agri^ment pour moi, et qu'elle feroit bien 
d'employer son papier et sa peine k autre chose." ^ 

After this, the reader is prepared to find that the most tragic 
events of the Revolution cast no shadow on the pages of this 
" phlegmatique buriniste allemand." On the 21st January, 1793, 
he writes : " Toujours incommode, je ne suis pas sorti de chez moi, 
mais je voyois passer . . . devant ma maison les bataillons des 
diverses seftions pour se rendre i la place de la Revolution (cy- 
devant dc Louis XV), oh Louis XVI fut ex^cuti avant midy." 
Nine months later he was so busy making a list of his " patents " 
as member of a dozen Academies, all of which were to be sacrificed 
as contrary to principles of true civic virtue, that he forgets even 
to note the death of the Queen. 

' May 27th, 1790. 



83 



db, Google 



CHAPTER VI 

LAURENT CARS, BEAUVARLET, FLIPART AND 
LE BAS 

LAURENT CARS ^ has left work which places him in the 
same relation to the *' gravure d'histoire " as that in which 
the Drevet, father and son, stand to the " gravure de por- 
trait." Bachaumont says of him, " il a presque abandonnd 
la gravure pour faire le commerce des estampcs." Cars — who 
was bom at Lyons in 1699 — had, however, inherited his print- 
selling business from his father, who, two years after the birth 
of bis son Laurent, transferred his establishment from Lyons to 
Paris.2 

Cars pire had engraved portraits — local celebrities — before 
leaving Lyons ; Paris encouraged him to higher flights, and his 
best work is represented by his Cardinal Polignac, after Rigaud. 
He did not depend for his living on the engraving of portraits; 
his real business is shown by a " Catalogue de sujets de th^es,*' 
which were his stock-in-trade.' In their preparation the help of 
numerous assistants was required, whose services naturally passed 
with the business from father to son. Amongst those whom he 

' 1699-1771. R. Dec. 31st, 1733, on the portrait of Michel Anguier, after 
Gabriel Revel, and that of Silxistien Bourdon, after Rigaud. Nos, 2099, 2117, 
Chal. du Louvre. 

' The declaration of the nephews of Laurent Cars, in 1771, to the effeft that 
their uncle had then died aged about seventy-two, and the inscription on a portrait of 
Louis XIV., signed and dated as engraved at Lyons, and sold at Paris by Cars pire 
in 1701, arc the basis for these statements. See Portalis and B6raldi, t. i., p. 301. 

* These were bought at the death of Laurent Cars by Babuty, the father of 
Moie. Greuze. There appeared also prior to this date a "Catalogue in 4° des 
Estampes formaot le jbnds de Laurent Cars." Sec Scelli de Laurent Cars, N, A., 

1885, p. +. 



db, Google 



Le Malade imacinaire: MoLitRE, 1734. 
(I-AURENT Cars, a»ter Boucher.) 

iicdb, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



employed Laurent Cars found more than one brilliant pupil/ but Laarent 
the school under his direflion never attained the general influence g*"' 
or commercial importance of that which was condudted by Le Bas. varlet, 
The aptitudes of a great artist do not often lend themselves to the FUpart 
formation of a school, and Laurent Cars was a great artist. Le Bas. 

" L'un de nos meillcurs graveurs," writes Mariette, and his 
commendation is justified by the intelligence with which Laurent 
Cars interpreted the spirit and manner of those whose work he 
reproduced, Mariette's encomium is amplified and specialized by 
another contemporary who says, " un tres bon graveur et notre 
meilleur pour I'histoire." Yet his best work can hardly be classed 
as " historical." Striking as one must find that series of remark- 
able engravings after Le Moine, which opens with " Hercule et 
Omphale," reveals a youthful freshness and charm in " Iris entrant 
au bain," and displays equal spirit and force in " Persee delivrant 
Andromede," not one of these — not even the proud " Louis XV 
donnant la paix k I'Europe "^ — seems to me equally distinguished 
with his brilliant and original rendering of " Les Fetes Y6ni- 
tiennes," by Watteau, and the " Camargo dansant," after Lancret. 

Next to the " FStes V^nitiennes " must stand the fine series 
engraved by Cars after Boucher in illustration of the plays of 
Moliere. I never turn them over without admiring afresh the 
expressive charafter of the drawing and the masterly intention 
with which — as in the '* Malade imaginaire " — the suggestion of 
the whole situation is given by the movement of the hands. We 
see the fruits of those severe studies in the Academy of St. Luke, 
to which Gaucher calls our attention in the article on Laurent 
Cars contributed by him to the " Didionnaire " of the ahh6 de 
Fontenai. 

" Every time," writes Gaucher, " that there was a medal com- 
petition, he competed and carried oiF the first : but several years 
having elapsed without any being distributed, the Academy, 
having too many crowns to award, decided that all those who 
had gained a first prize should compete together, and one only 

• 

' The conditions of an engagement between the engraver and his assistants or 
pupils are indicated in the " Contrat (i 759, 1 1 Septembre) entre le graveur Laurent 
Cars et Pierrc-Fran5oi9 Martenasie, par iequel celui-ci s'cngage a travailler pour le 

Kremier pendant toute sa vie, a ccrtaines conditions" (see N. A., 1885, p. 315). 
lartenasie was a ptipil of Le Bas (see p. 93). He engraved the illustrations of 
Eiscn for the " Eloge de la Folie " and those of Gravelot for the " Boccacio " (tit) of 
1757- . 

* Chal. du Louvre, Nos. I153, I155 to 1163. Laurent Cars engraved a coni> 
position by Le Moine for the theological thesis sustained by Armand, prince de 
Rohan-Ventadour. See also P. V., Much ist, 1738, and Nov. 4th, 1752. 

8s 



db, Google 



Cars, 

Beau- 

varlet, 

Flipart 

and 

LeBas. 



Laurent should be the winner. Cars returned to the lists and triumphed 

'' over all his rivals." 

The execution of both Laurent Cars and Le Bas recalls in 
some measure the pi£turesque touch and manner of their master, 
Tardieu pire,^ as seen in his delightful engraving of Watteau's 
" Embarquement pour Cyth^re." Each seems to have accentuated 
the qualities akin to his own temperament. Le Bas developed, 
through extreme facility, a licence of execution which often 
obscures his real intelligence and talent; Cars, on the other hand,^ 
drew to himself all the science with which Tardieu mingled his* 
ingenious use of the point with the graver — a science which, 
transmitted by 'Cars to his pupil Beauvarlet,^ was by him 
abused. 

The co-operation of Beauvarlet with his master in the cele- 
brated portrait of Mile. Clairon as Medea — engraved by royal 
command from the pifture given to Clairon by the Princess 
Galitzin — established his reputation. As soon as the print was 
published, it became the rage. Bachaumont says : " Tout le monde 
court apres la nouvelle estampe de mademoiselle Clairon ; ... on sait 
qu'elle est representee en M^die." ' Then, when the first excite- 
ment wore off, criticism was heard. " L'estampe de mademoiselle 
Clairon representant Midie," writes Grimm, " est publique depuis 
quelques jours. A mon gr^, cela n'est rien moins que beau ] . . . 
d'aillcurs, c'est Beauvarlet qui a grav^ la figure de Mademoiselle 
Clairon et Cars le reste du tableau et la difference des deux burins 
jette dans toute Texi^cution une discordance qui fait mat aux yeux. 
Partant, nous condamnons cette estampe a passer la thise d'un 
bachelier." * 

The last words " passer la thfese " refer to the practice of 
decorating " theses " with engravings, and have the specially 
spiteful intention of belittling the work of an engraver whose 
family business was that of executing the ornamental subjeds used 
as headings to these exercises. As to the whole statement, if 
there is some truth in. it, there is more exaggeration. The only 
criticism which I should^ venture to make is that the plate has 

' 1674-1749. R. Nov. 19th, 1720. He exhibited at the Salons of 1738, 1741, 
1742, 1743, 1745) >747 ^^^ 174^- Amongst his most important work is a series 
of the " History of Constantine," after Rubens. 

' 1731-1797. R. May 25th, 1776, on the portrait of Edme Bouchardon, after 
Drouais, No. 21 1 1, Chal. du Louvre. Beauvarlet came of the Abbeville school. He 
worked in Paris first with Hecquct, then with Charles Dupuis, the inferior brother of 
NicoUs Dupuis, then with Laurent Cars. See "Le graveur Beauvarlet et I'EcoIe 
Abbevilleotse au XVIII. Si^le." 

• Aug. 19th, 1764. * Sept., 1764. 

86 



d by Google 



db, Google 



Madame Duharry en habit de chasse. 
{Jacques-Francois Beauvari.et, after Drouais.) 



db, Google 



probably been overworked at the last in the effort to bring the L&urent 
whole together and reconcile " la difference dcs deux burins." ^«"' 

Beauvarlct had but recently been agrei by the Academy,^ varlet, 
showing, probably, the four engravings after Jordaens, which he Flipart 
exhibited in 1763. These do not give us as favourable an impres- l" Bas 
sion of his ability as his work after contemporary masters such as 
" La Toilette " and " Le Retour du Bal," after de Troy,'^ or ** La Lec- 
ture " and " La Conversation Espagnole," after Van Loo,' though 
even in these we may note the tendency to make too free transla- 
tions in a popular sense from the masters whom he professed to 
reproduce, which was a weakness of the least unworthy pupil of a 
considerable master. 

Not defefts of skill but defeCls of. temper seem to have delayed 
his reception by the Academy. Wille records that on May 25th, 
1776, he attended the election of Beauvarlet, by his own request. 
Beauvarlet was received, but he had no less than seven black beans. 
The portrait of Bouchardon which he then presented he had been 
ordered to carry out on July 24th, 1772. This portrait, if not 
as attractive as his popular Madame Dubarry in hunting dress, or 
as famous as that of Mademoiselle Clairon, is a good specimen of 
the class of work by the execution of which he seems to have 
amassed the fortune to the possession of which his three marriages * 
probably contributed, and the inventory taken at his death bears 
witness. 

In addition to Beauvarlet, Augustin de Saint-Aubin" and other 
pupils, such as Chcdel,* Jardinier' and Pasquier,* excellent artists 
but of less note, there is one who was formed by Laurent Cars 
and whose talent responded brilliantly to the direction of the master. 
Whether he were translating the " TcmpStcs " of Vernet, the 

' P. v.. May 29th, 1762. 

' These were reproduced in the "Gazette des Beaux Arts," April, iSgq. Beau- 
varlet also engraved after de Troy various scenes of the ** Story of Esther, of which 
the best is the " Evanouissement d'Esther." See Salons of 1775, 1777, 178 1, 1783, 
1793- 

' The drawing for these were exhibited in 1765, the engravings in 1769 and 
1773. He also engraved after Van Loo "La Confidente" and "La Sultane" (see 
Salon of 1775), the latter of which M. de Marigny pronounced to be the best portrait 
of his sister. 

* From the notice prefixed by Regnault-Delalande to the catalogue of Beauvarlet's 
sale, we learn that on the death of his first wife, the stepdaughter of Madame 
Langlois, he married his stepmother-in-law. His most distinguished pupil was Por- 
porati, who abo went to Wille, but Maloeuvre, the two Voyez, EUuin, Dugourc, 
Hubert 2nd Audouin may be added to the list. A pupil named Jogan placed with 
him by Mariette (see " A£tc de pajtagc," Appendix C), when Beauvarlet was his 
tenant in the Maison de la Croix d'or, seems to have made no mark. 

' See Chap. IX. ' 1705-1763. ' 1726-1774. ' 1718-1785. 

87 



d by Google 



Laurent 

Cars, 

Beau- 

varlet, 

Plipart 

and 

Le Baa. 



" Chassc au Tigre" or the " Chasse k I'Ours" of Boucher and 
Van Loo, or the masterpieces of Greuze, Jean-Jacques Flipart ^ 
showed remarkable powers of assimilation which are the more 
astonishing when we recollect that he is said to have developed 
very slowly. He was no longer a youth when he became the 
pupil of Laurent Cars * and it was not until after he had spent 
some months under this master that his talent became evident. 
Cars himself, we are told, had failed to recognize the ability of 
Flipart. Cochin, on the other hand, detected the signs of power 
and induced Michel-Ange Slodtz to entrust him with the en- 
graving of one of the frontispieces of the " Description des Ffites 
donn^es pour le second mariage du Dauphin." Flipart was then 
about twenty-eight ; ' he carried out the commission alone and it 
brought him the unmixed satis^ftion of the assertion by Cars 
that, of all his pupils, he alone had understood his lessons. 

The notice of Flipart written by Gaucher expresses, in each 
turn of phrase, the deep feeling of admiration with which the art 
of this engraver inspired every competent judge. The vagrant 
Perronneau from the first set high value on his powers and these, 
coupled with his high character, actually gave him some influence 
in the Academy. Greuze was no doubt sincerely attached to 
Flipart, who returned his friendship, with the result of that great 
series of admirable renderings of all his sentimental subjects, such 
as " L'Accordee de Village," which has done enormous service to 
the popularity of the painter. 

Flipart's first Salon (1755) had consisted only of work for the 
" Gallerie de Dresde," six " little bits " after Boucher and Cochin, 
and an "Adam and Eve " after Natoire. In 1757 he exhibited 
two engravings after Chardin, one of which was the "Jeune 
Dessinateur," and, seeing this perfc(5t interpretation of a perfei^ 
master, one cannot but regret that Flipart abandoned Chardin so 
soon for his friend Greuze. Except for the two fine "Tempests " 
after Vernet, exhibited in 1765 and 1773, and a necessary civility 
paid to Vien in 1765 — when he engraves "La Vertueuse 



' 1719-1782. A., June 7th, 1755. He was the master of the two Ingouf. The 
elder (1746-1800) displeased Wille. The younger, Francois-Robert, was the better 
artist. See his portrait of Cr£billon after La Tour, "CEuvres Complettcs," 1785. 

* He went to Cars from the house of Nicolas Tardicu. Mariettc, under that 
master's name, mentions " La S' Vierge assise, apprenant a lire i I'enfant Jisus, 
ce qui excite I'attention de S' Joseph, qui, zppuyt sur un baton, est assis sur la 
droite de la Vierge. Grav6 d'apr^ Maratti, par Flipart, chez N, Tardieu, dans le terns 
qu'il apprenoit de ce maitre la gravurc." 

* The age " thirty-two " g^ven by MM. Portalis and Biraldi is evidently a mistake 
as the date of his birth is correftly given as 1719. 

88 



db, Google 



■J 3 3 



a 3 5 « 

I S - a 



2 S 



db, Google 



> -., > i~ y^JT^"^"^ 



Digiizodb, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



Athenienne " and her companion " La Jeune Corinthicnne " ^ — Laurent 
Flipart devotes himself wholly to Greuze. The "Giteau des ^**' 
Rois" ends in 1777 the series which began in 1763 with " Une varlct, 
jeune fille qui pelotte du coton, d'apres M. Greuze." FHpart 

I had almost forgot to recall by mention here a work to which Le^Baa. 
I have already referred — the famous " Chasse au Tigre/' that 
powerful version of " le tableau de F. Boucher du Cabinet du 
roi." It is difficult to remember that Flipart, fresh from re- 
producing •' L'Accord^e dc Village " with all the softness and 
brilliancy which the heart of Greuze could desire, handled the 
violence of the "Chasse au Tigre" with a restraint in which 
Laurent Cars, had he been still alive, would have found a 6nal 
proof that Flipart had indeed mastered his lessons. But Cars was 
dead and all the young men were crowding to the studio of 
Le Bas.8 

If Basan made no pupils, we may say, with some slight 
exaggeration, that Le Bas — who had set Basan the example of 
combining his art with business — made nothing else. The charm 
of his character lives in every page of the MS. notice of his 
life which is prefixed to the volumes which contain his work in 
the Cabinet des Estampes, and as one reads one feels the attradlion 
which drew to him so many of the younger men of his day and 
made his workshop the most brilliant school in Paris. 

Here, when he could escape from the disciplinary engraving of 
sacred subjects after Bolswert,' Cochin took refuge and found 
himself in that pleasant company, of which Le Bas — by eight 
years only senior to Cochin — was the leading spirit. "II eut des 
pension naires, des externes et beaucoup d'ileves qu'il logeoit, 
nourrissoitetinstruislt gratuitement . . . le persiflage ^toit I'arme 
la plus acir^e dont il se servit," writes Joullain fils,* the author of 
the MS. notice, which bears every sign of having been dictated by 
Le Bas himself. 

Before he arrived at this brilliant situation, Le Bas passed 
through narrow straits. His mother taught him to read and, at 
at the age of fourteen, having placed him with H^risset, an 
architc6i'ural engraver, left him to his own resources. It is not to 

' This print, which was dedicated to Prince Chris^an of Denmark, seems to have 
inspired the travesty by Dumont of Marie-Antoinette *• en Vesule." See p. 78. 

' 1707-1783. A., Oa. 2Qth, 1735. See P. V., Dec. 30th, 17411 Jan, 5th, 
Jan. 27th, 1742. R. Feb. 23rd, 1743. 

* See Chap, III., p. 42, note 3. 

* His father (1697-1779) is described by Maricttc as a " disciple de Gillot " j he 
ceased to engrave and began to sell about 1730-1733. The son gave himself up 
specially to work as an expert. 

89 N 



db, Google 



and 
LeBas, 



Laurent be supposed that a lad as happily endowed as Le Bas would be 
Cars, long in finding his way to better teaching. This he obtained from 

varlet, Nicolas Tardieu and his work soon brought him the generous 
Flipert encouragements of Crozat.^ 

Before he was eight and twenty, he married the beautiful, 
quick-tempered Elizabeth Duret, and the account of his wedding 
as given by him to Joullain is not the least interesting page of his 
story. " When I was married," said he, " I played the young 
man. I gave laces, diamonds and fine clothes. The next day I 
had no money. That made me serious. Without saying a word 
I took the diamonds and the laces in the top of my hat ; I sold 
everything. On returning home, I showed all my money to my 
wife, saying to her : ' Ma bonne amky I have sold your ornaments, 
but I have got some silver and I am going to buy some copper. 
Be patient ; keep up my courage ; I only ask of you the time 
necessary to engrave a few plates and publish them, and I will 
promise to give you back with interest that of which I deprive 
you to-day.' I kept my word. I shut myself up. y^aipiochi k 
curore [these, says Joullain, were his words]. Mme. Le Bas helped 
my zeal by her economy. She was her own servant and swept 
her own stairs. In a short time I was able not only to give her 
back all that I had taken from her before she had enjoyed it, but 
to have her waited on and to procure for her all those comforts 
which are proper to decent income." 

The story shows us all the kindliness, the ready ability, the 
brave and flippant humour which, seconded by the genial house- 
keeping of his wife, made the atelier of Le Bas so great a centre, 
and it gives also indications of that careless getting and spending 
which entailed bitterness on the last days of this generous, brilliant 
and hardworking man. 

As soon as his means permitted Le Bas to organize his atelier 
it rapidly filled, and the attraction was such that the provoking 
treatment received at his hands by incompetent or self-satisfied 
pupils was no check to his popularity. "Should a young man," 
says Joullain, " much in love with his own work, as is often the 
case, ofi^er Le Bas a drawing or an engraving which he thought 
less good than ought to have been done by this pupil : ' You 
deserve,* he would say, ' that I should embrace you,' and rising in 
the most matter-of-course manner, he would actually embrace him. 
The youth who received the first kiss of the sort went back to the 
atelier much pleased with himself. His fellows disabused him and 

' " Le Midi '* and " L'Apris-dini " were engraved by Le Bas after Berghcm, 
dedicated to M. le fiaron de Thiers and exhibited in 1742. 

90 



db, Google 



Portrait of Le Bas, 

(LOUIS-JaCQUKS CaTHELIN, AtTER COCHIN LE ULS.) 



, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



soon fear of being laughed at . . . induced him to redoubled Laurent 
exertions in order to avoid the embraces of the master." ^*"' 

By handling them with this mixture of jovial familiarity and varlet, 
mockery Le Bas obtained boundless popularity with the pupils FMpart 
who passed through his workshop. Their number and the l" ggg 
consequent enormous output of Le Bas cannot be rivalled by any 
other master, certainly not by Laurent Cars. It is said that Cars 
was checked in the exercise of his profession by his devotion to 
business. There may have been other reasons. The splendid 
qualities of his work were not the qualities then coming into vogue. 
The breadth and freedom, the large and luminous vitality which 
distinguish the great pages in which he took the compositions of 
Le Moine for his theme are common charafteristics with the famous 
engravers of a previous century. The splendid virility of his 
translations from Boucher in the Moliere series may have seemed 
an inconvenient force to those who were co-operating in the pro- 
duAion of the delicate vignettes required for the popular work of 
the day. 

Le Bas, on the other hand, was not only disposed to follow 
passing currents but adapted himself to them without losing any of 
his pleasant skill. Through his numerous pupils and his own 
sympathies he was closely in touch, throughout the great span of 
his life — which coincided with the most essential period of the 
century — with all the various developments of his art, from the 
"estampe galante" to the most delicate caprices of the vignette. 
Cochin, Ficquet, Eisen, Le Mire, Aliamet, Choffard, de Longueil, 
N^e, Cathelin, Martini, Gaucher, Moreau le jeune and Masquelier, 
Godefroy and Malbeste are all to be reckoned as having profited 
by his teaching. Foreigners such as Ryland and Strange were 
drawn by the reputation of the house, and Rehn,^ the young 
protege of Tessin, quitted his "regiment de Royal-Su^dois " to 
work under Le Bas. 

Rehn, however, on returning to Sweden abandoned the practice 
of engraving, not without much opposition from Le Bas, who saw 
in this decision not only the loss of the credit to be expefted from 
a promising pupil but of a fresh opening for those commercial 
relations of which he never lost sight. In January, 1746, he 
admonished his late pupil to see whether it would not be possible 

' The grandson of Rehn, the Baron dc Hochschild, communicated to M. de 
Chennevi^rcs some interesting details as to the life of this Swedish draughtsman and 
archited, who died in 1793, having for some time filled the post of ** surintendant 
des b^timents de la couronne" ("A. de I'A. fr.," t iii., p. it8 ff itq.). These detaib 
are accompanied hy passages from two of four letters from Le Bas to Rehn. 

9" 



db, Google 



Laurent to set up a shop in Sweden for the sale of prints : " Ccla donneray 
C^, beaucoup de gout au vulgaire, ay vous auray cette obligation et 

varlet, "ous procureray du commerce." 

Flipart A hint of the easy family relations which marked the life of 

Le BaB. '^^ household is given in the message sent to Rehn by Mme. 
Lc Bas. *' Mon <5pouse," writes her husband, " vous rcmercie de 
vos politesse, et monsieur Darcy,^ en atendant ces raanchon de vostre 
gout que vous av^ promis a ces dames." The mufi^ were, however, 
forgotten, and winter went by. Le Bas was bidden to remonstrate 
and begins his letter : " Mon epouse a eu bien froid cette hiver, lc 
manchon n'a pas parue que vous luy aviez promis de vous mesme ; 
cest ce quis letonne ; elles vous fait mil compliment et parle de 
toutes nos partie de campagne sans cesse disant que vous etiez un 
charmant garyon et quel desircray bicn vous voir; cela merite 
quelqun de vostre souvenir^ vous luy ave promis ce n*est pas ma 
faute." 2 

To stir the memory of the young Swede for whom he had so 
much afFe£lion, Le Bas was, it seems, in the habit of sending him 
sketches of the domestic scenes with which he had once been 
familiar. The letter of the loth January, 1746, contains a reference 
to a previous one of which " le dessins et la diftion " had not been 
such as Le Bas would willingly have had shown by Rehn to the 
Count de Tessin.' He therefore implores his correspondent, to 
whom he sends the drawing of a "segonde feste," not again to 
betray him : " Epargnez-moi," he writes, " de montr^ cela." 
The drawing, however, seems to have been a light and graceful 
pencil sketch, worthy of all admiration. It takes us, we are told, 
into the salon, where, the day's work done, pupils and friends are 
dancing — Le Bas himself opposite to his wife ! The sketches were 
not, indeed, always in this key, for that which accompanies the 
letter in which Rehn is reminded by Darcis and Mme. Le Bas of 
his failure to send the promised muiB is in a vein of pure 
caricature. 

" On one line," says M. de Chenncviires, " getting larger and 

' Darcis was the engraver of various prints stippled after the manner of Bartolozzi, 
amongst which may be mentioned " L' Accident imprivu " and " La Sentinelle en 
difiiut " after Lavreince. ** II en lit de moins s^rieuses," writes Renouvier, ** et qui ne 
pouvaient, malgri le relftchement du temps, afli'onter lc Salon." His chief successes 
were, however, obtained in work after Carle Vernet such as "Les Incroyablcs " 
fRenouvier, " Hist, de I'Art pendant la Revolution," t. i., p. 222). 

' "A. de I'A. fr.," t. iii., p. 123. 

* Lc Bas was known to Tcssin, when he was ambassador in Paris. " Lc Sanglier 
fbrc^" engraved after Wouvermans by Le Bas and exhitrited in 1741, was dedicated 
to " M. le Comte de Tcssin." 

92 



d by Google 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



n 

9, s 



db, Google 



larger, from left to right are the caricatures of Chenue ^ — Pitre^ — Laurent 
Bachelay * with his slippers — Lemire Normant — Tailler Halle- ^^' 
mant. And in the background the long visage, stiff and thin, of varlet. 
Mademoiselle Manon Manchelard, probably his servant."* Flipart 

Lc Bas himself, although every little engraving on which we l" g^g 
find his signature testifies to his wonderful skill in delineating 
physiognomy, could do no portraits. It is on record that in 1741, 
when, after much difficulty, he managed to produce those of Cazes 
and Le Lorrain, which had been imposed on him for his diploma 
work, they were, on their presentation to the Academy, " rejett^s 
pour vice de mediocrite k la grande plurality des voix," nor was it 
until two years later that he obtained the official consecration of 
his talent by the " Conversation galante " which he had engraved 
after Lancret.^ 

The bright and sparkling efFeft of this work, coupled with a 
certain air of distinction, justifies those who urged Le Bas to devote 
himself wholly to engraving. Bachaumont says, somewhat curtly, 
" II neglige beaucoup la gravure pour le commerce." " The very 
character of his exceptional natural gifts, the wit and intelligence 
which he brings to bear upon a page of " Manon Lescaut," the 
vfondcrful^nesse with which he has rendered the head of Don Juan 
in the Moliere illustrated by Moreau, his excellent interpretations 
of Lancret' indisposed the public to accept that sacrifice of his 
professional distin<aion to his commercial interests which was 
didated as much by the necessities of his family as by his love of 
free expenditure. 

The " shop," at least, did not stand in the way of full pro- 
fessional honours, for Le Bas was yet a young man when received 
by the Academy ; he became " graveur du Cabinet du roi " in 
1744, and in 1771 was not only clefted " conseiller " but succeeded 
to the pension of 500 It. which had been previously enjoyed by 
Laurent Cars.^ 

Le Bas, to whom Diderot assigned' the unenviable distinction 
of having given the death-blow to " la bonne gravure," ' was driven 
to the employment of expeditious methods in order to deal with 
the enormous quantity of^work that he undertook at a low price. 

' 1730-1800 (f). ' Pitre, Martenasie, i7..-i77o(?). 

" 1712-1781. * A. de I'A. fr., t. iii., p. 123. 

' No. 986, Cha). du Louvre. P. V., Feb. 23rd, 1743. It was exhibited in the 
same year, together with two subje3s aner Tcnicrs and the " Courrier de Flandrcs " 
after Bott. 

* Mim. Wille, Appendix, and note, t. ii., pp. 22, 23. 
^ " Le Maitrc galant," " Le jeu de pied de Boeur." 

* P. v., April 27th, 1771. • Salon, 1765. 

93 



d by Google 



Laurent 

Cars, 

Bean- 

varlet, 

Plipart 

and 

Le Bas. 



In 1758 we find de Caylus using the most persuasive eloquence to 
induce Le Bas to engrave " pour la moitie moins qu'elles ne 
valoient " the plates of Le Roy's two volumes on " Les Ruines des 
plus beaux Monuments de la Gr6ce." The terms were accepted 
on the understanding that further payment would be made should 
the book sell well. It did sell well, but no further payment was 
received — " Aussi M. Le Bas, qui S9ait tr^s bien compter, et qui 
n'est pas mal attachiJ a scs interests, s'en est-il toujours plaint." ^ 

Love of money was the crime imputed to Le Bas by Diderot 
when criticising the " Ports de Mer" of the Salon of 1767,' but, 
if he were keen to get, Le Bas was equally keen to spend. There 
is a sharp distindlion to be drawn between the love of gain which 
feeds a magnificent generosity and that which only satisfies the 
miserable cravings of a selfish avarice. By this distinction Le Bas 
has a right to profit. His worst crime would seem to have been 
that, generous and free-handed, he lived careless of the next day. 

If not " apre au gain," it is certain that Le Bas was extra- 
ordinarily quick to seize on any chance of making money. He 
unveiled or professed to unveil the mysteries of Freemasonry in a 
curious set of engravings — one of which, representing " L'Entr^e 
du r^cipiendaire dans la Loge," I have here reproduced — and, 
whilst courting the profitable advertisement of a little scandal, 
discreetly sheltered himself behind the apocryphal statements, 
" Dessine par Madame la Marquise de . . ." and " Grav6 par 
Mademoiselle de . . ." 

The conduct which, in later years, aroused the anger of 
Le Prince went, however, beyond the bounds of pleasantry. The 
continued vogue of the Russian subjects which he treated after his 
return to France in 1763 inspired Le Bas with the desire to profit 
by the occasion. It is only necessary to look over the list of his 
contributions to the Salon to see that all the great collections were 
open to him.' He had, therefore, no difficulty in finding what he 
wanted and, in 1777, exhibited his engraving of a " View of the 
Port and Citadel of St. Petersburg on the Neva, . . . after the 



' Cochin, M^m. inid,, p. 79. These engravings were exhibited in 1759, and 
dedicated to Marigny. 

* See Chap. III., pp. 50-52. In this connection it may be noted that in 1769 
Cochin, in the chara^er of *' M. Raphael, Peintre, de TAcadfrnie de Saint Luc," 
writes of •* la precision de M. le Bas," exaAIy the quality which was denied by Diderot 
at preceding Salons ("CEuv. Cochin," t. ii., p. 308). 

' Amongst the names of those who permitted Le Bas to engrave the pictures 
belonging to them we find those of the £lo9orof Saxony (King ofPolandXth^ Dukes 
de Choiseul, de Coss^ de Praslin and de Nivernois, the Prince de Cond^ the Count 
Baudouin and the Marquis de Brunoy. 

94 



d by Google 



s 

u 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



painting by M. Le Prince belonging to Mme. la Marquise de Laut«nt 
I'Hdpital," adding the announcement, " ellc doit 6tre didi^e k Sa ^*"' 
Majestc I'lmpiratrice de toutes les Russies." When Le Prince, varlet, 
whose permission had never been asked, not unnaturally declined Flipart 
to be satisfied with the present of " a proof and an explanation," Le l" Baa. 
Bas chose to consider himself the injured person. Yet his breach 
with Madame de Pompadour proves that Le Bas, in his own case, 
would brook no breach of etiquette or want of courtesy, even on 
the part of those to whom he looked for patronage. 

He had dedicated to the all-powerful lady the first of a series 
of '* Fetes Flamandes," ^ engraved after works by Teniers in the 
collection of her faithful and attached friend, the Duke de Choiseul. 
She was at her toilet, JouUain tells us, surrounded by men of the 
Court, when Le Bas came to her and presented his engraving. She 
received him well and praised his work with judgement, but either 
from absence of mind or because she did not know exat^Iy what to 
do, she waited until he had left her rooms before asking him for 
his bill. " Dites k Mme.," replied Le Bas, "que je ne suis point 
apothicaire, que je ne donne jamais de memoire, qu'elle pourroit 
trouver trop fort celui que je lui fournirois et que je ne connois 
personne en droit de le r^gler " — a reply which cost him not only 
the present reward of his labour, but all hope of any future 
recompense. 

The spirit which Le Bas displayed over this incident in the 
days of his prosperity never forsook him. He lost his wife, he 
had to leave the house which had sheltered him and his for more 
than forty years. His resources were drained by the cost of those 
" Figures de Thistoire de France ; Ouvragc propos^ par souscrip- 
tion," from which he had hoped to make great profit, being fully 
justified in this expectation by the success attending the issue of the 
" Ports de France " engraved by him after Vernet " en soci^ti avec 
M. Cochin." 

The first fourteen of the " Ports de France " had appeared in 
rapid succession and were received with enthusiasm ; then came 
a check, which permitted Le Bas to produce his engravings of 
sixteen " ConquStes ou Ceremonies Chinoises," after the drawings 
of the Jesuit father Castillon for the Emperor of China.^ It was 
not until twelve years later, when Le Bas had a6tually undertaken 

' The first was exhibited in 1750, four others appeared at the Salon of 1771. 

' Sec Salons of 1769 and 1771. Grimm says in his " Correspondance littiraire" 
that the engraving of the drawings cost over a hundred thousand crowns, and adds 
that in these battles not one of the Chinese is killed or wounded, the draughtsman 
having had ex[H'css orders to that efieft. 

95 



db, Google 



Laarent 

Cars, 

Beau- 

varlet, 

Plipart 

and 

Le Bas. 



his " Histoire de France," that Vernet furnished his fifteenth 
subje^, the *' Port de Dieppe." It was the last received from 
him. Cochin — as we have seen — attempted to complete the set, 
but he and Le Bas had both passed away before the engraving of 
his second drawing was finished. On the and February, 1783, 
Le Bas took to his bed, having been at work as usual on the 
preceding day. To the last he retained his unfailing flow of 
spirits and malicious gaiety. He played tricks on those who 
watched him, on the priest whom his old servants had called to 
his bedside, and died after a short illness as bravely as he had lived. 
"Voici," he cried, on the morning of April 14th, " voici, T^difice 
qui s'icroule ! " * 

The fate of Le Has' last enterprise, as far as he himself was 
concerned, had been little short of disastrous. After the exhibition, 
in 1779, of the first set of drawings, he called Moreau le jeune to 
his aid and two years later thirty-five "sujets de figures" drawn 
by Moreau were exhibited, with the intimation that six books had 
already appeared, each containing eighteen engravings, and that 
the seventh was actually on sale. He also sent to the Salon a 
frame enclosing several others, " gravies sous la direftion de M. 
Le Bas a qui iIs appartiennent." 

It is said that Moreau, highly paid for these drawings by 
Le Bas, played with the work until the old man died and then — 
having given out that no more drawings for the scries would be 
executed by him — succeeded in obtaining the proofs, together with 
the plates already engraved, for a nominal sum at Le Has' sale. 
The next step was to replace the early designs of L^pici^ and 
Monnet by drawings of his own and complete the work. This 
done, the publication was started by Moreau on his own account, 
the motive alleged for so much double-dealing being that he 
desired to reap the credit due to the carrying through of a great 
" historical " performance.^ Whether this were so, or whether 
Moreau were aduated by the purely sordid object of gain, there 
seems no doubt that his conduit was responsible for much of the 
distress and misery in which the last years of the unfortunate Le 
Bas were brought to a close. As we shall see, however, when we 
come to write of this matter in conne^on with the career of 
Moreau himself, his treacherous scheme brought him neither the 
profit nor the credit which he may have expe<^ed to reap from it. 

' MS. notice by JouUain, Cabinetdes Estampes. 

' " M. Moreau jeunc, Gravcur, Agr46 de I'Acadimie . . . suplie I'Acad^mie d'ac- 
cepter le ij'livraison des figures de I'Histoire de France, ouvrage qu'il continue depuis 
k d&is de M. Le Bas" (P. V., Dec 4th, 178+). 
96 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



i I 
s i 



db, Google 



CHAPTER VII 

THE PUPILS OF LE BAS AND THE ENGRAVERS OF 
THE VIGNETTE 

ALMOST all the best-known engravers of "estampes 
galantes " and of illustrations for books were pupils of 
Le Bas or of men who had worked for him. The 
L ** graveurs de livres '* are almost a class apart. When 
we come to them, we quit the groups to whom we owe the 
execution of magnificent enterprises such as the " Galerie de 
Dresde," * the " Galerie de Florence," the " Galerie de Dusseldorf," * 
the " Galerie de Versailles " ' or the imposing achievements of 
"historical engraving" and find ourselves amongst other men and 
other intentions. 

There is, of course, no hard and fast line between the two sets. 
Nicolas de Larmessin * executed portraits and worked after Raphael 
for the " Recueil " published by Crozat, but he engraved also after 
Watteau, gave us fine versions of the Four Seasons and the Four 
Ages after Lancret and will always be remembered by his masterly 
renderings of designs by Lancret, Boucher and others in the 
" Contes de la Fontaine ' of 1738. The engraver of the great 
print also turned — as did Laurent Cars — now and again to the 

' See p. 64, note 4. 

* The ** Galerie de Dusseldorf" was a venture of Christian de Mechel, of Bile. 
He. made oAera to young engravers, who mostly, like Carl Guttenbcig (1744-1790) 
came back to Paris weary of the work and its editor. Guttenberg was much em- 
ployed by Wille. His brother Henri engraved " La petite laitiire," after Baudouin. 

* See Chap. III., p, 46. 

* 1684-1755. R. July 29th, 1730. He was a pupil of his lather, who was sent 
to the Bastille for caricaturing Louis XIV. and Madame de Maintenon. Schmidt on 
arriving in Paris became his assistant. See p. 71, note 5. 

97 



db, Google 



The pages of the book, but there is a distinction to be traced and the 

Puinls of same distinftion may be seen governing the size and shape of the 
and the book itself. The folio practically becomes extinS ; even the quarto 
BngraverB loses favour. The oflavo reigns supreme, but the supremacy of the 
Vignette. °*^*^^ is itself disputed by the sedu6:ive attractions of the duo- 
decimo. The volume in the pages of which the " traitant " should 
read himself to sleep had need be light and easy to the hand. In 
the print engraved by Lucas after Dumeril and published by Basan 
we are shown that this was indeed the use of the book to the man of 
money. At the guichet seen through the open door, his commis faces 
the anxious questioning crowd ; the traitant himself, stretched on 
his couch, begins to slumber and his book — ^perhaps the famous 
edition of " Manon Lescaut " which bears date 1753 ^ — is slipping 
from his relaxing fingers. 

It would of course be absurd to pretend that the easily-handled 
little illustrated book was a creation of the eighteenth century, but 
it had so fallen out of fashion that the " Gil Bias" of 1735,^ the 
Moliere of 1739' and the " Contes de ma mfere TOye" of 1742 
appeared as novelties, which remind us of the pocket editions of 
Ovid, of ^sop, of Petrarch and Boccaccio which the engravers of 
Lyons, in the sixteenth century, decorated with microscopic 
woodcuts for Rovillio or Jan de Tournes. 

What is really the point to note is that whereas, during the 
earlier part of the century, credit and reputation were won by the 
bringing out of works of great size, fashion, during the latter half, 
carried the little book to the front It no longer waited modestly 
behind the ponderous volumes which had been the publishers* 
glory, but took the first place. Just as the estampe galante of the 
same date shouldered out of sight historical engraving. 

The illustrations of all the most remarkable of the small books 
of the second half of the century were engraved almost without 
exception by men from the school of Le Bas. If we examine 
their work closely we shall find how admirably his method was 
fitted to ensure their success in this direction, provided they had 
the intelligence to seize on the intention of his teaching. Its 
influence penetrated even beyond the circle of those who actually 
worked with or under him. We can trace it even in the work of 

' " Histoire du Chevalier des Grieux et de Manon I/cscaut. Amsterdam (ParisX 
MDCCLIII." 

* The iTontispiece and eight vignettes in this volume, published hf Jacques Des* 
hordes at Amsterdam, are by Fokke, who engraved after Coypel " La poltronaerie 
de Sancho a la chassc" in the "Don Quichotte" of 1746. 

' See " CEuvres de Moliire. Nouvelle Edition. A Paris. Chez Huart t'ain^ a 
I'entr^e de la rue Saint Jacques, a la Justice. M.D.CCXXXIX," 

98 



db, Google 



a man such as Louis-Simon Lcmpereur,^ an engraver who was, I The 
believe, no pupil of Le Bas, but who formed in Delaunay,^ the P"^^^ °*^ 
master of the estampe ga/ante, a talent as conspicuously brilliant as and the 
any of those who issued from the school of Le Bas himself. Engravers 

The change in method, for which, I imagine, Le Bas was vienette 
mainly responsible, becomes evident if we compare work — such 
as the "Henriade"of 1728,' or even the "Don Quichotte" of 
1746* — done before his school became efficient with that which 
was executed at a later date by the men whom he had trained. 
Take, for example, the famous edition of the " Fables de la Fon- 
taine," the illustrations of which were prepared by Cochin from 
Oudry's drawings. The four volumes or this fine work, published 
by Jombert in 1755, 1756 and 1759, mark, after a certain fashion, 
the parting of the ways. Whether we take the illustrations 
adually engraved by Le Bas himself, by his numerous assistants or 
by his imitators, it is impossible not to be struck by the absence, 
on the whole, of any attempt to give a complete pictorial rendering 
of the subjects, such as we find in the " Don Quichotte," to the 
engraving of which Picart was so large a contributor. 

The engravers, if we except Cars and Flipart, seem, for the 
most part, to have intentionally indicated the story to be told by 

' l725-i796(Biog. Univ., 1728-1808). R. March 2nd, 1776. See Nos. 2196 
and 985, Chal. du Louvn. He is to be specially remembereo as the master of 
Nicolas Ddaunay. Huber classes him as a better engraver, or rather as engraving 
in better tast^ than his master, Pierre Aveline. If we compare the work of the 
two we shall nnd the distin^on unfounded. Take, for example, "Les Plaideurs,** 
engraved by Lempereur in the de Sive Racine, and set it beside "Le Chameau et 
les Bfttons flottans," engraved by Aveline in the Oudry La Fontaine — the difference 
is in favour of Aveline. 

* 1739-1792, R. August 28th, 1789. In addition to his fine work on the 
Moliire (1773] and the Rousseau (1774) should be named his admirable interpreta- 
tions of Fragonard, " Les Hasards heureux de 1' Esc ar pole tte," *' I^ bonne Mire," 
•* Dites done s'il vous plait," " Cachettc dicouvcrte," " L'heureuac Ficonditf." He 
engraved several Irontispieces for the publications of Cazin, who employed Delvaux 
and made a speciality of prohibited literature, for which he was twice <*destitu£ de 
la quality de libraire. 

' The illustrations after de Troy, Le Moine and Wleughels are reproduced by 
C. N. Cochin, Louis Surugue, Tardieu, Jeaurat, Charles and Nicolas Dupuis. The 
vignettes which head each canto, with two exceptions, are designed by Micheux and 
engraved by Desplaces, de Poilly and Lipici6 ; the exceptions, one of which is the 
** Queen Elizabeth " intended for the English subscribers, were given to Henry 
Fletcher. 

* The engravers of this volume, to the illustration of which Coypel, Boucher, 
Tremoliires, Le Bas and Cochin fils contributed, are, if we except Bernard Picart 
(1673-1733) as of French origin, all Dutch. Picart, born in Paris, Uved in Holknd, 

' where he settled as engraver and printseller at Amsterdam. He is best Icnown in 
England by his fine edition of Boileau (1718), which is accompanied by a remarkable 
porbrait of Queen Caroline after Kneller, 

99 



db, Google 



The a little firm work on the figures of the foreground, and this telling 

Papils of of the story once secured, they put in just as much on the etched 

and the background as was necessary to help the general effeft. Le Mire, 

Engravers then at the height of his powers, a fine draughtsman and endowed 

Vimette ^*'^ ^ most delicate sense of values, gets a harmonious result with 

these slight means, but others less skilful — such, for example, as 

Lempereur and his wife, Elisabeth Cousinet — fail to give us more 

than the suggestion of the situation : they tell the story as might 

the illustrator of a comic paper, taking no account of any other 

elements in the scene. 

Before Noel Le Mire^ joined, with his young brother, the 
group working on the ** Fables de la Fontaine," he had made his 
mark by engraving the vignettes with which Eiscn had illustrated 
in 175 1 the " Eloge de la Folic." In that year Le Bas wrote to 
Rehn, " notre normant Le Mire gagne par jour ses dix-huit livres. 
II a pour une petite figure debout qu'il fait en six jour cent livre. 
Le temps a bien chang^ depuis que vous ^tiez k Paris." ^ 

The " Fables " were actually in course of publication when 
Noel Le Mire was called to take an overwhelming share ' in the 
engraving of the illustrations of the famous Boccaccio,' with 
which the name of Gravelot is especially associated, although 
Boucher, Cochin and Eisen also count amongst those who de- 
signed the subje£h which ignorance of Italian has distributed 
with a puzzling want of reference to the text. If Gravelot's 
name must stand almost alone as the author of these illustrations, 
so should that of Le Mire as their engraver, not only because of 
the quantity due to him, but because of the peculiar excellence 
of his interpretation of the drawings. Flipart touching these 
miniature scenes becomes too heavy, Lempereur is confused, 
Pasquier" commonplace, but Le Mire — always alert, always 
delicate, always intent on getting the full piftorial value of his 
subject — prepares us for the final development of his brilliant and 
personal talent. The wit and certainty with which he handles 

' 1724-1801. He only exhibited once at the Salon — 1799, "L'Annonciation, 
d'apris Solimen," and " Le gouverneur du s^rail, choissisant det femmes." 

* j^ud Portalis and B^raldi, t. ii., p. 620. 

' See Jules H&lou, "Noel Le Mire et son CEuvre." 

* **I] decamerone di Giovanni Boccacio." Londra (Paris), 1757. Five vols, 
in 8vo. 

' 1718-1785. He engraved "Lcs Graces" after Van Loo and various other 
prints, but was concerned chiefly with the vignette. MM. Portalis and B^raldi 
sutc chat the eight illustrations of the "Manon Lescaut" of 1753 are "gravies 
par Le Bas " after Gravelot and Pasquier. Only two are contributed by Gravelot, 
those two only are engraved by Le Baa ; the six others bear " J.-J. Pasquier Inv. 
ct sc." 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



En TfeTE DE LA "THfiBAIDE." 

CuL DE Lampe, "3™ AcTB d'Alexandre " : Racine, 1760. 
(Jean-Charles Baquoy, after J. de SfevE.) 



d by Google 



the fairy-like groups of Loves and children by which Gravelot The 
has commented the text of the *' Decameron " at the close of every f "l^^' **' 
chapter, and the distin£lion with which he endows their baby ^nd the 
forms, show the same remarkable gift for fine treatment of the Engravers 
nude which Le Mire displayed when, in 1762, he produced his yienette 
most important work and engraved the ten designs of Eisen for 
the "Temple de Gnide."^ 

The influence of the brilliant vignettes by which the " De- 
cameron " was enlivened is immediately apparent in the pages of 
the de Seve Racine,'* which appeared in 1760. Each play has 
its heading and its tailpiece, in which children mimic the passions 
of tragedy. Two of these compositions are here reproduced, and 
it will be seen that they have a less enticing air of originality than 
that which distinguished the groups designed by Gravelot for the 
text of Boccaccio, but they are engraved by Charles Baquoy * with 
the same spirit and delicate emphasis as he shows when working 
by the side of Le Mire. 

Whether Baquoy had any special training outside his father's 
atelier seems doubtful, but he worked often with Le Mire and 
he has something of his manner and execution. We find him 
signing " Les Cordeliers de Catalogne" in the Fermiers Geniraux 
edition of the " Contes de la Fontaine " * — it is, I think, the only 
plate on which we read, together with the engraver's name, 
" Eisen inv." To this magnificent work Le Mire — who in a 
sense may be said to have especially attached himself to the inter- 
pretation of Eisen — contributed an enormous proportion of the 
whole. Amongst the earliest in date of execution are the " Richard 
Minutolo " and " Mazet," on both of which we read the figures 
1759. The most celebrated, the " Rossignol," is dated, as is " Lcs 
Quiproquo," 1761 — the year in which Le Mire was engraving 
Gravelot's designs for the " Nouvelle H^lo'ise."^ 

On the preparation of all his work for the " Contes de la 

' MM. Portalis and BJraldi describe amongst the riches of the colledion made b]r 
M. de Lignerolles a copy of which they say that it contains " en face des lumineuses 
cauz-fOTtcs de Le Mire qui lcs traduisent, les suaves mines de plomb d'Eisen." See 
t. ii., p. 622. 

' **C£uvres de Racine," Paris, 1760. 3 vob. Nothing is at pr^ent known about 
de Sive except his work, but he is supposed to have belonged to a family of the same 
name connected with the Gobelins. 

' 1721-1777. He engraved chieAy after Eisen, but also after Gravelot, in the 
** Contes Moraux " and " Qluvres de Corncille." 

* '* Contes et nouvello en vers par M, de La Fontaine." Amsterdam, 1762. 
2 vob. 

' " Lettres de deux amans habitans d'une petite ville au pied des Alpes." Amster- 
dam, 1762. 

lOI 



d by Google 



The Fontaine " Lc Mire employed Le Veau/ also a pupil of Le Bas, 

Pui^ls of ^vho had a great power of seizing signs of charafter and ex- 
and the pression which are evidenced in his " Alix malade " and " La 
Engravers Confidente sans le savoir," on which we find his signature ; but 
Vimette '^^ "**" whose contribution to the two volumes stands next in 
importance to that of Le Mire is Joseph de Longueil.'' 

If he does not reach the delicate brilliancy of Le Mire — and 
even that is hard to say in the face of a good proof of " Le roi 
Candaule " or '* Le Mari Confesseur " — he may be compared to 
his advantage with Delafosse, the engraver of " Le Faucon " and 
" La Coupe enchantee," and he loses little if we set his work 
beside the more vigorous graver of Flipart in the "Juge de 
Mesle " or " Les Troqucurs." 

This famous book has owed much of its renown to qualities 
other than those which make its real beauty and value. The 
suggestions which are pointed out as furnishing matter for scandal 
arc not there for their own sake, but as an aid to free story-telling 
in which morality and immorality are illustrated with equal jesting 
indifference. What we have to look at in these volumes is the 
perfection of the art with which they are carried out : the ex- 
quisite beauty of the page, the harmony between the letterpress 
and the illustration calculated so that text and pi£lure balance 
each other with nice exaftness and, moreover, the admirable 
harmony of the illustration in itself. M. Bouchot has well put 
it : '* Sincerement, et en d^pit de cette note un peu aphrodisiaque 
et banale, les Contes ^ditis par les fermiers g6n6rz\xx m^ritent leur 
cilebrit^. C'est un tout merveilleux oil Ton ne sait quo! admirer 
le plus, ou des figures hors texte, ou des fleurons, ou mSme de la 
typographic sup^rieure." 

In the de S^vc Racine the ornamental designs are more 
delicate than the rather commonplace subjects of the engravings ; 
in the Moliire illustrated by Moreau, heavy woodcuts — such 
as might have adorned the leaves of a volume in the previous 
century ' — face the most delicate work of the " vignettiste." 

' 1729-1785. Born at Rouen in circumstances of terrible poverty and suffering, 
he owed his start in life to Descamps. Amongst the prints engraved by him are ten 
*' marines " after Vcrnct and •' Le Juge ou la cruche cass^e " after Debucourt. 

' 1730-1792. He seems to have done his best work on the "Contes." On 
July 18th, 1792, Wille notes: "Ce jour, M, de Longueil, graveur,principalement pour 
la vignette, fut enterr£. II avoit tti mon Hive il y a quarante-deux ans ou environ. 
Sa disposition pour la gravure £toit igale a cclle qu'il avoit pour la dibauche." The 
romance which gathered about his sudden death, which was attributed to Aight at a 
hostile denunciation, has been dispelled by the publication of authentic documents in 
Panhard's "Joseph de Longueil : sa vie et son ceuvre." 

' The Lttle blocks in the MoMiie are of this character, though signed and 
102 



d by Google 



However good such blocks may be in themselves, however fine The 
in style, the attempt to incorporate them in work of a totally f^Pif" °^ 
different chara6ter is to be condemned. They remain out of and tS 
relation — as in the " Baisers " of Dorat and the " Graces " of du Engravers 
Querlon — ^with the rest of the work and the eye which has been vimette 
resting on the delicate lines of Le Mire or Delaunay is hurt by 
the transition to ruder virtues. 

The necessity — for the produftion of the perfect book — of a 
close alliance between the ornament and the illustration had been 
a cardinal point with all the great publishers of the sixteenth 
century ; we recognize its force in those editions of the seven- 
teenth in which the red and black title-page is composed with a 
lost art ; then a moment comes in which taste seems less sure. 
Finally the perfed: type of the eighteenth-century "livre de luxe " is 
produced in the two small volumes of the *' Contes," in which not the 
least of the honours claimed are due to the ornament by ChoiFard.* 

" Monseigneur le prince de Nassau- Saarb ruck," writes Wille on 
March 2nd, 1761, " has asked me to engrave his arms. I laughed 
and excused myself by giving him M. Choffard."^ The prince 
no doubt gained by the substitution. We are, though, scarcely 
prepared for ChofFard's truly marvellous execution in the '* Contes " 
by his exercises on the " Fables de la Fontaine " or by the frontis- 
piece engraved by him for the Gravelot " Decameron." The 
brilliant " culs de lampe " of the " Contes " are most justly famous, 
and above all the others must stand that marvel of beauty and 
delicacy which serves, at the close of the " Rossignol," as the 
frame of his own portrait. The bird in his cage, the flowers of 
the wreaths and ornament on either side are indicated with a 
spirit and precision which take nothing from the exquisite light- 
ness of the work; every detail contributes to the luminous efFeft 
of the head in the centre, which is treated as a gem might be set 
by the hands of a skilful goldsmith. 

dated " Papillon, 1770." The best work of Jean-Michel Papillon (1698-1776) is in 
the tailpieces of the "Fables de la Fontaine." There is a large collection, in four 
volumes, of his work and that of his family in the Cabinet des Estampes. 

' 1730-1809. He appears only at the Salons of 1785 and 1793. At the first his 
portrait of Barathter, Marquis de Saint-Auban, Lieutenant-G^n^ral des Arm^ du 
roi, etc., was engraved by Miger ; at the second his name figures with that of Le Bas 
in connection with the engravings of the two views of Rouen prepared by Cochin to 
replace those not completed by Vernet for the " Ports de France." He was the pupil 
in the first instance of Babel. 

* A specimen of this class of work by Chofiard is in the Print Room of the 
British Museum (1861, 8, 10, 72, 73), armorial bearings and supporters executed in 
pen and wash. There is ako a eood sketch by ChoflFard in red and white chalk of a 
man on his knees to a girl, seate^ in a gallant undress (1865, 10, 14, 370]. 
103 



d by Google 



The The originality of Choffard's wonderful work is rendered the 

Pumlsof more apparent if we turn the pages and examine the portraits of 

and the ^^ Fontaine and Eisen by Etienne Ficquet,^ after Rigaud and 

BDsravers Vispr6, in the same volumes. These are engraved with as much 

Vienette *'*'^^' *^ K*uch minute detail as if they were on a great scale. 

Nothing is suggested, everything is set down with a precision and 

veracity which speak of the sure hand which enabled him to work 

dire<My on the copper from his subjed without preparation, and 

remind us that before he went to Le Bas, Ficquet had been trained 

under Wille's friend, Schmidt. 

Thanks probably to this originally severe training Ficquet, in 
spite of his irregularity in work and ^ntastic humour, surpassed 
all those — not excepting Grateloup ^ — who devoted themselves to 
the task of engraving in miniature. His strong, definite, un- 
swerving graver, tempered to a miraculous exadness of touch, 
expresses qualities exa6Hy opposed to those which we see in 
Choffard's brilliant little portrait. If Ficquet gives the very letter 
of his text, Choffard breathes its very spirit. 

The original beauty of this work seems to have had some 
influence on the execution, in 1767, of the wonderful miniature 
of Marie Leczinska, engraved by Etienne Gaucher after Nattier, 
for the dedication to that Queen by President H^nault of his 
"Abrig^ de I'Histoire de France." This portrait, framed by 
Choffard in a garland of lilies and roses, is unsurpassed by any of 
Gaucher's later achievements and is barely equalled by his charm- 
ing " Madame Dubarry " ( 1 770) or by the "Joseph II." and " Marie- 
Antoinette," which he engraved after Moreau for the " Annales 
du Rigne de Marie-Th^r^se." Gaucher is, however, most popu- 
larly known by a later work, for he is the engraver of the sensa- 
tional " Couronnement du buste de Voltaire sur le Theatre 
Fran^ais," the drawing for which by Moreau le jeune is now in 
the colleftion of Lord Carnarvon.' 

' 1719-1794. He 2C first worked for 0(lieuvr& under the djredion of Schmidt, 
and whilst with Le Bas became a close friend of Eisen. If we may judge from a 
postscript written by Ficquet on a letter from Le Bas to Rehn (de Chennevi^res, 
" Port. injd. dcs Artistes Fran^ais," 3rd pt.), they amused themselves with more 
energy than they worked. Many of his portraits (thirty-four) for Odicuvre are good, 
as are also some of those executed for the " Vies des peintrcs r lamands " by Dcscamps. 
See Faucheux, " Catalogue raisonn^ de toutes les estampes qui fbrmcnt Ics ceuvres 
grav& d'£tiennc Ficquet, de J,-B. de Grateloup, etc." 

* 173S-1S17. His work consists of nine portraits, all engraved before his sight 
was injured by cataraift at the age of thirty-five. Of these his " Bossuet," after 
Rigaud, is a remarkable work. See Faucheux, " Cat. rais., etc." 

' Formerly in the possession of M. Henry Lacroix. Reproduced in "Les 
Moreau," p. 93. 

104 



d by Google 



w< 



a < 



IS 



db, Google 



'■W'W^:' 



Digiizodb, Google , 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



His close friendship with Flipart and his collaboration with The 
Choffard lead us to expeft the name of Gaucher amongst those f^^^' ®*^ 
who illustrated the most famous edition of the " Contes," but and the 
though he produced one or two bits of ornamental work after BngraverB 
Marillier ^ and Monnet which take very high rank, his preferences vienette 
seem to have led him to devote himself to small portraits. 

Names from the brilliant group by whom the " Contes de la 
Fontaine" were illustrated are to be found, in 1765, signing the 
reprodu£Hons of Gravelot's delightful illustrations to the " Contes 
Moraux" of Marmontel. Le Mire and his assistant Le Veau 
reverse their positions, for Le Veau — preparing with exquisite 
care his little plates — takes a principal share in the work^ Nearly 
all those which give us pit^ures of the social movement of the day 
under its most engaging aspe£t are signed by him. If only the 
text were anything like as good as the art for which it serves as 
a pretext, these three volumes, further enriched by a graceful 
frontispiece engraved by C. Boily^ and a pleasant portrait by 
Augustin de Saint-Aubin after Cochin, would be entitled to take 
an even higher place than they now claim on the shelves of the 
bibliophile. 

This is the weak spot in many of the most lovely books of the 
day — their text is not in any sense literature. It is a relief to find 
publishers who have been ready to venture on a classic, even a 
classic as familiar as Ovid. It is, however, true that no other 
presents a store of fables equally rich in pidorial incident and 
inexhaustible because capable of the most various interpretation. 
The translation of the abb^ Banier, though both chill and 
formal, was in itself a classic, having iirst appeared at Amsterdam 
in 1732 accompanied by the engravings of Bernard Picart. Other 
editions followed, and their success was such as to inspire Le Mire 
and Basan with the proje£l realized in the four quarto volumes 
published at Paris in 1767-1 771. 

Choffard signs the title-page,' but this work is somewhat 

' 1740-1808. He engraves not too well in the Banter Ovid but etched **La 
FamtUe du Fcrinier," after Fragonard, pleasantly. It was "termini au burin" by 
Romanet, a pupil of Wille (Mem^ t. i., p. 350), The five frontispieces to the 
** HJloise " published in 178S arc designed by Marillier »nd accompany the reductions 
engraved by Vianet from Morcau's illustrations in the quarto edition. His most 
important work is to be found in the ** Fables dc Dorat." 

* 1736- . . . ? He was a pupil of Lempcreur. 

' The full title is " Les M^umorphoscs d'Ovide. Graves sur les dessins des 
meillcurs Pcintres Fran^ais par les soins dcs S'* Le Mire et Basan. A Paris ches 
Basan. rue du Foin S. Jacques. Le Mire rue S. Etienne des Gris." The dedication to 
the Duke dc Chartres, engraved by Chofiard, is signed by Basan and Le Mire and 
dated 1767. 

105 P 



d by Google 



The heavy in asped and cannot be compared in rivalry with the 

PuiHlsof fairy-like decoration which he lavished on the pages of the 
sad the " Contes " of La Fontaine. Wreaths and garlands have lost the 
Bogravera fragility which is the secret of much of their charm. The illus- 
Vienette. t^^tion, as a whole, is of unequal merit; it opens well with half- 
a-dozen pretty subjefts by Eisen, daintily rendered by Le Mire, 
de Longueil and Le Vcau, whose vignette of " Le Printemps " is 
a masterpiece. Some pages such as " Apollo and the Python," by 
Le Veau after Gravelot, " Europa," by Augustin de Saint- Aubin 
after Boucher, •* Thetis and Proteus," by Le Mire after Monnet,' 
and " Dejanira," by Le Veau after Moreau, realize to perfection 
the qualities most desirable in this class of work. They are 
not only delicate engravings of graceful compositions, but they 
lie well on the page, taking the eye pleasantly without over- 
weighting the text. In this respe£t others are less happy : 
the skill of Masquelier,^ N^e,' Ponce,* Baquoy and Delaunay 
maintains a high average, but the two contributions made by 
Basan himself after Monnet are not remarkable achievements, 
whilst with Binet,^ Louis Legrand' and Rousseau' we reach a 
lower level of excellence, superior, nevertheless, to the dull ;per- 
formance of Miger ^ in the " Philemon and Baucis *' after St. Gois. 
Admirable as is all their work in these volumes, Le Mire, De- 
launay and Le Veau never seem to reach their highest level in 
the execution of allegorical and classical designs, although Le 
Mire, in virtue of his splendid drawing of toe nude, is often 
triumphantly excellent. Ponce and Simonet," on the other hand, 
seem, in this direftion, to do their very best. The *' Leucothea 
and Apollo" by Simonet, after Monnet, is, in good proofs, as 

' 1732-1816. A., July 22nd, 1765. 

" 1741-181 1. His most imporunc work is in the "Galerie de Florence,** 1789. 

' i/'35-i8i8. Worked for the "Galcric de Florence,** but, like Masqudier, was 
above all a " vignettistc." 

' 1746-1851. Exhibited 1791, 1793, 1796 and 1799. Pu[hI of Delaunay. His 
work on the Ovid is unequal, on the " Fables dc Dorat " invariably good. Of his 
larger prints the place of honour must be given to the " Enlevement noAurne" after 
Baudouin, but ** La Toilette '* with a frame by Cochin, is also a pretty thing. His 
learned tastes sometimes led him to engrave duller subje%. 

' i744-i8oo(?). ' 1730. . . . ? ' 1740- . . . ? 

' See Chap, in., p. 47. 

' 1742-1S . . i His brilliant work on the Ovid is equalled by his exccutiim of 
"Le Triomphc des Graces*' after Boucher, and " Les Graces Vengies ** (sec illustration) 
after Moreau in illustration of dulQucrlon's "Les Graces" (Laurent Prault, libraire, 
quaidesAugustins, a la source des Sciences; et Bailly, mcme quai, i I'Occasion, 1769), 
His engravings after Baudouin of "Le Modile honncte,*' "Le Couch* de la Marine," 
"Le Danger du Tete-a-Tete" and "La Soiree des Thuileries" are famous, but 
Alorcau is said to have been chiefly responsible for the " Couch J de la Mari^" 
106 



d by Google 



Les Graces vkng^es : "Les (jraces," Querlon, 1769. 

(JeaN-BaPTISTE SlMONHT, AFTER MoREAU LK JEUNE.) 



d by Google 



Dignizodb, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



bright and happy in expression as any of the subJeAs rendered by The 
Le Mire after Eiscn, the draughtsman whom he seems to have T^^o* °^ 
specially reserved to himself. In comparing the work of this and the 
brilliant and original engraver with that of those whom he Enwavers 
selected as his associates, the most noticeable thing is the immense vignette, 
advance made by his pupil, Le Veau. This fa£t was evidently 
appreciated by Le Mire when he confided to Le Veau one of the 
series by Eisen with which the work opens. In dealing with 
these Le Veau first makes proof of that peculiarly incisive point 
which distinguishes his reprodu6tions after Gravelot and Moreau 
and continues to differentiate his work to some extent from that 
of his master. From this time forward he stands in the front rank 
of the most accomplished of all the " graveurs de livres." 

The admirable execution by Le Veau of many of the little 
scenes in the *' Contes Moraux * is unsurpassed even by his &mous 
contributions to the Moliere, illustrated from the drawings of 
Moreau le jeune in 1773.^ In the " Fourberies de Scapin"and 
the ** Georges Dandin," Le Veau has interpreted Moreau's con- 
ception of the situations with a lightness and delicacy which 
take nothing from the play and vivacity of the expression. 
Not even the masterly engraving of the '* Festin de Pierre," by 
which Le Bas himself takes his place at the head of the group 
engaged on these volumes, can claim conspicuous precedence. 
The company includes de Ghendt ^ — the pupil of Le Bas* pupil, 
Aliamet" — who shows much of the brilliance of Le Mire in his 
treatment of " Les FScheux " ; Helman,* who in " Le Malade 
imaginaire " gives us an excellent example of the discreet use of 
the " pointing " ; Masquelier, who takes ** L'Ecole des Maris," 
whilst N^e, with whom his name is constantly associated, en- 
graves no less than six subjects, and, of those less directly conne<^ed 
with Le Bas, Baquoy, Simonet, Duclos'' and Delaunay. 

Of the six engraved by N^e, two — " Le Mariage force " and 

' **C£uvre3 de MolJire. A Paris. Par ta Compagnie des Libraires Assocife. 
1773." 

174 . ?-i8i5. A set of figure* after Eisen for the ** Pygmalion " of Rousseau 
bear the signature of de Ghendt with " Aliamet direxit," Except for the " Qtiatre 
Parties du Jour " which he engraved after Baudouin, he confined himself entirely to 
boolc-illustration -. his name appean on the plates in du Rosoi's ^ Les Sens " (" Les 
Sens. Poeme en six chants. A Londres. 1 766, "], Baculard d'Arnaud's " Epreuves 
du Sentiment" (see p. 127) and on a title-page of the second volume of Poin(ot*3 
edition of the **NouveUe fitlotse" (17S8], etc, etc. 

' 1726-1788. * 1743-1806. 

* 1741- . . . ? He was an excellent engraver of vignettes and best in reproducing 
woric by Augustin de Saint-Aubin. He exhibited at the Salon of 1795 '* Deux (£tes 
d'itudes " and •* Deux gravures." 

107 



db, Google 



The " L'Avare " — are specially noticeable for a silvery delicacy of 

Ps^la of efFeft, but the style of the delicate work is injured in the second 

aodtiK example by the coarse effed of the woodcut heading on the 

Ennvvers opposite page. Baquoy treats " L' Amour M^decin " with bril- 

Vi^ette l'*"'^^ ^^^ " M- ^^ Pourceaugnac " with power ; Simonct, unlike 

most of his fellows, is at his best when handling allegorical &n- 

tasies such as " Psich^." He plays with them, showing a freedom 

and elegance which he does not exhibit in "Le Tartuffe" or 

*' L'Etourdi." Duclos is mannered and overemphasizes the features 

of his a£tors. 

I have left to the last the '* Comtesse d'Escarbagnas " and " Le 
Cocu imaginaire," both of which were engraved by Delaunay. 
" Le Cocu imaginaire " especially, which he has signed and dated 
1772, is in many respects supremely excellent. In point of ex- 
pression, grace, piquancy and admirable unity of general effeft it 
appears to me to be simply perfedion. One is indeed loth to 
criticise any point in the aspect of an edition which is illustrated 
by so much beautiful work, amongst which must also be reckoned 
the famous engraving by Cathelin * of the head of Moliire. This 
brilliant portrait exemplifies to admiration that wonderful skill in 
giving dainty details of lace and watered patterns of silk ^ which 
Cathelin brought to perfedion under the eye of Le Bas and 
which contrasts in his work with the decision and firmness shown 
in handling flesh — the quality which, in his rendering of Cochin's 
" Louis XV.," after Van Loo, justified the choice made of him 
to complete the work which Tardieu had left unfinished.' 

In the same year that saw the publication of this edition of 
Moli^re appeared the '* Fables de Dorat." The text has but the 
slightest claim to be classed even in the lower degrees of literature, 
but the illustration — engraved chieBy by de Ghendt, who wins his 
greatest triumphs in translating Marillier— is of the most brilliant 
quality. Alt de Ghcndt's little pieces in this volume are miracles 
of microscopic delicacy. With de Ghendt were joined Masque- 
lier and his associate N^e, who were not &r behind him in 
delicate art. Delaunay left the task on which he was engaged 
for the works of Rousseau to engrave the full-page subjed of 
" Time and Truth," which figures in the first volume of the 
" Fables " ; Arrivet, Le Beau,* Baquoy, Lingic," Le Veau, Gode- 

' 1736-1804. R. April 26th, 1777. 

* This is even more remarkable in his •* Ahbi Terray," after Roslin. 
' See the letter written by Cochin, cited by Portalis and B^raldi (t. i., p. 326) as 
gjven hy Dumesnil, " Hist, des plus cil^brei amateurs franfais." 

' 1744-18 . . ' See Basan, " Didt. des Graveun." ' 1 75 1(3 ?)-..,? 

108 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



r--' 



Digiizodb, Google 



Le Mariaue, ou la Sortie de l'Op£ka: 
"L'HisTOiRE i>Es Modes et du Costume," 1776. 

({'iKORCES MaLBESTE, AtTKR MORFAU I.E JRlfMF-) 



db, Google 



froy^ and Le Grand each contributed subje^, Le Gouaz^ — The 
for whom the plumage and movement of birds had a special f^'Sf" °' 
charm-— was entrusted with several, in one of which, " L'aiglonne ^nA the 
et les paons," he shows us how much less of an artist he is than Engravers 
Nie, who treats the same royal bird in the tailpiece to the "Silphe yirattte 
ct le pigmic." 

To the co-operation of Masquelier and Nie we owe not only 
in large measure the beauty of the ** Fables de Dorat " and the 
creation of many other illustrated books of a diflferent type, but 
the continuation of the famous " Chansons de la Borde." ' The 
last three volumes are as inferior to the first as the designs of 
Moreau le jeune are superior to those by Le Bouteux, Saint- 
Quentin and !« Barbier, who were employed as cheaper substi- 
tutes to carry out the work which he had begun, but the perfect 
art of the engraver has succeeded in enabling the continuation to 
pass muster. 

Whilst N^e and Masquelier were completing the abandoned 
work, a great group of artists were employed by Prault in repro- 
ducing the famous designs made by his brilliant son-in-law, Moreau, 
for the " History of Costume." * This costly and splendid publica- 
tion is not only the most vitally real, but, in certain aspeds, also 
the most dignified representation of the days of Louis XVL If 
Triire * shows himself somewhat inferior to his task, we can find 
no more magnificent example of the work of others engaged than 
the " Declaration de la grossesse " by Martini,^ the " C'est un 
fils. Monsieur," by Baquoy, and the " Manage " or " Sortie de 
rOp^ra " by Malbcste.' The last named in a fine state is, I think, 
the gem of the series. 

The brilliant art of these men rises to a splendid excellence in 
these remarkable pages which make us turn impatiently from the 

* 1743(8 ?}-iSi9. He was a pupil of Descamps and Le Bas, and was the 
engraver of Moreau s drawing, *' Trait d'humanitj dc M'^ la Dauphine." 

» 1742(0-1816. 

' *' Choix de chansons mises en Mustque wtr M. De La Borde. Omies d'Eatampes 
par J. M. Moreau. Didi^s a Madame la Dauphine.** Paris, de Lormel, 1773. 

' " Sccondc et troisiime Suites d'Estampes pour servir a I'Histoire det Modes ct du 
Costume en France dans le XVIII. siiclc. Annfe '776- A Paris, de t'lmprimerie 
de Prault, imprimeur du Roy, 177^-1783." Sec Bochcr, p. 487. 

' 1756-18 . . } For his work in this publication see p. 142, notes i and X, He 
also engraved **Le Lever de la Mariie," after Dugourc, and many vignettes for illus- 
trated works i amongst othen for the Kehl Voltaire, the " Gerusalemme liberata " 
of Cochin, ^'Lcs Liaisons dangereuses," the Crjbillon (after Marillier) of 1785. 

* 1 739-1 800. He worked much for Le Bas in the preparation of his plates. His 
four engravings in the above series constitute his most imporunt claim to notice. 

* 1754- . ■ i The above is his most important wwlc See also p. 140, note 2. 

109 



d by Google 



The slighter and more exquisite graces of volumes more popularly 

Pui»i8of representative of the press of the day. The light needle which 

and the Francois- A ntoine Aveline' brings to sketch in Eisen's headings 

Eneravers to the "Satires" of Boileau; the even more fairy-like grace widj 

Vimette. w^**'ch Provost" handles the slender fancies spun by Cochin's early 

genius about the fable of that " Pastor Fido " dear to the heart of 

Wilhelm Meister ; the delicate work spent on the foolish "Origine 

des Graces " ; ' all these, triumphs of art in their way, we may 

weary of, but the " Monument de Costume " remains a work to 

which one turns with never-ceasing delight. 

' I7i8-i762{?). 

* See p. 49, note 5. Benoit-Louis Provost (f. 1735-18 ..) was a pupil of Lc Bas* 
pupi), Ouvrier. We find his name on many vignettes, amongst others, on those 
designed by Cochin for the Terence of 1770, which he engraved leather with 
Chof&rd and Saint- Aubin. 

' Sec Chap. III., p. 49, note 3. 



d by Google 



En t£te and Cul de L^vupe of "L'Abeille justici^e": 
Fables de Dorat, 1773. 

(l^MMANUEL de OHENOT, AI'TEK PlERRE-CLf:MENT MaRILUER.) 



db, Google 



Digitizod by Google J 



db, Google 



db, Google 



1 



db, Google 



db, Google 



CHAPTER Vin 
GRAVELOT AND EISEN 

SO for we have been dwelling on the influences which went 
to the shaping of the art of the century and on the 
achievements of men who for the most part reproduced 
the works of others : the portraits of Drevet, of Daulle, 
of Wille ; the great collections published by men such as Basan ; 
the engravings of Laurent Cars after Le Moine, those by Beau- 
varlet after Van Loo ; and the great enterprises of Le Bas. With 
Hubert-Francois Bourguignon dit Gravelot ^ we leave the en- 
gravers proper and come to the designers for illustrated books. 

The execution of cuts that should enliven the text of books oi 
dimensions such as could be easily held in the hand was quite 
a different matter from the illustration of great folio volumes, which 
meant the execution of engravings that would show as well or 
better on the walls of a cabinet. There was also another and 
noteworthy point marking difference and change which is 
direAly conne6ted with the genius of Gravelot. It is the treat- 
ment of matter furnished by the life of the day in the pages 
accompanying the text of the novel or romance. The modern 
novel is, in fad^ the creation of the eighteenth century and Grave- 
lot was, perhaps, the first to show what might be done in the 
way of illustrating the subjeSs treated in its pages. 

Cochin, it is true, gave designs for hundreds of small books 
and showed — in his famous drawings of the great Versailles Ffites — 

' 1699-1773. He belonged to no Academy. His **{loge" is to be found in 
the nitrtlogt for 1773. It was, says Mariette, carefully compiled from notes fur- 
nished by his brother d'Anvilic, the famous gc<^apher. Walpole, in his " Anecdotes 
of Painting," has a short article on "Henry Gravelot" This error is replaced by 
another in the footnote, where he figures as ** Franfois-Hubcrt D'Anville." 
Ill 



d by Google 



Gravelot an immense power of making records of the passing day, but his 
msLn tendencies towards a veracious accuracy in that diredion were 
strangled by the foolish passion for allegory which attacked him in 
the most exaggerated form after his Italian tour. 

If compared with the work of other designers of illustrations 
that of Hubert Gravelot takes the most honourable place. " Not 
much known as an engraver," writes Walpolc, " but was an excellent 
draughtsman." Not even Moreau Ic jeune can surpass the ta6t 
and skill, the firm and admirable draughtsmanship of Gravelot. 
" D^s ses plus tendres ann^es, il montra," it is said, " un gout 
d^cid^ pour le dessein,"* but his early training owed little to that 
steady direction by which his contemporaries were drilled in their 
craft and was further disturbed by a long absence from France. 
The promise of excellence shown by him when the pupil of 
Restout^ encouraged his father — who, a tailor by trade, nourished 
high ambitions for his sons — to send him to Rome, but the projeft 
did not succeed, and finally Gravelot was despatched to St. 
Domingo with the Chevalier du Roche-Alard' and " y fit sous 
Fr^zier les fonftions d'ingenieur," which reminds us of Dugourc's 
employment when he went with M. de Gribeauval to Nancy.* 

Before long Gravelot returned to France, but although he 
received encouragement from Boucher, he left Paris^ for London, 
having had an invitation from Dubosc,^ who employed him on the 
English edition of Picart's '* Ceremonies religieuses de tous les 
peuples" (1732-1737). Whilst in England he spent, says Walpole, 
"some time ... in Gloucestershire, drawing churches and anti- 
quities." Gravelot was, he adds, '* a faithful copyist of ancient 
buildings, tombs and prospers, for which he was constantly em- 
ployed by the artists in London. He also drew the monuments 
of kings for Vertue, and gave the designs, where invention was 
necessary, for Pine's plates of the tapestry in the House of Lords,'*' 

' Mariette, A. B. C. Dario. 

* See " Supplement au di£tionnaire des gravcurs," F. Basan. 

* Walpole says ; " He had been in Canada U] as Secretary to the Governor, but the 
climate disagreeing with him, he returned to France.** 

* " French Furniture and Decoration in the XVIIIth Century," p. 74. 

' It is supposed that his "Cahiers d'Imi^;es pour les enfants," ** Scenes Enfan- 
tines," " Fables de la Fontaine," ** Les Sciences," etc., etc^ should be placed during 
this suy in Paris, 

* Claude Dubosc, who was employed by Sir Nicolas Dorigny to engrave the 
cartoons at Hampton Court, began upon his own account a set of the Duke of 
Marlborough's battles — suggested probably by that which appeared in Holland in 
1728. He took a shop and sold prints, sending for Gravelot and Scodn to work for 
him (" Walpole's Anecdotes," ed. 1862, t. iii., pp. 965, 968). 

^ This volume, entitled " Tapestry hangings of the House of Lords," consists <^ 
112 



d by Google 



Vioi-A AHD Olivia : " Twelfth Night," 

Shakespeare (Oxford, 1744). 

(Hubert-Fkan^ois Gravelot, after Havman.) 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



but all this work, by which he got his bread, gave him no oppor- Cravelot 
tunity of distinflion and is to us small source of pleasure. i*?*^ 

In England Gravclot remained about thirteen years, engraving 
and painting and making an immense quantity of drawings for other 
engravers. His work at that date shows the greatest variety of 
style: absurd designs in the genre roftfiAt for goldsmiths,^ trade- 
cards for shops,^ sketches for the headings of ballad sheets ; ' but, 
above all, series of illustrations for books. The twelve at first 
executed for *' L'Astree " in 1733 do not show much originality, 
but the frontispiece to the Kit-Cat Club (1735) is not without char- 
acter and the headings to the ** Songs in the Opera of Flora " 
are excellent. So are most of those to the edition of Gay's Fables 
published by Knapton in 1738. In connection with these last 
Gravelot probably made some of the drawings in pen and sepia, 
such as the " Dog and Fox," " The Man with the Dog and Cat " 
and the " Girl feeding a Turkey," which, together with others of 
a different character, are to be found in the Print Room of the 
British Museum.* 

In 1743 Gravelot made a few designs for Godwin's ** Dc 
Prsesulibus Anglis," and at about the same date we begin to see in 
the pages of Rapin de Thoyras' " History of England "° the 
formation of a personal way of looking at life. The Blue-coat 
boys, in one of these volumes, who cap the portrait of Edward VI. 
are seen with an absolute detachment from any preconceived ideal 
of what a boy should look like, that makes them very amusing. 
The same freedom marks Gravelot's sketch of the members of the 
House of Commons "in 1741^," probably executed when he 

a series of sixteen targe double folio plates tinted blue. They represent engagements 
between the British and Spanish fleets at the time of the Armada, and are surrounded 
by borders, with medallion portraits of the various commanders. ' (London, 1739.) 

* One of these described by MM. Portalis and B^raldi shows designs for the case 
of an ilui, for the case of a watch, figures, etc., on the same sheet. 

* In the seventh volume of the coUe^ion of Gravelot's work in the Cabinet des 
Estampes there is a vignette of a man buying and sniffing at the tobacco balanced 
in the scales before him l}y a young apprentice. It is accompanied by the announce- 
ment : *' French manufii^ure of Rappee snufF by John Lhuillier, Removed from the 
comer of Little Newport St. to Great Newport St., Leicester Fields . . . abo 
makes and sells Wholesale and Retail all sorts of Scotch Snul^'Smoaking Tobacco, 
Shag, Pigtail of all sizes." 

' The popular '* Adieu to Susan " and many others of a similar class were thus 
embelUshed l^ Gravelot. They were " printed for John Bowles, at the Black Hone 
in Comhill. According to kSt of Parliament, 1744." 

* The set in sepia are eight in number, but others representing subjeds such at 
the "Interior of a Theatre," "A Gravedigger," etc., etc., can have no connection 
with the " Fables," 

' London, 17+3-17+7. 

"3 Q. 



d by Google. 



Oravelot was going to the Houses of Parliament on his work in conneftion 
*^* with Pine's publication of the "Tapestries of the House of 

Lords." In the pretty cuts to the 1 742 edition of *' Pamela " 
we get some of the first of Gravelot's book-illustrations, and 
although it is commonly supposed that those for Sir Thomas 
Hanmer's edition of Shakespeare^ were all di^wn by Hay man, we 
find fi'om Walpole that many were designed by Gravelot and all 
were " of his graving." 

It is, however, in the pages of " Tom Jones " that one finds 
some of the most significant work executed by Gravelot during his 
stay in London, at the sign of the Gold Cup, King Street, Covent 
Garden. Of these illustrations of Fielding's great story, we may 
repeat Mariette's words : " II y montroit du genie, et entroit asscz 
bien dans le caraiflere des sujets qu'il avoit k trailer. Aussi £toit-iI 
recherche, et il y trouvoit plus de profit que le meilleur peintre 
n'auroit fait en produisant de grands ouvrages." 

It seems difficult to say exadly when Gravelot left England. 
He cannot have arrived earlier than 1732, when the first numbers 
of the *' Religious Ceremonies " began to appear weekly. If he 
went back to Paris thirteen years later, in 1745, he must have 
returned to London shortly alter, unless indeed he continued to 
furnish from Paris the illustrations of various editions brought out 
in London.^ Mariette, in the first article which he wrote on him, 
says that Gravelot made two visits there and that he spent in all 
fifteen years in England; this article he, however, afterwards 
declared to be " &utif," adding: " II m* avoit ^t£ administr^ par des 
gens mal inform^s; il faut s'en tenir k ce qui est marqu6 ict," 
that is to say, the statements made in the second article are alone 
authentic' 

Whether he stayed for fifteen or for thirteen years, the country 
and the people made a profound impression on Gravelot. Again 
and again we find in his works pages in which the English air and 
asped: are depicted with that vividness of impression that is granted 
only to a stranger's eye. " A Conversation with a Romish Priest" 
could take place nowhere but in England and in the England of 
that day. Our women would scarcely need to look so furtive at 
the present moment. The young lady, too, in " Le Le£teur," of 

' Oxford, 1744. 

' Palissot de Montenoy, "Theatre, etc.," London, 17631 **M^in(Hres de Sully," 
London, 1767. 

' These dctitls are perhapt necessary, as M. Portalis, in the veiy fiill and 
interesting aiticle on Gravelot in the first volume of his ** Dcssinateurs d'lUustrations 
au XVIII*** Siide," keeps to the date repudiated by Mariette: **GnivelDt s£journa 
quinze am en Angleteire (p. 273). 

114 



db, Google 



Promknadk a deux. 

(Drawing bv Gravelot.) 

In t/u eolUelion of M. Jacques Doucet. 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



which we are told " Gravelot pinxit — Gaillard sculpsit," does not Oravdot 
require the verses inscribed on the engraving to tell us to what S?* 
nation she belongs. 

** Old, cette jeune Anglaise a droit dc te charmer. 
Et tu lui lis d'amour sans doute I'art d'aimcr, . . ," 

To look at Gravelot's painting of " Le LeSeur" — which came 
into Mr. Heseltine's collection from that of Mr. Wornum — must 
convince us that when M. Portalis writes, "Gravelot a fait aussi de 
la peinture, mais assez mauvaise, quo! qu'en dise Boucher," he can 
hardly have seen any authentic work. Gravelot paints, as he 
drew, with ingenuous simplicity, without pretension or emphasis, 
and with a most remarkable feeling for the right surroundings of 
his subjects. 

It is not alone in work directly representing the men and 
women of London that we can trace signs of the way in which 
Gravelot's sight became impregnated with the essence of English 
life. We recognize them markedly in his designs for plays and 
romances : in the figures of the '* Galerie du Palais " — engraved 
by Le Mire in the illustrations to Corneille ^ and named in the 
English version "The Unlucky Glance " ; in those for Lasalle's 
" Histoire de Sophie de Francourt," published in 1763 ; in the 
four which accompany ** L'Histoire de Miss Jenny," by Mme. 
Riccoboni,^ which appeared the following year ; and in the 
**Fabricant de Londres," by Fenouillot de Falbaire,^ published 
only two years before Gravelot's death. 

On the other hand, it is impossible to find anything more 
sincerely French than a design such as that for the *' Ecole du 
Jardinier-Fleuriste," by Freart de Castel, executed in 1764, or the 
brilliant series illustrating the " Contes Moraux " of Marmontel, 

' This edition was that the sale of which was intended to furnish the dower of 
Mademoiselle Corneille. Bachaumont writes (July 5th, 1762}: "On r^pand dans le 
public un pnsptSus de la nouvelle Edition de Corneille, entrepriae par M. de Vidtaire. 
Cet ouvrage sera de dix a douze volumes. II sera orai de trente-trois estampcs, 
dessinto par M. Gravelot." 

' Mme. Riccoboni writes (May 15th, 1765); "Monsieur Becket, . . . s'est ruin£ 
avec Miss Jenny . . . Monsieur Hume , . . s'avita de donner cette malheureuse 
Jenny a Monsieur Becket, qui en a fait un garde boutique, un fond de magasin pour 
ses arriire neveux " (" Correspondence of David Garrick," v. ii., p. 436I. 

' See Chap. HI., p. 50, note i. Fenouillot was a personal friend of Gravelot 
In an undated letter to Garrick he says: **Je profite. Monsieur, avec le plus grand 
plaisir, de I'occasion que M. de Fenoiiillot me procure de voui renouveller les senti- 
ments de la plus vive amitii , , . J'y joins mcs respe^ i Madame Garrick dont le 
souvenir me sera toujourscher. . ."("Corres,," v.ii.,p. 533). Gravelot had illustrated 
"L'honn£te Criminel," an earlier drama by Fenouillot, in 1767, the plates in which 
were engraved by Delaunay. 

115 



db, Google 



Qravclot which were published in the following year.^ It is true that 
^^ Gravelot loses grip and diredness if he has to treat classic or 

romantic themes : when he attempts to render sentimental rustic 
idylls — " Laurette " or the " Bergcre des Alpes " — ^his illus- 
trations become as unreal as the stories they accompany. His 
great strength is In dealing with scenes of contemporary life. 
In " Le Mari Sylphe," " Annette et Lubin," " Le Connoisseur," 
" Tout ou rien," " L'heureux Divorce " and the admirable " Femme 
comme il y en a peu " the art of Gravelot touches a high point. 
Of the delicate and peculiar character of these designs, M. 
Portalis, to whom students of the art of the eighteenth century 
owe so much, has written an admirable criticism. " Qu'ils soient," 
he says, ** sous la tonnelle des jardins ou sur les sophas des salons, 
ses personnages, dans les costumes les plus gracieux,y sont toujours 
^l^gamment group^s ; quant aux situations dans lesqucUes il a ^ les 
peindre, celles qu'il pr^fere de beaucoup sont les scenes d'amour 
et les motifs de galanterie, et personne n'entend mieux que lui les 
reticences du crayon, et I'art de ne laisser pas voir cc que le ledcur 
dcvinera sans peine." ^ 

It is in this class of work especially that we see Gravelot's powers 
at their full strength. There is not a figure nor a group in the 
"Exerciccs de I'lnfanterie et des di verses positions du soldat "which 
is not drawn with masterly vigour, but his drawing does not help 
him except in handling that which he has adhially in sight.' If 
we take up the illustrations to Voltaire's works we find that those 
of the Plays alone in which, as in " Narcisse," he had close 
touch of the aspefts of everyday life are very good. When he 
attacks the classics,* there is shown a distinct inferiority of every 
quality except that of composition. His admirable powers of 
design never forsake him and furnish indeed the saving grace of 
his weakest and latest work. They give excellence to the Sne 
" fleurons " of the Terence of 1753 and inspire the quality of his 
best designs for the Boccaccio of 1757-'^ Even the miserable 

' Three vols.. Merlin, 1765. The twenty-four drawing;) for the **Contes 
Morzux" were exhibited by M. Germain Bapst in 1888 (** Exposition de l*Art fr. 
sous Louis XIV et sous Louis XV"). 

* Portalis, " Les Dessinatcun," t. i., p. 285. 

' From the *' £loge " of Gravelot written by his brother d'Anville we learn that 
he had had made in London three little lay figures carefully padded and jointed. 
They were about fifteen inches high and were provided with a considerable ward- 
robe, so that they could be dressed according to the charaders thev had to represent. 

* Lucain, two vols., 1 766 ; Tacite, 1 768 ; Horace. (Baskervilic), 1 770 ; Lucr^ce, 
1768, etc, etc. 

' See Chap. VII., pp. 100, 101. The publisher requested Gravelot to add to 
the illustration subje£b conuining "des figures libres.". M. Portalis quotes (ti i., 
116 



d by Google 



■ s i s ? 

S S g o J 



I 3 g S s 

z I * aT " 

" S 5 2 1 

- § S - = 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



"r 



Digiizodb, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



illustration of the Tasso of 1 77 1 is saved from disgrace by a faint Qravelot 
echo of the taste and skill of earlier years. ^^ 

The delightful pieces in the " Decameron," the baby groups 
who mimic every shade of human conduct should be compared 
with the tiny etching of " Les enfants imitateurs " or the endless 
procession of childish figures that starts with the " Almanach utile 
et agniable de la loterie de I'Ecole royale nulitaire pour I'ann^e 
1760." La Honteuse, La Bien Elevee, La Rieuse, La Petite 
Maltresse, L'Affair^c and others present themselves each with an 
infant couplet : 

** Que Lise parait occup^ 
L'ambitieux et le sfavant, 
A peine te sont ib autant, 
Mais chacun Test de sa poup^." 

Extracts from some letters which have been published by 
M. Portalis ^ are the most valuable source of our information 
concerning the fa6ts of Gravclot's private life. They are specially 
interesting because they throw light on features in his character 
which explain the character of his work. He loved his art and 
lived by it, but was without the ambition which might have 
prompted him to make it his only occupation. He wrote, he 
wrote verses, he read much and he contrived to live in Paris 
and to carry on his profession without obtaining the sanation of 
any Academy, nor does he seem to have suffered in consequence 
the usual persecutions and summons before legal tribunals. 

His very existence seems to have sought hidden ways ; he visited 
no one, not even his brother ; he married twice, but " par fantaisie 
et k I'insu de ses proches." Yet one of these letters, in which he 
has written of his early hopes, long delayed for want of means, 
contains a passage of great tenderness : " Nous allons done 6tre 
heureux, tous deux," he says, when the day draws near, " par notre 
amour, par une honnSte m^diocrit^, des d^sirs modestes, un petit 
manage decent, mon crayon, mes burins, mes livrcs, quelques 
amis, et, plaise i Dieu ! une bonne sant^ surtout." The *' quelques 
amis " reminds us that Gravelot, like his distinguished but less 
eccentric brother, d'Anville, the geographer, reckoned amongst 
his friends men of the greatest distindion. 

p. 176) from the letter written by Gravelot in reply the following passage : ** Ce que 
vous me demand^ se peut fiiire, mais, pour rendre les choees suivant votre idje, cela 
exige de votre part une explication plus d&:td^ et que je susse bien jusqu'a quel 
point je dois pousser la gaillardise ; car, quoiquc dam ces sortcs de compositions la 
gentillcsse soit priftrabic i la grossiirct^ 11 y a des gens, comme vous ifavez, i 
qui il fiiut dea pcrdrix et d'autres qui aiment mieux la piice dc boucherie," 
* " Les Dessiaatcurs," t. i., p. 289. 

117 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



A Conversation with a Romish Pribst. 
(Gravelot.) 



d by Google 



M. de Grimaldi ^ halfway — hastily put together with this year's Qravelot 

little almanack'^ some specimens of my work. There are some ^^ 

proofs of the plates for an Italian edition of the ' Secchia Rapita,* ' 

as well as some prints for M. Marmonters prose translation of 

Lucan/ which I am sure will give you much pleasure. . . . These 

two works are finished as for as I am concerned, and almost as &r 

as regards the engravers. I promise myself some day to send you 

the two series complete. I am actually attempting Ta8so>^ and at 

last, I believe, they are going to engrave the Voltaire,' which if they 

do me justice will I hope do me some credit. I have added to the 

specimens in question good proofs of the comedy of * La Partie 

de Chasse de Henri IV,'' by M. Coll^ — a piece with which you 

are by this time probably acquainted, as it is a fortnight since it 

was published in print." 

Concerning the illustrations to the Voltaire, by which Gravclot 
hoped to do himself honour, the publisher Cramer wrote to him, 
as early as 1 760, that the author, delighted with his drawings for 
the Plays, made over to him all responsibility for the engraving 
of the subjects and the choice of the engravers.* Voltaire was 
possibly glad to free himself from all anxiety as to the '* vain et 
miserable ornement des estampcs," which had, however, become 
an absolutely necessary addition to every work of letters, 

Gravelot himself refers to this passion for illustrations in terms 
equally vigorous when he excuses his unwillingness to look after 
some vignettes for Colman's Terence.* " Nos graveurs," he says, 
'\ . . sont si occup^s, la manie des estampes £tant aftuellement 

' The **abM de Griauldi, de la maison des princes de Monaco," is fi'cquently 
mentioned by Wjlle as a great " amateur." 

* The " Almanach iconologiquc " was begun by Gravclot ui 1 765 with the co- 
operation of Cochin and kept up for seventeen years. 

' Published by Prault, 1766. 

* " L'Epitrc aux poetes sur les charmes de I'^tude " (1760], in which Marmontel 
specially exalts Lucan, at the expense of Virgil, was a prelude to the publication of 
this translation. 

* This work did not appear till 1771 : the illustrations are worthless, 

' The beauty of Gravelot's illustrations for his Plays, for the " Nouvclle H^loite " 
(1761) and for- the "OEuvrcs dc Pierre Corneille" (1764] inspired Voltaire with 
the desire to employ him only on the great edition of his works which was completed 
in 1768. 

' M. Portalis places the execution of these drawings between 1762 and 1765 
('* Les Dcssinateurs," t i., p. 284). 

' liiJ., p. 280, 

* I suppose this to be George Colroan (i733->794)> best known as a dramatic 
author and owner of the Haymarket Theatre. He collaborated with Garrick on 
"The Clandestine Marriage (see letter of December 14th, 1766, from him to 
Garrick, " Correspondence of Ekivid Garrick," v, ii., p. 209). He was the author of 
a translation in verse of the " Ars Poetica." 

119 



db, Google 



Gravelbt celle de la typographic, que je n'ose me mettrc cntr*eux et la 
1"^ pcrsonne qui voudroit me charger de pareilles entreprises." In the 

same letter, which is written to Garrick^ Gravelot refers also to a 
" T61^maque," the engravings for which might be put into the 
hands of a pupil of his — " Grignon,^ qui a 6t6 mon ileve, s'il n'a 
pas d6genir6, a du goiit ct du merite "—and returns to the subject 
of the Voltaire, " On grave aftuellement," he says, " mcs dessins 
du Voltaire, qui sont payes cent ecus pi^ce aux graveurs, ceux du 
Corneille etoient pay^s sept louis chacun." The phrase with which 
this letter ends is also worth citing, if only in proof of the strong 
feeling which bound Gravelot to theGarricks: "A present, laissons 
I'essor aux mouvemens de I'amiti^. Vos lettres me seront toujours 
une bonne fortune, et le souvenir de votre chcre spouse a true 
hlessing."^ 

As we read these words, written in 1766, it must be confessed 
that some doubt arises as to the truth of the legend which repre- 
sents Gravelot as fleeing from England before the offensive 
attitude assumed by those about him after the loss of the battle of 
Fontenoy. The brilliant success of Marshal Saxe — then at death's 
door, but so courageous that he had met Voltaire's remonstrance 
before his departure from Paris with " II ne s'agit pas de vivre, 
mais de partir"' — had left the English far more angry with 
General Ingoldsby, to whose disobedience the Duke of Cumber- 
land attributed his defeat, than with the enemy. The coincidence of 
the date — 1745 — with that which has been suggested for Gravelot's 
final return to Paris has probably been responsible for the tale of 
the terrifying talk by which he was driven from London, and if 
he did not return, which seems doubtful, his marriage was a 
sufficient reason, to one of his disposition, for not again leaving 
his own country. 

To Gravelot had fellen the honour in 1761 of ** creating " the 
illustration of Rousseau's " Julie." * Rousseau had appeared more 
than content, but — whether it were that Gravelot was absorbed by 
his designs for the Voltaire or that the publishers were inclined to 
make trial of another hand — the designs for " Emile " were fur- 
nished in the following year by Charles Eisen.^ The lavish employ- 
ment of the vignette had not at first been welcomed by the lover 

' Grignon is supposed to be, aa his name indicates, of French origin, but spent 
his whole life in London. 

' " Correspondence of David Garrick," v. ii., p. 496. 
' "Pricis du Siidc de Louis XV," p. 109, ed. 1808. 
* Sec Chap. VII,, p. loi, note 5. 
' 1720-1778. R. Acad. St. Luc, 1751. 
120 



d by Google 



La Galerie du Palais : Corneille, 1764. 
(Le Mire, after Gravelot.) 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



of books. "J'ai pcst^ le premier," writes Mathieu Marais to Gravelot 
President Bouhler, *• contre les encadrements dc nos libraires, qui SfL„ 
sont plus sots que des en&nts avec des images."^ But the artists 
who devoted themselves to the task showed such admirable 
dexterity and ingenuity that they conquered their public and the 
vignette soon became the indispensable adjunct to every text. 
The art of illustration was no longer confined to the decoration of 
works of romance or poetry, or to the pointing of serio-comic 
studies of life and charader, it seized on treatises of morals — the 
most unlikely pasture to nourish the imagination of the designer. 

" Emile ou dc I'Education," says Bachaumont, " by Jean-Jacques 
Rousseau, citizen of Geneva ; such is the title of four volumes in 
8vo which have lately appeared. This work, long announced and 
expefted, excites so much the more public curiosity since the 
author joins to great wit the rare talent of writing with as much 
force as grace . . . the four volumes are admirably printed and 
ornamented with the prettiest cuts."^ These cuts, engraved by 
Pasquier," de Longueil and others after £isen> do not, however, 
show that profuse book-illustrator to advantage. The enticing airs 
of his women, their mincing manners and wanton fluttering ways 
are as evident in the cuts which adorn the first edition of " Emile " 
as in the famous series of the " Contes de la Fontaine," but so also 
is Eisen's insufficient drawing. 

Bom in 1720, at Valenciennes, of Belgian parents,* Eisen on 
coming to Paris was brought into relations with the maitres. 
His father exhibited, in 1762, two little pictures of the " Fuite" 
and " Le Repos en Egypte " ^ at the Salon of " Messieurs de 
I'Acad^mie de S. Luc," but this was a tardy compliment, for his 
brilliant son had been received on " Un tableau, reprisentant 
Icare et D^dale," eleven years before. At the Salon of 1751, 
when he made his first appearance, Charles Eisen showed, 
amongst other work, '* Plusieurs dessins et esquisses sous le m6me 
Numiro," which probably represented his designs for the " Eloge 

* I,etter of January 2nd, 1726. He writes in reference to the edition of the 
" Contes " to be published at Amsterdam in that year. 

■ May 22nd, 1762. The first edition, "La Haye, 1762,** contains five cuts by 
Eisen. Before the month was out Bachaumont notes that " Le livre de Rousseau 
occasionne du scandale dc plus en plus. Le glaive et t'encensoir se rjunissent contre 
I'auteur." Early in June he adds : ** VEmtU de Rousseau est arr£t£ par la police, 
Cette affaire n'en rcstera pas U." 

' See Chap. VL, p. 87, note 8. 

' Jal, "Diftionnaire critique." 

• Two subjeds " par Eisen pire " were engraved by Halbou (1730-18 • ,i) for 
Basan: ^L'Amour en ribotte" and "Les dragons de Venus." 

121 R 



d by Google 



Oravelot de la Folic,"* which appeared in that year. He must have been 
*"^ already in communication with the "canal des grSccs," for at the 

Salon which was held by the maStres in 1752 at the Arsenal 
Eisen, who is called " consciller," exhibited two drawings com- 
missioned by Madame de Pompadour, " dont I'un repr^sente une 
Automne, dessin^e d'apres un Bas- Relief d'yvoire qui lui appartient, 
et Tautre un Printemps dessin6 et composi^ par le sieur Eisen. 
Ces deux dessins," we are told, " sont gravis par Madame la Mar- 
quise de Pompadour." A further indication of his friendly re- 
lations with Cochin is given by Eisen's employment on the tail- 
piece for the " Oraison iunebre de Madame Henriette de France." 
The illustration of the " Eloge de la Folic " was the first 
important work of its kind executed by Eisen, who, whilst yet in 
the house of Le Bas,^ had been forced by a hasty and ill-assorted 
marriage ^ to devote himself to the readiest means of making 
money. He engraved and designed a great variety of subjedis — some 
religious — all more or less commonplace in character, from which 
may be distinguished the headings and tailpieces with which he 
ornamented the Boileau edited by Saint-Marc in 1747* but 
neither in this work nor in the " Eloge de la Folie" do we realize 
that Eisen is about to give us his famous series of drawings in 
illustration of the " Contes de la Fontaine." 

Some of these were exhibited in 1753, together with others 
for the " Christiade," for a new edition of PuiFendorf 's " Histoire 
de rUnivers," and for a curious work dedicated to the Marquis 
d'Argenson and intended for the use of " difFiirens Artistes, Archi- 
tefture. Sculpture, Ciselure, Orftvrerie, que Tauteur feit graver 
pour lui." * The miniature portrait of a young lady, painted in 
oil, the size of a snuff-box, which Eisen exhibited the same year, 
reminds us that he was then engaged on the small portraits which 

' The plates are fourteen in number. 

* He came to Le Bas in 1742. M. Portalis ("Les Dessinateurs," t. i., p. 191) 
cites an amusing sketch of a lanky youth, lost in his cloak, beneath which Le Bas has 
written " M. £sin, peintre, en redingote." 

* Charles Eisen, whose full name is Charlcs-Dominique-Joseph, married on 
September 20th, 1745, Anne Aubert, his elder by thirteen years- She was the 
mother of a boy, who had been baptized under the names of Christophc-Charles, 
0£tober 4th, 1 744, and this child was acknowledged by Eisen and his wife as theirs 
on their marriage (Jal, " Di£tionnaire critique"]. 

* It is to this work that Jal refers as a ** recueil de dessins, graves d'apris Eisen et 
public en 1753," in which one finds that — although his address is given in the Salon 
catalogue as " rue du Foin " — Eisen was then living ** rue de Bi^vre, au petit h6tel de 
Braquc, Place Maubert." He shortly afterwards moved to the "quai de la Toumelle, 
a c6ti de la manufa^re de fayence, chez M. Mazois " ('* Didionnaire critique "), 
and then to the "Quay des Miramionnes," where he remained for some years 
(Salons de I'Acad. de St. Luc, 1756 and 1762). 

122 



d by Google 



DigiizodbyGOOgle 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



■s 






db, Google 



illustrate Descamps' ** Vies des Peintres," the drawings for which Gravelot 
were nearly all made by him. ^f' 

Eisen was then "adjoint k profcsscur" at the Academy of St. 
Luke and **professeur de dessin de M. M. les chevau-l^gers de la 
garde du Roi,"^ posts which conferred on him a somewhat settled 
position. Admission to the Royal Academy-remained out of the 
question ; if his acquirements had equalled his genius, there would 
still have been difficulties, it is hinted, on account of the irregu- 
larities of his life. His marriage — which, under the circumstances, 
one must reckon to the credit of a kindly heart — did not obtain 
the sanation of his father's presence, but he evidently had some 
very good friends of the soberer sort. Le Bas — in whose atelier 
he had worked — stood godfather to the son who was christened in 
1747, when his father was living in the '• rue des Noyers, au coin 
de la rue des Anglois," and the excellent Madame Wille was god- 
mother to another in 1749, when the family had moved to the 
" rue du Foin." 

The diary of Wille for 1743-1759 is unfortunately lost, so we 
do not know what entertainment Madame Wille received at the 
christening, nor what present she was obliged to make. The 
intimacy, if ever there were any, cannot have been lasting, for the 
name of Eisen never occurs in his pages. Words which passed in 
the curious quarrel which took place between Eisen and Le Mire 
in 1759 over, it would seem, some of the illustrations to the 
*' Contes de la Fontaine," " imply that there already existed a 
strong feeling of sympathy for Eisen's wife and children in which 
Eisen himself had no share. He appeared at seven o'clock in the 
evening of the 2nd December before the commisiaires du Ch&telety 
who discharged in the eighteenth century the functions of the 
commissaires de police of our day, to complain that Le Mire had that 
afternoon at five o'clock brought him some work which he had 
given him ; that he had pointed out some faults in his work, 
whereupon Le Mire, instead of thanking him for his hints and re- 
presentations, had abused him violently, had insulted him, had 
requested him to come down and fight it out, and had anally 
used these words : '* Si je ne respe£tois pas ta femme ainsi que tes 
eafants, je te passerois mon ^pee au travers du corps, et je te 
rejoindrai."' 

' Jal, *' Di^onnaire critique." 

* 1 do not think that there is any work by Le Mire after Eisen bearing the date 
of this year, but they were then most certainly occupied with the illustrations to the 
edition of the " Contes de la Fontaine dite des Fermiers giniraux ** which came out 
in 1761. Eisen, as we have seen, had begun to prepare the drawings in 1753. 

* "Bulletin de la Sociit^ de I'Histoire de I'Art fran^ais," 1875-1878, b. iii. $~b. 

123 



db, Google 



Oravelot Le Mire was» as his rough treatment of his assistants shows, an 

^^ excitable, passionate man. On this occasion, it is likely that he had 

considerable justification for his anger. The compositions which 
Eiscn designed with incomparable facility, grace and spin* "'-■ - 
too often drawn with a careless and slovenly hand. If o 
beside an engraving by Le Mire the drawing which it rep 
and that drawing be by Charles Eisen, the advantage is 
means invariably to the account of the draughtsman. Th 
finding, the hints and representations which Le Mire i 
such ill part had, quite possibly, but Httle justification, a 
clear from the tone of die reference to Eisen's wife and c 
that his condud as a husband and father was already not* 
bad. 

The brilliant series of Eisen's illustrations to the " C( 
even more than his later work on the " Metamorphoses d'O 
must always remain his chief title to fame. In many respc 
fine series — the most important that he produced — ^is sup 
any other of his work. The proportions of the figure, ofte 
in Eisen's designs — as in the vignettes to the " Eloge de la 
or the headings to the " Satires " and the " Hiros de Rom 
the Boileau of 1747 — are, in the " Contes," often of rare 
and elegance. The pose and proportions of the beautifii 
in " Le roi Candaule " have a fine reminiscence of the I 
Jean Goujon ; nor is this figure the only example of a 
character. Even when Eisen's art offers us a less delicately 
elegance, his wit, his facility of invention, his power of t( 
with piquancy every expression and pose carry off the n< 
freedom of his treatment of themes essentially free, for tl 
touch of his pencil is exquisitely appropriate to the airy n 
of vice and folly with which the witty story-teller enterti 
readers. 

We may take with these volumes " Les quatre pai 
jour " and " Les quatre Saisons," ' charming compositi 
graved by de Longueil, in which Eisen has given us of h 
They represent the sort of work which one should expert fr 
illustrator of the " Contes," but it is not without surprise 
discover, from the list of Eisen's contributions to the Saloi 

' These drawings are in the colte£tion of Madame James de Rothschild, 
kindness I am able to give a reprodu^on of that of the **Trois Commires' 
with the engraving by Le Mire. 

• See Chap. II., p. 33. 

■ See Panhard, "Joseph de Longueil: sa vie et son ceuvre," [q). 6 
7»-73- 

124 



d by Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



Academy of Saint Luke in 1762, the amount of work of a striftly Gravelot 
religious charafler on which he must have been engaged simul- **?** 
taneously with that of the lightest style. First comes ** un projet 
dessinif pour une Chapelle de Communion," together with ** une 
esquisse du Tableau d'autel de ce mSme projet, reprisentant Notre 
Seigneur qui fait la C^ne avec ses Ap6tres," and " une autre 
Esquisse, repr^sentant rAnnonciation de la Vierge, exicutie en 
grand." Of this last, we are told that it was destined for the 
collegial church of Douai and was thirteen feet and a half high 
by ten wide. Another " esquisse," the subjed of which was 
** The Marriage of the Virgin," had possibly the same destination, 
and the mere fa£t of the commission shows not only that Eisen 
continued in touch with the neighbourhood in which he had lived 
as a youth,^ but that the licentious charatSter of much of his work 
was no bar to his employment by the dignitaries of the Church. 

It was not, moreover, the first time that Eisen had been 
busied with work of this class ; he exhibited studies of St. Sebas- 
tian for an altar-piece in 1756, and it is clear that the various 
works which we have just seen figuring at the exhibition of the 
maitrei in 1762 must have satisfied the taste and feeling of some 
amateur, for two years later " Charles Eisen, professeur," sends to 
their rooms as his principal contribution " Sainte Genevieve 
assise dans la campagne, faisant la lecture " — a painting six feet 
by four which was intended for the chapel of a chateau. At the 
same exhibition Eisen showed also various pencil drawings washed 
with Indian ink, and probably amongst these were his illustrations 
to the *' Z^lis au bain " * of the Marquis de Pczay. One of these 
— ** Le bain de Z^lis "—was in the de Goncourt coUeftion, 
where also figured Eisen's drawing of " L'Ouic," reproduced in 
illustration of du Rosoi's verses on " Les Sens," ^ which came out 
in 1766. 

The drawings for the edition of the *' Henriade," * which was 
not complete till 1770, were also prepared about 1766-1767, but 
at this date Eisen had left his wife. He was but forty-seven, she 
was sixty, and the rupture was so complete that he was not 
present at the marriage of his daughter Catherine-Justine, which 
took place on the 4th November, 1767, at St. Nicholas des 

' He is supposed to have spent his lint yexrs at Valenciennes, where he was born : 
1742 seems to be the earliest date suggested at present for his presence in Paris. 
Fine work of the early sixteenth century, such as the polyptych of Anchin by Jean 
Bellegambe (see A. rreux, "Jean Bellcgambe ") was probably tittle valued by the 
men who commissioned woric fTx>ni Eisen. 

* " Zilis au bain " by the Marquis de Pczay, 1 763 and 1 768. 

* See p. 107, note 2. * " La Hcnriade. Paris, V" Duchesne, 1770," 

125 



Digiizodb, Google 



Gravelot Champs, nor, two years later, at that of his son, Christophe- 

BUe Charles, who married a girl of fifteen, Adelaide Thibault, the 

daughter of a " contrdleur des fcrmes," at Stc. Marguerite, the 

3 1 St January, 1769 ^ — a match which seems rather better than the 

state of his iamily afiairs entitled the young man to expert. 

His father was, however, at^ually producing some of his best 
work at this time, and the price of one of his drawings was, we 
learn from a receipt given at this very date, 481.;^ but it is 
unlikely that his family were much the richer for his earnings. 
The drawings for Dorat's " Baisers," now in the colle6lion of the 
Baroness James de Rothschild, belong to this date and were closely 
followed by those for the "Temple dc Gnide."' The illustra* 
tions in this work are amongst the best of Eisen's designs, and 
their beauty is enhanced by the exquisite art of Le Mire, by 
whom they were all engraved. This volume has therefore a real 
advantage in harmony of aspeA over others — such as du Rosoi's 
" Lcs Sens " — in some respeffe equally beautiful, but the pages of 
which are disfigured now and again by the inferior work of Wille 
iils,^ which cannot for an instant support the comparison with 
Eisen's &cile and accomplished skill. 

The rashness of youth can alone excuse the impertinence 
which presents us with the ludicrous version of " L'Oui'e " by 
young Wille, immediately in connexion with the same subjed 
treated as the frontispiece with that delightfully intangible grace 
which was one of Eisen's many gifts. Not even the equal kind- 
ness of de Longueil's graver, in which " the quality of mercy is 
not strained," can give to the Teutonic sentiment of such draw- 
ings as represent " La Vuc " and " L'Odorat " anything in common 
with the witty gaiety of Eisen's " Le Tad " or " Le GoAt," nor 
anything of the elegance with which he has handled the subject 
of ** La Jouissance." 

' Jal, ** Diflionnaire critique." 

' "J'ay rcfuc de monsieur d'Arnaux la somme de quarante huit livres pour le 
payement d'un dcssien quy doit scrvire de frontispice au lamantation de Geremje laic 
par monsieur d'Amaux, i Paris, ce 24 Janvier, 1 769 " (N, A., 1 872, p. 340) : " mon- 
sieur <rArnaux " is Baculard d'Arnau<4 the husband of M"* Chouchou, a bahionable 
marchandi <U midtt. 

* " I>e Temple de Gnide, suivi de Cjphise, par M. de Montesquieu. Lemire, 
Paris, 1772." 1 vol gr. in 8vo. M. Portalis sap that the drawings for this work 
were in 1877 in the colledion of M. Duriez de Verninac ("Let Dessiiutcurs," 
t. i., p. 212}. 

* Wille ills no doubt profited by the reputation and position of his father. We 
find Cathelin engraving with delicate art his ridiculous ''Nouvclle affligeantc^" in 
which a lady in full dress and feathers strilcea a fimtastic attitude of despair, explainea 
\rf a detail in the frame, where we see a little ship going down at sea. 

u6 



d by Google 



Here we are back again at situations such as Eisen treated in Gravelot 
the " Contes," such as he treated in " Les Epreuves du Sentiment " ^ ^^ 
and a dozen other volumes of a similar character. By the grace 
and wit that distinguished his conception of these themes he made 
his great and very personal reputation. Cochin had something 
to say as to the composition of his allegorical designs, Boucher's 
influence may be recognized in his drawing, especially of the 
heads of his figures, but these things are not of the essence of 
Eisen's art. His special gift resides in the power to handle 
indelicate subje6ls with the most exquisite delicacy. This fine 
ta€l never forsook him; no matter how suggestive the situation, 
Eisen rarely becomes either coarse or vulgar. 

His contributions to the exhibitions of the Academy of St. Luke 
maintained their curiously mixed character up to the last. In 
1774 the unfortunate maitres held their final show in the H6tel 
Jabach under the auspices of the Marquis de Paulmy.^ Eisen, 
then " adjoint i Re£teur," sent, in addition to some little paint- 
ings of classical subjects,' several drawings, amongst which may 
be noted two ** ^ la sanguine, rehauss^s de blanc." These last 
were a " Sainte Famille, et pour pendant le Songe de Saint 
Joseph." After this effort the maitres closed their doors, and 
Eisen, in his official capacity, can have had very little to do. 
His name appears on some illustrations published in the course 
of 1775, and then we hear of him at Brussels "ronge de goutte 
et tourment^ par les maux qu'entrainent le libertinage et la 
d^bauche." * 

At Brussels Eisen died. When his wife appeared, to give 
notice of the fadt (January 13th, 1778), before the commissaire du 
CMtelet^ Francois Bourgeois, she declared that he had gone there 
"pour ses affaires," and his death had taken place on the 4th 
January, 1778, according to the letter of the S' J.-J. Clause 
" addressee a la dame Saint-Martin, rue Sainte-Hyacinthe, place 
Saint-Michel, qui vient de la luy communiquer." ^ 

The dame Saint-Martin who announces to the dame veuve 
Eisen the news of her husband's death ' is, it is said, the woman for 
whom Eisen had deserted his wife and family thirteen years before. 

' Paris, Delalain, 1775. 3 vols, in 8vo. 

* See "French Painters ofthe XVIIIth Century," p. 12, note 3. 

* See Appendix D. 

' De Goncourt, "L'Art du XVIII. Siicle," ed. 1880, t. ii., p. 155. 
■ N. A,, 1885, p. 84. 

* Clause sajs in his letter to her that the goods left bv Eisen in his hands would 
only about half pay the debts due to him, and he desires tier " de bire avertier a son 
per est a ia famille " (I'AiV., p. 82). 

127 



d by Google 



Oravelot There Is not a word concerning them in the letter from which we 
"*^ learn that Eisen " s'a bien converties pour morier," and that he 

was, on the 6th of the present month " anteres sur la simantier des 
St. Gudule. " One would say that Clause had not even any idea 
of the existence of a wife and children, for he continues, '* les pu 
trist pour mois, c'es pour avoir ce quy m'es dois, est mes des hours 
la somme de 376 florain quy feit en argant de France 752 liever, 
sans le dette quy doit encore au sauter, que la valeur en tous est 
mil liver." 

Whether these debts were ever paid is doubtful. Eisen, we 
learn from the close of Clause's curious letter, had told him that 
he would be paid for his outlay by the sale of his furniture and the 
library which he had in the apartment of " Madame St. Martin " 
in the ** maisson de Mons' Vasselin, a Paris." *' II m'a dis," he says, 
" ci en cas que je viens troi cours pour mois, que jc saires pay^s de 
ces meuble de Paris," but they had counted without Anne Aubcrt, 
" ^pouze aduellement veuve de Charles-Joseph-Dominique Eizen, 
pcintre dessinateur du cabinet du Roy ctde I'Acad^mie des beaux- 
arts de Rouen, avec lequel elle demeuroit rue du Faubourg-Saint- 
Denis." 

Not only the " bibelotecque," but everything else that could 
be removed had been transferred by Eisen to his apartment in the 
rue Sainte-Hyacinthe. His widow was left in possession of nothing 
that was not her personal property. The commissaire, who accom- 
panied her to her own rooms after setting the seals on her husband's 
apartment, notes only a screen, a mirror, a picture or two, amongst 
which were her own portrait and that of the dead man, a couple of 
candlesticks and one or two other necessary articles of household 
furnishing. Money was owing on all sides, not only to trades- 
people, but to Patas,^ the engraver from whom Eisen had obtained 
various sums on account of two. drawings which he had never 
executed or delivered. 

The details of the claim made by Patas recall similar incidents 
in Eisen 's earlier career. The curious scries of documents printed 
by M. Guiffrey in the " Courrier de I'Art " for 1884 includes not 
only two Proccs-verbaux of " Saisies " made by the maitres on Eisen's 
work in 1748 and 1750 — both, that is to say, prior to his reception 
into their body and appearance at their exhibitions- — but also the 
fads as to the dispute between him and Guyon, one of thefermiers- 
ght^aux. In this case Eisen was taxed with ddlay in carrying 
out the illustrations of an unnamed work, which can be no other 
than the famous edition of the ** Contes." He had, according to 
' 1748-1817. 
128 



d by Google 



his usual custom, obtained payment in advance, and also, as usual, Oravelot 
violently resented any attempt to induce or compel him to fulfil 1"^ 
his engagements. 

Eisen had no pupils ; it was indeed impossible that the qualities 
which give charm to his work should be taught. The special 
characteristic of his art was that very personal and delicate facility 
and lightness which enabled him to present the most indecent 
themes with a gloss of grace and sentiment. Others might indeed 
imitate his freedom, but not one could boast the same dexterity 
in the avoidance of the commonplace, the foolish and the vulgar. 



129 



d by Google 



n 



CHAPTER IX 

THE SAINT-AUBIN, MOREAU LE JEUNE, BOILLY, 
PRIEUR 

GABRIEL DE SAINT-AUBIN^ was one of the most 
original of all the draughtsmen in whose work may be 
traced the influence of Gravelot and of Eisen. He was 
next brother to Germain de Saint-Aubin,' the amusing 
author of " Les Papillonneries humaines/' ^ in which we find an 
echo of the apish pleasantries of Christophe Huet.* The youngest 
of the family, Augustin, is perhaps the best known, for he is the 
author of the popular " Au moins soyez discret" and the com- 
panion " Comptez sur mes serments/' in which he has drawn and 
engraved a pair of lovers whose charming looks must plead 
forgiveness for any indiscretion which they may have committed. 
The year 1753 marks an epoch in the life of Gabriel. He was 
then about thirty, and was attending the classes of the Royal 
Academy and competing, as one destined to the career of an 
historical painter, for the Grand Prix. He missed it, but obtained 
the second place. Monnet,' whose name we find on so many poor 
' 1724-1780. 

' 1721-1786. He was the eldest of fifteen children, and became his lather's 
assistant in his trade as "brodeur." See MS, note by him reproduced by the de 
Goncourt, "L'Art du XVIII. Si^lc," ed. 1880, t. i., pp. 399-401. 

* These were published *' a Paris chez Fessard gravcur du roy rue St. Thomas 
du Louvre la 3* porte cochire a main gauche en entrant par la Place du Palais 
Royal." Germain also published a. " Recueil de ChifFrcs invcntfa par Saint-Aubin 
dcssinateur du roi A. P. D. R." These were engraved by Marillier and puUished 
"chez la V* de F. Chireau, rue St. Jacques aux deux Piliers d'or.** "Mes petits 
bouquets," another of his publications, were '* D^di^ a M*" la Duchcsse de Chev- 
reuse." 

* See " French Decoration and Furniture, etc.," pp. 90-96. 

* 1730- . . . ? A., July 27th, 1765. He was never received. 



db, Google 






db, Google 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



designs for which mythology and allegory have furnished the The 
subjefh, was the successful competitor. When it came to painting |**vi*' 
" Nabucodonosar qui ordonne le massacre des enfants de S^d^ias, Morea'u 
Roi dc Jerusalem, et lui fait ensuite crever les yeux," ^ one feels le jeune, 
sure that Monnet would have the best of it. Such a theme p^',™' 
offered no chance to Gabriel de Saint-Aubin for the exhibition 
of the brilliant and entertaining wit which was the essence of his 
genius and which he had already displayed in his etching of" Les 
nouvellistes au caf^ " executed in the previous year. 

The astonishing thing is that Gabrlers family should have even 
wished him to compete for the Grand Prix at this date. The 
competition was not decided till the 31st August; the Salon, 
which is commemorated by his marvellous drawing, " Vue du 
Salon du Louvre en Tann^e 1753*"^ had opened on the Saint 
Louis, five days earlier. It is quite clear from the freedom and 
beauty of this drawing, the powerful rendering of the movement 
of the crowd and the delightful ease and insight with which every 
man and woman is chara^erized, that Saint-Aubin was in the full 
possession of his powers. Yet, in spite of this triumph and in spite 
of the check from Monnet — which followed on a previous failure ' 
— Gabriel de Saint-Aubin stolidly returned to his Old Testament 
exercises. In October of the same year* he again entered a 
competition of which the prize should have been a place as " ^leve 
prot^g^." Fortunately both for himself and us he was again 
unfortunate. The subjeft was " Laban seeking his gods " and the 
successful competitor was Brenet." 

Undaunted by his third unlucky essay, more time was again 
wasted by this delicate and spirited draughtsman on the " Con- 
cours pour les grands-prix."" He was defeated by young Chardin 
and accepted the test as final. In the year 1754 he dated the 
&iry-Iike composition popularly known as the " Bal d'Auteuil." 
It is the work of a master. The musicians play, little figures 
dance with a grace, a gaiety and a freshness that recall the magic 
thrown by Watteau over these rustic festivals. To paint the 

' P. v., Aug. 31st, 1753. 

* His etching of this subject is reproduced by the de Goncourt, ** L'Art du 
XVIII. Siicle," ed. 1880, t. i. 

* Sec P. v., Aug. 26th, 1752. M. Moureau notes: **Deux sujcts Inbliques, 
ditia de 1752 et de 1753, repr^entant, le premier *La Reconciliation d'Absabn et 
de David,' le second, retouch^ dix ans apr^, 'Laban cherchant ses dieux,' Justi- 
fieraient asscz mal la favcur qui s'attache aux eaux-fortes de Gabriel" ("Les Saint- 
Aubin," p. 42). 

* P. v., Oa. 6t^ 1753. • p. v., Dec. 29th, 1753. 
' P. v., April 6th, 1754. 

«3I 



DigitizGd byVjOOQlC 



The 

Saint- 

Aubin, 

Moreau 

le jeune, 

Boilly, 

Prieur. 



"Ballet dans£ au theatre de I'Op^ra dans le Carnaval du Pamasse" 
was clearly more to his taste than the task of depi^ng Laban's 
unpleasing adventures with his erring daughter. 

This work, which was exhibited by Gabriel in the " Salon des 
GrlU:es" at the Colys^e in 1776, was engraved by Basan and 
dedicated by him to the " Due de la Valiere Pair et grand 
Fauconnter de France , . . Capitaine des Chasses de la Capitannerie 
Royale de la Varenne du Louvre."^ The etching was prepared 
by Saint-Aubin himself, and its sedu^ive brilliance is such that it 
cannot be obliterated even by Basan's graver — a tool which has 
not added beauty to the work as prepared by its author. With 
the " Bal d'Auteuil " may be grouped the " Dimanches de Saint- 
Cloud " ^ — in all the various states which make Gabriel's method of 
work so entertaining — the " Reunion dans un Pare," where the 
professional bearded old model makes his appearance as a beggar at 
one of the tables, and the " Chaises mises aux Thuilleries/' with 
its companion, " Le Tonneau d'arrosage." 

The "Chaises mises aux Thuilleries" is dated 1760: "En 
ce temps-la le beau jardin des Thuilleries 6toit le rend^vous de 
tout ce qu'il y avoit de grand et d'^Ugant dans la ville. On o*y 
avoit pour se reposer que quelques bancs de hois ^pars dans les 
contre-allees. lis ^toient toujours trcs occupies et encore plus 
desires. ... En 1760 le gouverneur du chiteau, Bontemps, fit placer 
dans la grande alUe quelques milliers de chaises, dont il donna la 
ferme i sa maltresse. . . . Les bancs furent abandonn^s ; il parut 
m£me ignoble de s'en servir. Le grand concours du monde 
occasionnant beaucoup de poussi^re, les loueurs de chaises firent 
faire un tonneau roulant asses ingdnieux pour arroser la promenade. 
C'est le sujet de la seconde vignette." ® 

These were the scenes in which the bohemian spirit of Gabriel 
delighted and he sought them reckless of all but the joy of the 
moment : yet he seems to have been visited occasionally by an 
uneasy impulse of allegiance to forms of art such as he had been 
hidden to admire in the classes of the Academy. We find in his 

' Imprestions of this beautiful etching are, I believe, extremely rare. See Chap. 
11^ p. 33, note 3. 

* The drawing of this subjed was in the de Goncourt ooUedion aod i* repro- 
duced in "L'Art du XVIII. Si^e," Li. A fine drawing, the composition of which 
recalls that of the " Dimanches de St. Cloud," is in the colieftion of Mr. Hescltioe, 
who possesses abo the sketch of a group drawing from the life and that of a large 
group of dancing figures, both of which were in the de Goncourt collection. 

* See MS. note on the proof of the *' Chaises mises aux Thuilleries " in the 
volume ** Les St. Aubin " in the Cabinet des Estampes. It has been reproduced in 
full b^ MM. Portalis and B^aldi (** Graveurs du XVIII. Siide," t. iii., p. 478-479). 

132 



d by Google 



REUNION DANS UN pARC. 

(Gabkiel Dt. Saint-Aubin.) 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



copy of the livret for the Salon of 1761 — which is full of tiny The 
pen-and-ink sketches — that the most careful note is devoted to f*'P.'* 
Cochin's "Lycurgue bless6 dans une sidition."* Nothing amongst Moreau 
the work of Gabriel de Saint-Aubin is more curious than the lejeunc, 
minute sketches which fill these little books — sometimes, as in prieut-' 
that of [769, washed in with sepia, sometimes simply sketched in 
pencil and retouched with the pen. They show an ever ready 
catholicity of interest, and in the margins of the catalogue for 
1 777 Robin's plafond for the " Salle de Speftacle de Bordeaux '* is 
as carefully noted as " La port et citadelle de Saint-Pitersbourg sur 
la Neva " — the engraving which involved Le Bas in his quarrel 
with Le Prince.2 

Gabriel himself exhibited officially for the first and only time, 
not at the Salon which he had so zealously frequented, but at the 
exhibition of the maitres in 1774.* He was then " adjoint ^ pro- 
fesseur," and at the head of his list of contributions stands " Le 
Triomphe de I'Amour sur tous les Dieux," next to which comes 
" L'Ecole de Zeuxis . . . I'an du monde 3,564." This is followed 
by "Eflfet du tremblement de terre \ Lisbonne"* and a series of 
other works, amongst which figure a " Fete de Village et 
Pendant " — the only entry which suggests that Gabriel had really 
painted something to please himself. That he could paint, work 
such as the little canvas exhibited this year at the Guildhall under 
the title of '* Le Nozze di Figaro " bears eloquent witness.^ 

Not one of the works described in the " Catalogue " of the 
maitres have I succeeded in identifying. It is, however, impossible 
to believe that their author put into subje6ts evidently selected 
with a view to " I'enseignement," as was the hounden duty of a 
professor, the gaiety and graceful satire which he brought to the 
rendering of a " Parade aux theatres du Boulevard " — the engraving 
of which is said to be by his brother's pupil, Duclos — or the easy 

' See Chap. III., p. 37, note 1, and Chap. X., p. 151. 

' The catalogues cited here are in the Cabinet des Estampes ; others arc in the 
hands of various amateurs. Fourteen were sold in 1808 on the death of Augustin de 
St. Aubin (" L'Art du XVIII. Siicle," t. i., p. 370). " Salons " found a rival in " Sales." 
No great sale took place without the presence of Gabriel, and his copies of the cata- 
logues are also covered with innumerable small drawings. In this way he has enriched 
the pages of those of L. M. Van Loo (1772), de Fournelle (1776), Natoire and Fitz 
James (1778) and Randon de Boisset. This last is now in the colIeAion of Mr. 
Heseltine. 

* He sent works abo, as we have seen, to the Colysfe, where, after the suppres- 
sion of their Academv, some of the maitris held a surreptitious exhibition (sec 
Appendix D), which, tnough it was noticed in the press, had no official san^on, 

* A fine drawing admired by artists, we are toli^ and ruined by bis own addition) 
and corre^ons (MS. note on the ** Recueil des plantes " of Germain de Saint>Aubin). 

' No. 117. Lent by M. Warneck. 



d by Google 



The freedom which distinguishes the fine drawing of** Un grand diner 

AubiQ *^*"^ ""* Orangerie," which formerly belonged to M. Armand. but 

Morea'u is now in the coUedtion of M. Valton, together with Gabriel's famous 

le jeune. " Ouvrier de iileuses k deux mains " — signed and dated 1 777. 

Priew. ^^^* drawing must have been amongst his last work, and 

amongst his last work we must also reckon the drawings made by 

him for the " Ouvrage intitule abreg6 de I'histoire romaine orni 

dc 49 cstampcs. Paris, 1 789." ^ Many, if not all, of these designs 

are attributed to Gabriel. The " PI. 39 " which sets forth the 

triumphal procession of Pompcy in the Forum is signed '* Gabriel 

de St. Aubin del." and " Pelletier sc." In spite of the technical 

merits of the work, I confess that I would rather possess one such 

drawing as those in M. Valton's colle£tlon, or the wonderful 

"Siance de Physique h. la Monnaie" which the kindness of 

M. Doucet enables me to reproduce, than all those done in 

illustration of the history of Rome. 

The " Experience de Chimie," once in the Goncourt colleftion, 
is dated 1779, the year before Gabriel's death. He died young, 
exhausted by the feverish passion with which he gave himself up 
to every passing caprice and vagrant fency. The beaten path had 
no charms for him. He seems to have lived in the street, at the 
" Cafe," in the auction room, or wherever his fellow-men happened 
to have come together.'' In his haste to be with them every 
personal care was forgotten. The description of the clothes which 
he brought with him to his brother Germain's house, when, after 
suffering for six months, he had himself carried there, ** pour £tre 
plus h. portee de secours," five days before his death, justify his 
brother's words : " C'est dommage qu'il ait n^gligd I'ordrc et la 
proprct^."* An overcoat of striped plush, a dressing-gown, black 
breeches, an old pair of slippers, a dirty shirt, a woollen nightcap 
without a lining, a pocket handkerchief — these were " Ics seuls 
effets dans lesquels il ^tait enveloppe dans la chaise k porteurs dans 
laquelle il s'est fait transporter." 

On Thursday, February loth, 1780, Germain, the "dessinateur 
du roi," sent for the commissaire to declare that his brother Gabriel- 
Jacques de Saint-Aubin, "peintrc de I'Acad^mie de Saint-Luc," 

' 7*fae de Goncourt give the date of 1764 for the drawings prepared hif Gabriel 
for this work ("L'Art du XVIII. Siicle," L i., p. 373), 

* See ibiJ.f pp. 374, 375, for the admiraUe portrait of his adivitv drawn by tbe 
de Goncourt. It is too long to be transferred to these pages, but their mention of 
Gabriel's sketch of Damiens in his cell, " boucl£ sur une grosse (Herrc," the night 
before his ocecution, cannot be omitted, 

* Ihid.^ p. 405, note; MS. note by Germain de Saint-Aubtn on an album of 
drawings. 

•34 



db, Google 



STANCE DE Physique k la Monnoie. 

(Gabriel de Saint-Aubin.) 

Drawing in the collection gf M, Jacques Dmicet. 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



had died at eleven o'clock in the morning of the previous day. The 
The seals were set on the doors of the apartment in which he had ^'?*" 
lived in the rue de Beauvais, but when it came to making an Moreau 
inventory of his goods the commissatre takes note of " le d^sordre Ic jeune, 
qui rignc dans led. appartement et Timpossibiliti qu'il y i de j^^^* 
procider k Tinventorii de cc qu'il renferme avant qu'au pr^dable il 
ait ^t£ ^t un arrangement et mise en ordre de tous les meubles et 
efFets, tableaux, dessins, livres et papiers boulevers6s et confondus 
les uns dans les autres." ^ 

This note points to an exceptional state of things, which was 
due only to Gabriel's eccentric habits. Germain, the elder brother, 
whose trade as dessmateur pour itoffes reminds us that the father of 
this family was a " brodeur du roi,"^ had no lack of means. Even 
after the losses which he sets down in the autobiographical note 
to which reference has already been made, servants and money 
and plate were not wanting in his house,^ and Augustin, " graveur 
de la bibliothJ;que du Roi demeurant rue Thircze," was also at 
this date in easy circumstances. 

Augustin de Saint-Aubin * had succeeded to the post which he 
then occupied in 1777, on the death of Etienne Fessard. He had 
been a pupil of Fessard, but fortunately for himself had been first 
taught by his brother Gabriel. He was but a boy of sixteen when 
he engraved a ticket for a " Concert bourgeois de la rue Saint- 
Antoine " and executed a little etching of a party of excited 
women in a Salon, the title of which is " L'lndiscr^tion veng^e." 
The little figures are ludicrously out of proportion, but their 
attitudes are fiill of spirit, and have an air that reminds us of 
Eisen's illustrations to the ** Eloge de la Folic," which had 
appeared in the previous year. 

In spite of this early evidence of unusual gifts Augustin was 
put to the humblest tasks. On the engraving of a " Crucifix with 
St. John and the Virgin," which opens the series of his work at 
the Cabinet des Estampes, he writes: "J'ai fait cette drogue la 
premiere semaine que je suis entri chez Etienne Fessard en 1755." * 

■ Jules Guiflrey, "SccU& et Inrentaires d'Artistcs," N. A., 1885, pp. 105-106. 
His hdrs were three brotben and a sister, Catharine, who lived with Germain in the 
rue des Rouvaires, and to whom Gabrid, on his death-bed, gave his gold watch and 
**sa m£daille d'or de I'Acad^mie." Basan was called in to value the engravings and 
paintings. 

* Charles-Germain de Saint-Aubin tells us that he conferred on himself the title 
of " * Dcssinateur du Roi' que personne ne me contesta," when he married in 1751 
(MS. note, de Goncourt, " L*Art du XVIII. Siicle," t. i^ p. 400). 

' N. A., 1885, pp. 183-184. 

* 1 736-1807. 

' Portalis and B£raldi mention that Augustin at about this time won a medal at 

'35 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



DERNlkRE HEURE DE MaDAME DE ReBKCQUE. 

(AuGUSTiN de Saint-Aubin.) 



Digitized by Google 



mained content with this position and was never received, for the The 
two portraits which he was ordered to execute were never com- f**J".*" 
pleted.^ He had little time for gratuitous work, being then at the Morea'o 
height of his professional success, and the climax of his art was lejeune, 
reached when he exhibited his remarkable drawings of the " Bal pari " P^*i[,^' 
and the " Concert Bourgeois " at the Salon of 1773.* To the same 
Salon Augustin sent, amongst other things, a series of portraits 
" d'aprfes les dessins de M. Cochin," and the success which they 
obtained determined the continued produ6;ion of similar work. 

From this time onwards the enormous demand for these portraits, 
in the execution of which he exhibited — as in the Marmontel at 
the head of the " Contes Moraux" — his brilliant power of rendering 
the flexibility and softness of flesh,* drew him wholly away from 
the class of subject which really justifies his reputation. Yet 
amongst these portraits — many of which, as for example that of 
Linguet, framed by ChoflFard,* have ad vtvum inscribed on them — 
there are not one, nor two, but many which may claim to be 
chefs-^oeuvre of delicacy and of truth. The fine head of Necker,^ 
the Mariette after Cochin, the Madame de Pompadour etched 
in 1764, and even more the wonderful Mme. Radix and Mme. 
Litine make us forget our regret that we are to have no more 
" Promenades sur les remparts," nor " Bals pares," nor " Concerts 
bourgeois." Augustin handled old age as delicately as the years 
themselves seem to have touched Mme. L^tine : in the very folds 
of her dress there hangs a perfume of faded rose-leaves, and one 
understands that her son-in-law should have put his hand to this 
and the companion portrait of himself in order to justify the im- 
pertinent inscription " La Live sc."' 

The Revolution, which was to realize Augustin's happiest 
dreams, ruined him and ruined his art. Expelled from the atelier 
which he had occupied since, he says, 1777, when he succeeded 
his old master, Fessard, as " dessinateur de la bibliotheque du 

' The two portraits ordered on June 1st, 1 771, were those of Le Moyne le pire, 
ifter Toct]u4, and of Louis dc Silvestre, after Greuze. Those named on July 24th, 
1772, arc of Le Moyne le pirc and Dumont. 

' These drawings were admirably engraved by his pupil, Duclos. 

' See Grimm's mention of Saint-Aubin's engraving of the portrait of Diderot 
after Greuze, "Corres. lit.," January 15th, 1767. 

* Salon of 1783. He exhibited at the same time a second set of drawings for the 
" Pierrci gravies antiijues du Cabinet de M. le Due d'Orlians." The first set were 
shown in 1775. 

' Exhibited in 1789: "Portrait de M, Necker. D'apres M. Duplessis. Format 
in-i 2, gravi en Juillet 1 789." See ako the Salon of 1 785 and p. 160. 

' These portraits are included in the collection of his own work made by 
Augustin himself. 

■37 T 



db, Google 



The 

Saint- 

Aubin, 

Moreau 

le jeune, 

Boitly, 

Prieur. 



roi," ^ Augustin was taken on by Renouard to execute the frontis- 
pieces and portraits needed for his various publications. In 1789 
— if we may identify *' Au moins soyez discret " and " Comptez 
sur raes serments " with the " Deux demi-figures dans des ovales " 
which he then exhibited — he was in the full force of his powers. 
Then comes the dull succession of hack-work by which he had, if 
possible, to live. 

The portraits begin to take on a deadly sameness of aspect; : we 
get the incessant repetition of little profiles treated in imitation of 
cameos, in the same oval medallion set in the same frame, bearing 
the same label. Individual character and personal accent dis- 
appear; the supple talent of Saint-Aubin is hopelessly crippled 
and never regains its spring. The fire and grace which animate 
even the little etching of " L'lndiscr^tion vengee " have fled the 
pencil which decorates the pages of the " Sifecle de Louis XIV *'* 
with heads of La Valli^re, Montespan and other illustrations of his 
Court, in company with wretched drawings from the enfeebled 
fingers of the once brilliant Moreau le jeune.' 

On the 21 St April, 1806, Augustin writes pitifully to Renouard 
begging for a little money : " You sent me," he says, " only 
200 fr. last time, if it is possible for you to give me 300 fr. 
this month, it would give me pleasure." Moreau was even 
more sadly insistent: "I entreat M. Renouard to help me," he 
writes in a letter of February, 1814, " for I do not know where to 
turn. I have not a farthing." * In the same year he was attacked 
by cancer, in the arm, and within a few weeks of his death he re- 
peated his application. " I am grieved, sir," he says, " to worry 
you, but I am forced to do so, being unable to work at present as my 
arm is useless. It seems that from now till the end of the year 
I cannot hope to use it freely ; having no chance of receiving 
money till the end of January, I apply to you to get some as soon 
as possible; I count on you for this week, without fail."" 

The career which closed thus disastrously had opened with 
early and unusual brilliance, prolonged throughout a period of un- 
usual produ6livencss and prosperity. Moreau, who was the son of 
a " perruquier de la rue de Buci," was chosen by Le Lorraln, at 

' He had no lodgings there, onlv a studio. See hia letter to the Minister Pari 
(de Goncourt, ** L'Art du XVIII. Si&le," t. i., pp. 395-396). 

' Paris, 1808. 

' 1741-1814. R. April 23rd, 1789. 

' Adrien Mourcau, " Les Moreau, pp. 132, 1 33. There is, I think, a catalogue 
of Moreau's sate which shows that he had not parted with bis coUedtons, It is 
possible that they could not be sold except at a great loss. 

• Ibid., pp. 133, 134. 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



Little Girl asleep. 

(Dkawinu by Mokeau le jeune.) 

ColiedioH of Mr. Heseltine. 



db, Google 



the early age of seventeen, to accompany him to St. Petersburg. The 
There he was appointed — as we learn from his daughter, who f **t'" 
became Madame Carle Vernet — " premier professeur de dessin k Moreau 
I'Academie Imp^riale,"^ but Le Lorrain died and Moreau re- lejeune, 
turned to Paris eighteen months after he had left it. Priem^". 

In Paris> Moreau found his way rapidly to fortune. He 
entered the workshop of Le Bas and in 1761,^ at the age of 
twenty, he signed his nrst engraving. This early work has not the 
beauty or character which soon began to distinguish the execution 
of his drawings. During the next three or four years he seems to 
have been wholly occupied in preparing plates for other people. 
Thus he brilliantly etched, after Grcuze, " La Bonne Education " 
and " La Paix du Manage," both of which were finished by that 
unworthy pupil of Flipart, Pierre-Charles Ingouf. The charming 
" Philosophic endormie," on which we read " Aliamet dircxit," 
was also etched by Moreau. The engraving of " David and Bath- 
sheba," after Rembrandt, which is dated 1763, is entirely by him, 
but it only shows that, in spite of his extraordinary facility and 
skill, he has utterly failed in the attempt to work in the manner of 
that mysterious master. 

In 1765 Moreau's marriage with Franfoise-Nicole Pineau,' 
the granddaughter of the publisher Pierre Prault, and niece of his 
successor Laurent, probably determined the bent of his career. 
Thenceforward we find him incessantly employed in the illustra- 
tion of books. Miniature editions of the Italian classics were 
then appearing " In Parigi, appresso Prault," and in the year of 
Moreau s marriage Prevost was engraving for the " Pastor Fido" of 
Guarini the vignettes which had been designed for its illustration 
by Cochin twenty years before (1745). Moreau added the title- 
page» and though in many others — as in that to the " Tempio di 
Gnido" — he showed himself a more consummate artist, I do not 
think that in the whole range of this lovely form of art there is 
anything more finely touched than the voluptuous movement of 
the two doves, who, nestling down on the quiver and arrows in 
the centre, give each other the kiss of love. 

' "Notice bistorique par sa fille, M" Carle Vernet" (A. de I'A. fr., t. i., p, 183). 
Sec ako *'E1(^ par M. FeuiUet" (** Moniteur," 1814, No. 355) and "Eloge par 
M. Ponce" (" Mercurc," June 15th, r8i6). 

* This date is given by MM. Portalis and B^raldi as "1781," an obvious misprint 
for " 1 761." 

' Fran^oise-Nicole was the daughter of Dominique Pineau and Jeanne-Marine 
Prault See Emile Btais, "Les Pineau," p. 116. MM. Portalis and Biraldi are, 
I think, in error when they sute that she was the daughter of Franks Pineau. 
Francois-Nicolas Pineau was the brother ofPranfoise-Nicole. See ibid. 



d by Google 



The 

Saint- 

Aubin, 

Moreau 

ie jeune, 

Boilly, 

Prieur. 



The work on which Moreau was immediately employed after 
drawing this little gem was the designing and engraving all the 
tailpieces for Prault's edition of that " Histoire de France," by 
President H^nault, which was further and most brilliantly adorned 
by Gaucher's miniature portrait of Marie Leczinska, set in a frame 
that Choffard alone could have invented. The proof of extra- 
ordinary gifts shown in Moreau's work for Prault * brought him, 
from Basan and Le Mire, the proposal to join the band then 
engaged upon their famous Ovid, whilst Le Bas continued to 
keep him busy with etching plates which he himself afterwards 
finished and signed. 

In this way Moreau became associated in 1768 with the pro- 
duftion of that famous estampe galante, the " Couchi de la Marine," 
which was finished and signed by Simonet after Baudouin. Two 
years earlier Moreau had engraved after Le Paon — a very inferior 
draughtsman — the '* Revue de la Maison du roi au Trou d'Enfer." 
I do not know the drawing made by Le Paon for this engraving, 
but anyone who has seen other drawings by him and noted their 
peculiar mannerisms must necessarily suppose that there is a great 
deal less of Le Paon than of Moreau in the work as we now have 
it. In any case we owe Le Paon a debt of gratitude in that he 
inspired Le Bas to order of Moreau — as a companion to the 
" Revue de la Maison du roi au Trou d'Enfer '* — the famous draw- 
ing of the " Revue de la Plaine des Sablons."'' 

Moreau's nomination in 1770, "sur la presentation m6me de 
Cochin," as " dessinateur des Menus Plaisirs " ' gave him an 
assured position which permitted the free exercise of his talent 
and marks the moment when much of his best work was pro- 
duced. It was the year in which his little daughter, whose 
slumber he has sketched with so much charm, was born to him — 
she to whose pious devotion we owe the colleftion of her father's 
work in the Print Room of the Bibliothcque Nationalc and the 
short sketch of his life written with the tenderness that befits a 
daughter much beloved.* 

* Perhaps the finesC work of this class by Moreau is ** Lcs Graces," engraved 
after Moreau by N. Delamiay, in Du Querlon's "Les Graces" (see ^ 106, note 9). 
It is hr superior to the other four illustrations by Moreau in the same volume and 
to his four designs for Imbert's "Jugcment de Paris," 1772. 

' Engraved in 17S7 by Malbeste, Li^nard and N£e. The drawing, one of the 
finest bek>nging to the de Goncourt, was sold at their death to M. Chauchard for 
29,000 franca. 

' A. Moureau, " Les Moreau," p. 42. 

* The notice is written at the beginning of the first volume of the colleftion of 
Moreau's work, which iilb live volumes, and is signed " F. Vernct, ate Moreau, 20 
Oaobre 1818." 

140 



d by Google 



IjE Retouk dk Claire: "Nouvklle Hl^UJfsE," i774-'783. 
(Le Mire, after Moreau i.r jbvne.) 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



Nothing at this point was wanting to perfect the astonishing The 
good fortune which waited on Moreau's footsteps and brought ?"*^*" 
him fame and honour and prosperity at the age when most men Moreau 
have their spurs to win. That some of his best work was done lejeune, 
when he was about thirty is a noteworthy fidt. Amongst it we p°ig2r' 
must reckon the twenty-six illustrations which he engraved him- 
self and contributed to the " Chansons," before he quarrelled with 
Laborde ; ^ those which he prepared for the edition of Molifere, 
published in 1773, and the fine plates in the " Nouvelle H^loise " 
produced in the following year. These last are treated with a 
breadth which one would scarcely expe<% from the same hand 
which, in 1772, had given us the four superb miniatures con- 
tributed, together with various minor subjects, to Desormeaux* 
" Histoire de la Maison de Bourbon." 

Of these, as of other book-illustrations by Moreau, we may 
say that those in which he treats personages of his own day, 
wearing the costumes of his own century or the traditional cos- 
tumes of the French stage — which were incorporate, so to say, in 
the daily national life — are invariably the best. Like Gravelot, 
Moreau seems bored by classic drapery and conventional nudities ; 
his drawings for the " Princesse d'Elide " remind us of those 
executed for the tragedies of Voltaire,' at a date when Moreau's 
brilliant faculties had begun to fail him, whereas in illustrating a 
scene from *' La critique de I'Ecole des Femmes " or " Les pr^- 
cieuses ridicules " he is brilliantly intelligent and free from the 
tiresome mannerisms which disgrace the work of many of his 
rivals, as, for example, Eisen. 

In the " Monument de Costume"' we find perhaps the finest 
example of the brilliant sincerity of Moreau's work. He gives 
us no mere set of fashion plates such as limited the ambition of the 
publisher Eberts, at whose instance the work was undertaken, but 
a series of drawings which represent phases of the life of a definite 
social class. The first illustrate the childish days of the girl, and 
then Moreau goes on to give us the most intimate details of the 

* Sec p. 109, note 3. The drawings, together with those of the other volumea, 
are at Chantilty. The frame of the dedication, drawn also by Moreau, is engraved 
by Masquelier. 

* "CEuvres de Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Londres, 1774-1783." 

' In the Proc^-verbaux of the R<^1 Academy, February 3rd, 17S1, we find the 
entry of a " Pro$pe£tus pour une suite d'estampes, destinie a djcorer la nouvelle 
Edition de M. De Voltaire . . . M. Moreau le jeune, Graveur et dessinateur du 
Calrinet, et Agr^^ de laditc Acadimie . . . permission de faire paroitre sous les 
auspices de 1' Academic." 

* See p. 109. The dates on the engravings show that the first were begun in 
1776, the last oftbt second set finished in 1783. 

141 



db, Google 



The 

Saint- 

Aubin, 

Moreau 

le jeuae, 

Boilly, 

Prieur. 



existence of the young married woman. We see her in the stages 
of her motherhood : " La diJclaration de la grossessc " and •* N'ayez 
pas peur, ma bonne amie," are followed by *' C'est un fils. Mon- 
sieur," and " Les delices de la maternit^." Then come her court 
appearances, her coquetries, her assignations, her walks and rides 
in the Bois.^ In the third series Moreau sets before us the 
youth of a similar class developing through various stages of 
gallantry and pleasure till he becomes the not much married man. 
One of this set — brilliantly engraved by Malbeste — is perhaps the 
most beautiful of all. It has been diversely christened " La Sortie 
de rOpiira" and " Le Mariage"; it seems, on the whole, to be 
more probably " Le Mariage," and as such I have therefore re- 
produced it here.* 

At the height of his power there came to Moreau a great 
opportunity. The office which imposed on him such futilities as 
allegorical drawings on the recovery of the Countess d'Artois,* 
brought him the great spedtacle of the coronation of Louis XVI. 
His rendering of this subjeft embodies a moment of exalted vision 
in the most impressive charafter. No scene of royal pomp has 
ever been depid;ed with greater perfection and fulness of insight 
and with more exquisite and masterly art. The conception ot 
the magnificent picture by David of the coronation of Josephine 
by Napoleon is not of a higher order. 

The extraordinary significance of the scene lifts it into a 
different order of interest from that occupied by the equally 
brilliant " Louis XV k la Plaine des Sablons," whilst both these 
works stand infinitely above anything of a similar character after- 
wards produced by Moreau. The " Sacre de Louis XVI " is the 
apotheosis of the old regime seen in all the blinding glory of royal 
state and consecrated by the holy magic of the Church. The 
pi^orial efFed of the composition is far finer than that achieved 

' In this set Martini engraves the " Declaration de la &03seise ** and ^ Les Pre- 
cautions"; Triire,"ren acccpte Tbeureux presage"} Helman, "N'ayez pas peur, 
ma bonne amie," "Dilices dc la Materniti" and "L'Accord parfeit"} Baquojr, 
** C'est un fils, Monsieur "j Baauo^ and Patas, **Le9 Pctits Parrains"; Guttenbci^ 
**Le R.endez-vous pour Marly ' and "Rencontre au bois de Boulogne"; Oelaunay 
le jeune signs ** Les Adieux." 

* The third set opens with the engraving by Halbou of " Le Lever " ; Martini 
follows with " La petite Toilette " ; Triirc engraves " La Grande " (repeated by 
Romanet for the edition as published ; see Bocher, p. 493) ; Guttenberg, " La Course 
des Chevaux"j Camligue, *' Le Pari gagni"; Dambrun, "La Partie de Wisch"; 
Thomas, "Oui ou Non"; Delignon, "Le Seigneur chez son Fermier"; Patas, 
" La Petite Loge " } Malbeste, " La Sortie de I'Ofwra " ; Helman, '* Le Souper fin " j 
and Simonet, '* Le vrai Bonheur." 

* Ex. 1783. The drawing is now in the Mus6c de Bayeux (N. A., 1874-1875, 
P- 347)- 

142 



y Google 



db, Google 






:r:, M 



db, Google 



Digiti'zGd by CjOOQIC 



Leaves krom a Sketch-Book {Mus^e du Louvre). 

(MOREAU LE JEUNE.) 



Digitized by Google 



in any similar work by Cochin. The attention of everyone being The 

concentrated on the King, there is, indeed, no room for the ?"".*" 
, . , . , ° . . 1 ,, T. , > ,. Aubin, 

amusing byplay which entertains us m the ^' Bal masque or Moreau 
the "Jeu du roi," but this is more than compensated by the lejeunc, 
representative character of the various aftors. Prieur. 

The drawing and engraving ' of the " C^r^monie du Sacre " 
were exhibited by Moreau at the Salon of 1781, together with an 
immense group of other work, amongst which may be specially 
noticed the " Dessin de I'lllumination, ordonnee par M. le Due 
d'Aumont, pour le mariage du Roi " ; the " Dessin representant 
Louis XV k la Plaine des Sablons " ; many drawings for " L'Histoire 
de France " — some of which are specially marked as " appartenant 
k M. Le Bas " — and twenty-nine for the Brussels edition of the 
works of Rousseau, in which the kneeling figure placed beside 
the tomb of Jean-Jacques was obliterated by order of the Censor. 
Other groups of illustrations are for Metastasio, for the " Hen- 
riade," for the " Description g^nirale de la France," but the 
splendour of the colledbion was not enhanced by the inclusion of 
the drawing representing *' L'Arriv^e de J. J. Rousseau au sdjour 
des Grands Hommes ; sur le devant, Diogcne souffle sa lanterne,"^ 
Moreau's first essay in a style which found its most ridiculous 
expression in ** La reception de Mirabcau aux Champs-Elys^es " ' 
exhibited by him in 1800. 

Before we reach that date we have gratefully to remember the 
four famous drawings of the " Ffites de la Ville i Toccasion de la 
naissance de Mgr. le Dauphin " * which appeared at the Salon 
of 1783 in company with " Douze dessins pour les CEuvres de 
Voltaire, dont la colleAion est d^di^e a S.A.R. Fr^d^ric-Guillaume, 
Prince de Prusse."" Those for the Tragedies, Comedies and 
"Contes"— eighteen in all — appeared together with the frontis- 
piece in 1785 ; seven more were exhibited in 1787, together with 
" Un grand dessin representant I'Assemblie des Notables. Dessin 
ordonni par le Roi." 

In this year, too, Moreau also bethought himself of his duties 
towards the Academy. The " progressive " party probably saw in 
him a useful ally and suggested that he should qualify himself to 

' The etching for this plate is not unfrequently to be met with and is of extra> 
ordinary beauty. 

* Engraved by Macret ' Engraved by Masquelier, 1792. 

* L'Arriv^ de la Reine a I'Hotel de Ville, ie Feu d' Artifice, le Festin Royal, le 
Bal masqu£. See article by M. Germain Bapst, G. B. A., 1889. The drawings were 
exhilxtcd in 1783, the engraving in 178^. 

' Sec the letter concerning the Voltaire to Bcaumarchais, July 15th, 178a 
CN. A., 1871, p. 38s). 

■43 



db, Google 



The vote. A drawing of "Tullie, faisant passer son Char sur le corps 

A* w*' ^^ *^" ^hre " of which we are told that it was to be engraved 

Moreau " po"*" 1* reception de I'autcur " appeared together with the King's 

lejeune, drawing of the '* Assemble des Notables." The engraving was 

^etw' delayed by its author's absence from Paris, but a drawing of the 

same subjedl appeared a second time at the Salon in 1789, with 

the note, " C'est le morceau de reception de I'auteur," * and from 

that date onwards we shall have no more delightful water-colours 

such as the piquant " Soupcr k Louvecicnnes," ^ that chef-d'ceirore 

of distinguished feasting, but cuts for the Old and New Testament ' 

in the commonest taste and plenty of false sentiment in illustration 

of the " Lcttres d'Helotse ct Abailard." * 

Like all- the set to which he belonged, Moreau lost his fortune, 
his gift and his style in the throes of the Revolution. A change 
for the worse in the character of his work dates from the tour 
which he made in Italy in 1785,^ of which Madame Carle Vernet 
says that " in less than two years, one saw a new man, as much 
superior to his old self as he had been previously to his con- 
temporaries." This statement is confirmed by the " Sketch-book " 
of 1785, which is in the possession of Mr. Heseltinc. It is clear 
A'om the "academies" of the opening leaves — helmeted heroes 
straddling behind shields — that Moreau is already on the decline, 
but he makes two graceful drawings of French landscape, probably 
on his way south, and at Venice completely recovers himself, and 
the pages are filled with a series of brilliant studies of the men and 
women before him. After his return and his reception by the 
Academy he fell an easy prey to the tendencies of which David 
was the chief exponent, and became absorbed by the internecine 
struggles which divided his confreres. On behalf of David he 
even had an adtve skirmish with Vien during the turbulent 
meetings of 1790, the sentimental close of which brought tears, 
we are told, to their eyes." Wille himself was closely alhed in all 
these disputes with Moreau, to whom, shortly before, he had been 
**parrain " on his unanimous reception as a full Academician/ 
The temper which Moreau developed may be judged from the 

' It was engraved by Simonct in 1791. See Bochcr, p. 107. 

' In the Mus^ du Louvre. 

' These arc dated 1790, 1791 and 1792. Those of the New Testament were 
exhibited in 1791, others of the Afls of the Apostles in 1796, and eighteen for the 
"Testament de Saugrain" in 1798, together with the for^*seven drawings ftx 
Renouard's edition of Gessner. 

* Edition published by Didot le jeime, 1796. 

' N. A., 1878, p. 62. • Wille, Mim_ Sept. 23rd, 1790. 

' See P. V. and Wille, Mim., April 25th, 1789. 
144 



d by Google 



letter written by him from Paris "ce 27 jcnvicr 179 1 " to his The 
brother-in-law Franfois-Nicolas Pineau. " Quand i notre ville," ?"?*' 
he says, " tout va ass6 bien except^ le clairg6 qui nous tracasse on Moreau 
peut, mes nous en viendrons k bout il faut I'csp^rer ; mais ces lejeune, 
M. M. sieurs sont diablement coriace, mes il trouveron plus dur prieiw'. 
qu'eux. Hier et avan hier nous avons instaler nos 6 tribunaux ; ce 
la fci passer a mcrveille." ^ From this time onwards Moreau's 
second manner became more and more accentuated. Drawings 
such as fill the pages of his sketch-book in the Louvre,^ full of 
human interest and spontaneous charm, were too trifling for the 
newly-acquired dignity of rhomme libre^ and the laboured com- 
position of "Tullia," which, as we have seen, was presented by 
Moreau to the Academy on his reception, did but open the long 
series of empty and stilted work by which he paid homage to his 
new ideals and turned his back on art, which draws vitality from 
the senses rather than from reason. " Une influence itrangire," 
as M, Duplessis puts it, ** changea tout d'un coup sa maniere et 
sembla paralyser ses faculties." ^ 

In 1798 Moreau's fortunes had fallen so low that he was glad to 
accept the post of Professor of Drawing at the " Ecoles Centrales." * 
Under the Empire he made vain attempts to renew his youthful suc- 
cesses: the tide had turned, and when Louis XVIII., in 18 14, com- 
passionately restored Moreau to his old post of " dessinateur du 
Cabinet du roi " he held it but for a few months before his death.' 

The companions of Moreau's brilliant past had dropped one by 
one into poverty and neglefl. Choffard — the unrivalled " gravcur 
de I'accessoire " who was never trivial, not even when he was only 
sketching his own trade-card, or inventing an " ex libris," or 
drawing the frame for a portrait by Gaucher or by Ficquet — was 
obliged to occupy his time in writing the " Notice sur la gravure " 
which he published in 1804. A lew years later he too died in 
poor circumstances, forced to undertake the most inferior work to 
get a little money for his daily needs.' The days were long past 

' Emile fiiais, "Les Pineau," p. 131. 

■ See the article by M. Lafcncstre, G. B. A., 1888. 

* "Mcrveilles de la Gravure," p. 278. This little book, in spite of one or two 
inaccuracies, is more original and suggestive than the " Histoire de la Gravure en 
France," an earlier work by the same author. 

* See Salon, 1798, in which he is entered as " Moreau jeune, . . . profiaseur aux 
Ecoles Centrales de Paris au Palais national des Sciences et des Arts." 

' See letters of Feb. 8th and March 26th published by M. Emile Biats, " Les 
Pineau," pp. 134, 135. His last and perhaps worst work is the Cr^billon published 
by Renouard in 1817, three years after Moreau's death. 

* See letter of the engraver Legrand to Mme. de Charriire (Portalis and BfraldJ, 
(■ i., P- ♦»3)' 

145 U 



d by Google 



The 

Saint- 

Aubin, 

Moreau 

le jeune, 

BoiUy, 

Prieur. 



when, as Wille so often chronicled in his Journal, publishers, 
engravers, painters feasted together; when joyous dinners and 
suppers united the friends and pupils of Le Bas ; when Papelier 
and Eberts entertained Flipart and Choffard, Chardin and Roslin 
and Vien, or " my wife and I and our two sons " dined with " De- 
launay the engraver, to meet M. and Mme. Lempereur, M. and 
Mme. de Salnt-Aubin, M. Choffard and others." ^ 

Conspicuous amongst the few men who flourished prosperously 
both before and after the days of the Revolution was Louis Boilly.^ 
In faft he lived so late into the nineteenth century that one is 
surprised to find that he had nearly fallen a viflim to republican 
zeal for morality in 1794. The licence of certain subjeds of his 
pencil was denounced by a brother artist to the Sociiti R^ 
publicaine des Arts, and by that society to the Comit^ du Salut 
Public ; Boilly was lost, had it not been that a timely warning 
enabled him to destroy the offending "sujets de boudoir" and 
begin a sketch for the " Triomphe de Marat," an achievement 
which, coupled with the declaration " qu'il expie les moeurs d'une 
composition un peu libre en exer9ant son pinceau d'une maniere 
plus digne des Arts," procured his absolution.* 

In spite of that incessant activity as a painter of small portraits,* 
and as a draughtsman and lithographer, which was imposed on 
Boilly by the necessities of his numerous family, it is as a painter 
of "sujets de boudoir," such as drew on him the thunders of the 
Soci^ti R^publicaine, and of scenes from everyday life that he 
deserves to be remembered, to be consulted and admired. Amongst 
the most charming specimens of this class of his work are "Le 
Cadeau delicat," " Les Chagrins de I'Amour," " Poussez ferme " and 
" La douce Resistance," catalogued by M. Harrisse, together with 
three other subjects, as in the Wallace Colleftion, but his talents 
as a great draughtsman — the equal of the best in his day, which 
was a day of great draughtsmen in France — are better shown in his 
drawings and sketches. As an example of a less familiar class 
may be instanced " L'Arriv^e d'une Diligence," in the Musee du 
Louvre, and his fine composition, " Depart des Conscrits de 1807," 
in the colle6lion of M. Lehmann. 

The qualities which mark these remarkable examples of the 

' Willc, Mim., Feb. 12th, 1765, and Sept. 25th, 177+. 

* 1761-184.5. 

* Henry Harrisse, " Louis Boilly, Peintre, Dcssinateur et LidKuraphe," pp. IJ-IS- 

* A line series of these, including the charming ** Portrait de femme en roh; 
grise" (belonging to Dr. Piogey], were seen at the Exposition Centennale in 1890- 
The pre&ce to the catalogue entitled " Un Si^lc d'Art " contains some excellent 
notes on Louis-L&ipold Boilly by M. Armand Dayot. 

146 



y Google 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



3 r 

(0 ^ 

a X 

il 

,5 i 



dbyGoogle 



style developed by Boilly during his early years in Paris are to be The 
found in the beautiful " La Queue au Lait," which is here repro- 4''^*' 
duced. The pure truth of the types and attitudes, the harmonious Moreau 
expression of the very clothes worn by those who are pressing lejeune, 
together, with admirable unity of movement, speak of the perfeft prie^' 
certainty of hand and eye which distinguished this fine draughts- 
man. 

If it is scarcely possible to overestimate the importance of this 

froup of Boilly's work in relation to the anecdotic history of the 
ay, we are at the same time to be congratulated in that, in 
in his earlier days at least, it presents features of beauty and artistic 
value. As a rule the drawings which impose themselves as docu- 
ments are rarely entitled to attention in any other respect. Those 
executed by Jean-Louis Prieur^ for the "Tableaux de la Revolution 
Fran9aise *' ^ do not belong to this category, but they show us the 
progressive deterioration which overtook the work of an artist who 
gave himself up to the passions of the Terror. Most of the men 
who were aifeftcd by the revolutionary movement were inspired, 
like Moreau le jeune, by a mild enthusiasm for " I'homme libre " 
and classical costume, or followed David into stilted heroics and 
the severer duties of citizenship. Prieur went mad with blood. 

Of the sixty-eight drawings by him now in the Louvre, the 
first were begun in 1789, when Prieur married and settled in the 
Faubourg St. Denis. These — numbering thirty-one — are out of all 
proportion to the fifteen allotted to the events of 1 790 ; the later 
years are still less liberally illustrated, for Prieur became more and 
more absorbed in politics, until he was forced to accept, in Septem- 
ber, 1793, the fatal post of "juri au tribunal revolution naire." 
Slipped between the leaves of the text of the " Tableaux de la 
R^olution," these drawings, till recently, escaped attention, but 
have now been the subjeft of a very complete study by M. Jean 
GuifFrey in the pages of ** L'Art." There he has summed up all 
that is to be known of Prieur ; of the early days in the Temple, 
which brought him into connexion with Fouquier-Tinville, and of 
his work for Berthault' the engraver, who — out of all those 

' 1759-1795. He was brought up in the Temple, where his father, Louis Prieur, 
had taken reAige on account of debt Condemned to death after Thermidor, he was 
guillotined at the age of thirty-six. See GuiSrey, ''Les Dessins de Prieur, etc" 
("L'Art," Oa. 28th, 1901, p. 439). 

* Renouvier, " Hist, de I'Art pendant la Revolution," t. i., pp. 59-60, and Maurice 
Tourneux, " Bibliographic de I'Histoire de Paris pendant la Revolution Fran^aise," 
t. i., p. 33 tt itq. 

* 1737-1831. See Guiffrey, 11/ JM^rn; also Renouvier, ** Hist, de TArt pendant U 
Revolution," t. i., pp. 60-61. 

147 



DigitizGd by Vj OOQ IC 



The engaged on the " Tableaux de la Revolution " — alone died a 

J^"*' natural death. 

Moreau The drawings themselves make a fitting close to the story of 

lejeune, this century of art. In them an extraordinary chord is struck 
Priew. which includes all the gaiety, the thoughtlessness, the courtliness 
of the ancien rigiim. We pass from the enthusiastic " Repas des 
Gardes du corps " and see the fine air of royal representation that 
clothes '*Leroiirh6teldeVillede Paris, 7 Juillet 1789"; then the 
fervour of the " Voeu patriotique. Assemble nationale. 7 Sept' 
1789," seizes on us and prepares the way for a growing popular 
excitement : the " Place Louis XV " is strewn with headless busts, 
and as yet passion may be contented by the ruin of things inani- 
mate. Turn the pages and there is the terrible arrest at Varennes. 
Royalty huddled in the miserable room of a miserable inn ; the 
rabble swarming, hustling from the stairs; the King obscured by a 
countryman's coat, the Queen with a toy hat knocked on one side 
of her head ; both seen with the illuminating vision of hate. 
Turn the page again and the tumbril rolls along with its terrified 
burden and the heads are bleeding from the pikes. 

The quality of Prieur's work steadily degenerates as he be- 
comes more and more fervent, developing finally into " I'un des 
supp6ts de la Terreur." Moreau lost his individuality — as did 
most of the men who were then swept clear of the convictions of 
a lifetime by the popular current. Prieur lost his art. His later 
drawings are not to he compared for precision, for wit, for variety 
of incident with those which open the series of the " Tableaux de 
la Revolution Fran9aise." If we wish to think of him as an artist 
we must turn back to the earlier pages of this series, to the crowds 
which almost remind us of the inimitable skill of Cochin, to the 
" Repas des Gardes du Corps " and the " Roi 4 Thdtel de Ville de 
Paris." 



148 



Digitized by Google 



Is-? 

"^ " I 

^ < 
|3 



db, Google 



.Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



CHAPTER X 
THE ENGRAVERS IN COLOUR 

ONE of the most popular examples of the work of Augus- 
tin de Saint-Aubin, the charming figure tn disordered 
dress crying '• Soyez discret,*' is most popular of all in 
the coloured version. The existence and renewed 
popularity of these coloured versions of much work, the beauty of 
which is scarcely enhanced by this treatment, bear witness to the 
popular interest in scientific questions, which accompanied the 
movement of the Encyclopedists and reflected itself in the eager 
pursuit by engravers of new processes. 

The varieties of method which came into vogue were endless. 
As a first step we have seen that obvious divisions of labour were 
accentuated. One group were engaged in preparing plates ^ I'eau- 
fartgy whilst others, who only worked with the burin or graver, 
formed a class apart termed les Jimsseurs. Then the graver was 
taught to affeiS the pi^resque play of the etching needle. The 
Academy actually deliberated on the subject, and Nicolas Dupuis — 
as we have seen — in proof of zeal, began and finished after Carle 
Van Loo the curious print of "Enee portant son pere " entirely 
with the graver, employing it as if it were the point. 

To imitate by engraving the effefl of a chalk drawing was the 
next problem to be solved. The attempts made in this diredion 
by Jean Lutma and by Leblond ^ had long been forgotten, when 

* Mathieu Marais, under the date of April 29th, 1 721, notes that Desmaiseaux has 
sent over to the Chancellor, who has shown to the Regent, specimens of '* peinture 
imprim^ " t^ a Frenchman named Leblond who had withdrawn to England, These 
specimens comprised portraits of the King, the Queen, etc., etc Leblond is called an 
" Allemand " 1^ the de Goncourt, '* L' Art du XVlIL Si^cle," t. ii., p. 273. 
149 



d by Google 



The Fran9ois, a *' gravcur de vaiselle " at Nancy,' presented to Marigny 

?"!'■*'*" in 1756 six sheets of prints i la maniire du cn^on and received in 
acknowledgement a pension of 600 It. and the title of "graveur 
des dessins du Roi." In the following year he appeared before the 
Academy with " des estampes qu'il a gravies dans une maniire 
non usiteejusqu'4 present qui imite le maniement large du crayon." 
He received irom them a certificate that his invention would be of 
service in the reproduction of the drawings of the old masters.' 
To him succeeded Magny and Gilles Demarteau,' who claimed 
attention for another process and was, in his turn, succeeded by 
Bonnet,* Jean and Dagotti Gautier ' and others, each with some 
variety of the same invention. The imitations of pastel by Bonnet 
are remarkable, but the chief place was maintained by Demarteau, 
who, after having been agrii in April, 1766, on a set of his works 
" dans le genre qui imite le crayon," was received three years later,' 
having meanwhile distinguished himself by an " essay . . . dans 
lequel il imite le mi^lange des deux crayons, rouge et noir." 

With this "essay" it is recorded that " la Compagnie en a esti 
satisfaite/' ^ for Demarteau had contrived a ** roulette " with which 
he rendered Boucher's drawings in red chalk so as to deceive at 
first sight even a practised eye. Amongst the best of these is the 
" Femme couch^e sur le ventre " and her companion " Nymph," 
both drawings " du portefeullle de M. Nera," ° but he made his 
first appearance at the Salon of 1767 with five subjeds of less 
importance after the same master. These were " Un grouppe 
d'Enfans ; Une tSte de femme ; Deux petites t^tes, Imitant le 
dessin & plusieurs crayons," and " Une Femme qui dort avec son 
enfont."" To this imitation of drawings ** i plusieurs crayons" 
Demarteau returned in 1771, when he showed "Une tete de 

' M. Portalis, "La gravure en couleur," G. B. A., 1889. 
' P. v., Nov. 16th, 1757. 

* 1722-1776. Sec a pamphlet published at Brussels in 1883, entitled "Gilles 
Demarteau." 

* 1743-1793. He applied Detnarteau's invention to the imitation of posttL 
Regnault says of him, ** par des planches repairies parvint i imiter la peinture au 
pastel " (Avant propos, Catalogue Basan, p. xv, note). 

* There seems some doubt as to the proper names of these artists. I have followed 
Regnault {ut lufrd) and Basan (" Did. des graveurs *^, who give the lather and son 
thus. They will, however, be found under *' Dagotti " in other works of reference. 

* Sept. 2nd, 1769. ^ P. v., April 4th, 1767, 
' See "French Painters," p. 50, note 5. 

' The other subjeds l^ Demarteau at this Salon were an " All^orie sur la vie 
de feu Monseigneur le Dauphin \ La Justice prot^ les Arts ; Notre Seigneur au 
T<Hnbeau, d'aprfa le Caravage ; Une Sainte Catharine, d'apr^ P. de Cortonne." 
" Tous ces morceaux, imitant le crayon, sont grav^" we are told, " d'apr^ lei Dessins 
de M. Cochin." The list is completed by an " Acadimie " after Carle Van Loo. 
150 



d by Google 



vieillard, d'apris le Dessin de M. Doyen," but his " Deux Enfens The 
jouant avec un chicn," exhibited in 1773, together with "Trois Engravers 
Sujets de Femmes et d'Enfans. Graves i plusieurs Crayons," and 
" Deux Enfans jouant avec des raisins. Gravies k Timitation da 
Dessin aux trois crayons sur papier gris," exhibited in 1775 — all 
after Boucher — were not executed till after the painter's death. 

Of Demarteau's work after Cochin, the best known is the 
" Lycurgue bless^ dans une Sedition," ^ exhibited in 1 769. To 
the Salon of 177 1 he also sent reproduftions of a study from life 
and an allegorical subject : " La France t<^moigne son affedion k 
la ville de Liige." Two years later he produced another " Aca- 
d^mie " after Carle Van Loo and a " Descente de Croix, d'aprfes une 
Esquisse de M. Pierre " — work which was probably imposed on 
him by reasons of interest and from the pressure of which he 
would seem to have relieved himself by his studies after Boucher 
and by the portrait after " Vandick, a Timitation du crayon noir 
et du lav6," all of which he sent, together with " La Laitiere. A 
plusieurs crayons, d'apres M. Huet," to the Salon of 1773. 

From the imitation of coloured chalks and pastels the transi- 
tion was easy to the art of engraving in colour. Jean Le Prince,* 
a skilful etcher, invented a form of aquatint which led diredly 
to this further 'development.' His secret was bought by the 
Academy, after his death, from his niece, to whom he had 
bequeathed it as the only provision which he was able to make 
for her.* 

The wild life led by Le Prince and his eccentric habits 
account for the poverty in which he died. He gained money 
only to waste it, and no advantage could be offered him that he 
did not promptly throw away. A humble lad at Metz, he had 
the luck to please the Marshal de Belle-Isle and to be carried by 
his patron to Paris and placed with Boucher ; but when scarcely 
eighteen he married a woman of forty, and, having spent her 
money, relieved her of his company." His return to France after 
five years at St. Petersburg gave him almost as much popularity 
in Paris then as it might now, and was followed up by a con- 

' See Chap. III., p. 37, note i. 

' 1734-1781. R. Aug. 23rd, 1765. See "L'Ait en Alsace-Lorraine** and 
HMou, "Jean Le Prince," 
' P. v., Jan. 28th, 1769. 

* D'Angivi'ller insisted that the Academy should uke it up, granting to Mile. Le 
Prince an annuity of 1,200 It. as an equivalent. He overruled objc<ftions, dedaring 
that he thought the company "aujourd'huy assez riche, tant par la dottadon du Roy 
que par les concessions dcs Baraques [shops on the Pont Neuf ] i son profit." 

* Another story is that Le Prince returned her money before he left her. 

'5' 



db, Google 



The tinuous flow of paintings, etchings and drawings of Russian 

^°Col"" customs, ceremonies and scenes. "11 a ialt en Russic," writes 

Mariette, "des Etudes sans nombre d'apr^ nature, et il en est 

revenu avec une ample collection de desseins dont il s9ut tirer 

parti lorsqu'il se pr^nta pour 6trc agr66 a I'Acad^mie." 

His '* Baptdme suivant le rite Grec " did, in &d» secure his 
reception, and in the success which it obtained curiosity seems 
to have played a certain part. The work had been carried out 
with difficulty, " in spite," says Marictte, " of very bad health," 
and thenceforth Le Prince — probably for this reason — relaxed 
his efforts and relied chiefly on the interest excited by the un- 
familiar aspect of his subjects. 

" Si cct artiste n'eut pas pris ses sujets dans des moeurs ct des 
coutumes, dont la maniere de se vStir, les habillements, ont une 
noblesse que les nitres n'ont pas, et sont aussi pittoresques que les 
ndtres sont gothiques et plats, son mdrite s'evanouirait." ^ And 
this criticism made by Diderot on the series of works sent by Le 
Prince to the Salon of 1767 applies to all that interminable pro- 
cession of " Concerts Russes, Bonnes Aventures Russes, Reveils 
de petits enfants Russes, Cabacks ou Guingettes Russes aux en- 
virons de Moscou," in which we find the same exhibition of 
magnificent stufl^s and ornaments, the splendour of which is ill- 
supported by the figures of those by whom they are displayed. 
" Si un Tartare, un Cosaque, un Russe voyait tout celi, il diroit il 
I'artiste : tu as pill6 toutes nos garde-robes, mais tu n'as pas connu 
une de nos passions." 

When Diderot wrote thus with his usual reckless frankness, 
Le Prince was only thirty-three. He was on the eve of perfeft- 
ing the process ** au lavis " destined to have so great a popularity.' 
In spite of the support which he derived from his situation in uie 
Academy and the success of his work, his a^rs were always 
embarrassed and he died at forty-seven in every way a ruined 
man. - 

The famous secret once in the hands of the Academy very 
sorn became public. The next step was to apply colour in the 
pi :e of the wash which Le Prince had laid with a brush on the 
va~nish by which he covered his etched plate, and this was done 
by Franfois Janinet,' who describes his little print " L'Opirateur" 
as " gravi k I'imitation du lavie en couleur par F. Janinet, le seul 

* Diderot, Salon 1767. 

* "En 1768, il a trouvj une muiiire d'imiter i la gravure le lavis des desseins" 
(Mariette, A. B. C. Oario}. 

* 1752.1813. 

152 



d by Google 



db, Google 





"" ' ' _^ 






■:-■' ' '"'^' - -. ^"' 




-- 




1 
/ 




^ -•^;., 


i 




.^;-\^'i ' 


' 1 




-■>■ .f / ■ ' - 


-N 




■ mn 


^. 1 
1 










''-r--^.:\ 








\ 


^^■■r'^i 


?i-:€^ 


^ \ 


V-' ■ 1 




\ 






i 


1 ... 


i - _-....../ 





Digiizodb, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



5 I I 

III 



db, Google 



qui ait trouv^ cctte maniere." His pretensions, unfortunately for The 
himself, did not stop at the imitation of " lavie en coulcur," and ^"^g^, 
his disasters as an aeronaut furnish Willc with the materials for 
one of his most amusing pages. 

"It was," he writes on the nth July, 1784, "a Sunday 
devoted to sending up the balloon made by the abb^ Miollan and 
M. Janinet, the engraver. This machine, the largest of all those 
previously sent up, was to start from the garden of the Luxem- 
bourg. ... As it was a lovely day I proposed to my wife to take 
her to the Luxembourg itself for three livres a head, to look close 
on the ascension of this balloon which was one hundred and ten 
feet high : the two inventors, the marquis d'Arlande and a mhani- 
cien, were to go up in it — but she would not agree to risk herself 
in such a crowd of people as would be there. We therefore went 
to the new boulevard, to a gardener's of our acquaintance . . . 
even here there were an infinite number of people. MM. Preisler, 
Baader, Guttenberg, Madame Guttenberg and her brother were 
in our party. The machine should have gone up at midday pre- 
cisely ; but the poor inventors, apparently through ignorance, 
having been unable to fill their balloon with gas, on the contrary, 
set fire to it : it was burnt to ashes, and all we saw from where we 
sat was a thick smoke." 

The abbi Miollan and *' Tami Janinet " had to fly for their 
lives; the crowd tore down the barrier and threw the planks and 
rails of which it was composed, together with the chairs on which 
they had sat, into " le feu ballonique," which raged for four and 
twenty hours. "The next day," adds Wille, "and throughout 
the whole week, nothing was sold and sung but satirical ballads 
on MM. Miollan and Janinet ; at the same time several prints 
appeared to make them as ridiculous as possible." 

The public heard no more of the abb^ Miollan. Janinet went 
back to his engraving in colour which he had already brought to 
great perfeftion. His admirable rendering of the "Toilette de 
V^nus ' after Boucher had adually been produced in 1783 — the year 
previous to that in which he made his unfortunate attempt as an 
aeronaut — and his remarkable portraits of Marie-Antoinette ^ and 
of Mile. Bertin, from the opalescent delicacy of their colour, 
look as if they might belong to an even earlier date. With these, 
as showing the same beautiful quality, may be grouped the clever 
reproduftions of two medallions after Fragonard, " La Folie " and 

' In 1781 Janinet reproduced after Huet a design in honour of the birth of the 
Dauphin. The head of the Queen has no reaemblance to the large portrait which I 
take to be that of the year 1774. 

153 * 



db, Google 



The " L' Amour," which are attributed to Janinet on the 

•S"S3ISr *ffo''^c'* by their execution. 

It is when dealing with " boudoir-subjedts " after 
Lavreince ' that Janinet seems to be supremely happ 
modish marionettes, daintily staged in equivocal situati 
furnished the painter with his favourite themes, lent tl 
with facility to the skill of the colour-engraver. Lavreini 
handle full, strong hues without heaviness, but the whi 
and blue ribbons, the roses and feathers of the ladies wl 
" Lcs oiFres s^duisantes " or show signs of " Le Repentir 
are well within his scope. In these suggestive romances 
dress or undress of the heroines, the faint blues of their 
tains, the violet coats of their lovers afford the very ton 
arc the most effectively handled in this medium. Janine 
dudtions of the two gouaches by Lavreince, " La Comj 
and "L'Aveu difficile" (1786 and 1787),' imitate the < 
of Lavreince in the most deceptive manner and are 
triumphs of his graceful and pleasing art. With them 
ranked the clever print in which Janinet reproduced the p 
Mme. Dugazon by Claude Hoin * as " Nina, ou la FoIIe d' 
which was to be seen three years ago in a state of rei 
preservation at the sale of the Miihlbacher colleftion. 

" L'lndiscr^tion," which Janinet reproduced after I 
in 1788, is not only one of his best, but one of the last 
his work which were really successful. He appeared at 1 
of 1 79 1 with two "Scenes famili^res, gravies en couli 
these were accompanied by a " Vue du Champ de 
moment de la prestation du Serment Civique, gravurc < 
and his remaining contributions were of a character that 
a change of interest : ** Deux dessins et une gravuri 

' Nicolas Laurcnsen — whose surname is sometimes written " Lafrense 
transformed by the French public into *' Lavreince " — was born and died at 
(1717-1807). Of the works executed by him for Gustavus III. now in 
at Stockholm, the most interesting arc "Tvannc Taflor en gouache, f 
Feter, under Konung Gustaf d. llhs vistandc i Paris, &r 1784. His ari 
the class produced for the ** fermiers-g^nf raux " and *' financiers " of Paris, 
close of the century. Twenty gouaches by him were sold in 1899 at I 
M. Miihlbacher, in Paris. Two of these were of great importance, ** I 
au Concert" and "L'Asscmblie au Salon" (Bocher, Nos. 5 and 6, e 
Dequevauviller, 1763, "Catalogue dc I'CEuvrc de Lavreince"). 

* Bocher, Nos. 43 and 52. The gouache of '*Le Repentir tardif" 
Miihlbacher colle^on. 

* Bocher, Nos, t2 and 8. 

* 1750-1817. The gouaches of this Dijon master are often of erea 
He has recently been the subjed of an excellent study by M. Portalis, 
1899 and 1900. 

»S4 



db, Google 



La Marc HAN de dk Modes. 

(Nicolas Lavreikce.) 

Gma(he in the col/etlhn of M. Bturdeley. 



d by Google 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



M. Moitte. Frise ^ I'antique." In 1793 he again returned to The 
the work of this dull pupil of Picalle's, exhibiting not only some Bng'avert 
J J ■ r <£ T • J 1. r » L In Colour. 

drawings and an engraving or * Le premier pas de 1 eniance, but 

two heavy reproductions of " La conspiration de Catalinat et la 
Mort de Lucrece, graves d'apres les dessins de Moite." 

Meanwhile the process which Janinet had invented, and the 
capabilities of which he had for a while illustrated with real 
charm, had fallen into other and stronger hands. Even before he 
had become a good citizen and had substituted Moitte as his . 
model in the place of Lavreince, Janinet's methods had been 
mastered and most brilliantly turned to account by Louis-Philibcrt 
Debucourt,^ who was agr^^ by the Academy on the 28th July, 
1781, as " Peintre en petit sujet dans le genre des Flamands." He 
had exhibited an " Interieur Flamand " at the Salon de la Cor- 
respondance during the same year, and to the Salon of the 
Academy contributed various works of the same class, if one may 
judge by titles such as " L'Instruftion villageoise," " " La Con- 
sultation redoutce " and " Lc Jugc de Village ou La Cruche 
cassie."' 

He exhibited again at the Salons of 1783 and 1785, at the last 
of which appeared the well-known " Feinte Caresse ou Les deux 
Baisers," which is rather a " sujet de boudoir " than a sujet Jlamand. 
As the catalogue tells us, we here see " an old man looking at the 
portrait of his young wife, whom he is having painted, looking at 
his own in a locket, whilst she strokes his cheek as she leans on 
his shoulder and takes advantage of his foolish confidence to slip a 
note to the young painter who kisses her hand." The sketch for 
this work — the last exhibited by Debucourt at the Academy — ^was 
reproduced by the de Goncourt in " L'Art du XVIIL Siicle," 
when it formed part of the collection of M. Lion. 

This painting seems to have been the point of departure from 
which Debucourt made* his way to a different class of subjects. 
The " Feinte Caresse " is not " Flemish," neither does it represent 
precisely the Debucourt who made a name for himself as having 
imaged with surprising felicity the life and air of his epoch, for 
there is a touch by which we are reminded of Eisen and the 
" Contes de la Fontaine." In the following year* "La Feinte 

' 1755-1832. * Engraved by GUiron. 

* Engraved \>j Lc Veau. The subject seems to have been suggested by T^eck's 
" Zerbrocfaene Itrug," 

* 1786. Debucourt had published several engravings in colour at an earlier date. 
The de Goncourt mention <*La Porte Enfoncfe ou les Amants pourtuivis, Suzette 
mal cacbje ou les Amants d£couverts et La Fille enlcvie." All these works of a 
toitadve cbarader bear the date of 1785 ("L'Art duXVIU. Siicle," t. ii., p. 277). 



d by Google 



)Se " was published as a coloured engravin 
appeared a work of a very different ordei 
[ari^e," of the black state of which I 
)du£tion. 

Lc Menuet de la Mariee " is one of Del 
111 and important works in " la gravur 
rior to " La Noce au Chiteau " { 1 789) — the 
lest — and may take equal rank with the fa 
gallerie du Palais Royal," which, apart ] 
istorical document, is remarkable for the ei 
lc powers of observation and taste too di 
c, to be tempted into caricature such as dei 
)n, the " Promenade du jardin du Palais R 
n the " Promenade du jardin du Palais F 
hint of the eifcft of the Revolution on 
otic fever, even when it was sincere, as it 
rarely inspired fine work.^ We may, hoi 
the domestic virtues of republican families 
le strange world thrown up by the waves < 
ncourt engraved after his friend Carle ^ 
lods changed ; he lost not only his origina 
)recious secrets of his excellent art. 
The grace and personal accent of the v 
ig the five years which followed the j 
:nuet de la Mariee " are such that they th 
avings as pretty as the " Foire " and " 
;h Descourtis^ engraved after Taunay.' 
lave the ** graveur qui cree." Much of 
:h renders his engravings still so delightful 
fai5l that at first he painted his subjects 
I, and thus won a double mastery over the 
i.fter 1 79 1, in which he dates "La Rose 
in vain for any sign of this mastery over hi 
le abandons it for a " proc6d^ nouveau d^coi 
;," which, if I remember rightly, is the san: 
lergcnt, in 1793, for "II est trop tard." 

see ** L'Almanacb national," ^ Le Calcndricr dc la 
Droits dc I'homme et du Citoyen," etc, etc. 
i753-i820{?). He was the pupil of Janinet. 
1755-1830. A., 1784. Pupil of Brenet and Casanc 
^, "Not. hist.," t. ii,, p. 51, 

He exhibited "II est trop tard, estampe peinte et grav 
ler with two views of Chartres, two engravings of " 1 
, 1789," and a "Costume Rjpublicain." In 1798 he 1 

ij6 



db, Google 






5 I 



db, Google 



db, Google 



A- , 
/ - 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



produced according to the new process have no likeness to the The 
early work ; they depend for their efFed on a stipple of colour Bnp^vers 
about which there can be no illusion. 

The change of method was no doubt suggested by the then 
enormous popularity of stipple engraving. Reserved at first — as 
one may see in the work of Delaunay and Le Veau in the 
Moliire of 1773 — for the young faces only of figures in vignettes, 
it became the rage in England, where the method, as applied to the 
whole subject, was skilfully turned to account by Bartolozzi. In 
France it was employed, on the whole, with greater taste and 
intelligence both by Copia ^ and his pupil, Barthelemy Roger ,^ nor 
is it possible to withhold our admiration from the appropriate use 
of pure stipple to render the " efFets estomp^s " specially charafter- 
istic of Prud'hon, though the unfortunate attempt made by Dcbu- 
court to apply it to colour-engraving wrought ruin on his 
entertaining and decorative art. 

en couleur du gininl Marccau, bcxu fr^e de t'autcur," and in 1 799 a water-colour : — 
**!! repr&entc Ics costumes dcs fiUcs Buisscs, etc" 

' 1764-1709. A German, born at Landau (Salon, 1798). Amongst his best 
work are the illustrations of ** liiea sur le geste et Ta^ion tb^itrale.** See Renouvier, 
"L'Art pendant la Rivolution." 

' 1 770-1 840. 



^57 



d by Google 



CHAPTER XI 
ENGRAVERS AND THE ACADEMY 

IN 1752 Natoire, reporting to Marigny as to the eiives of 
the school of France at Rome, suggests that one place should 
be given to an engraver. This concession he urges on the 
ground that for the most part engravers cannot draw. He 
adds that, as they are admitted to the Academy, they will be 
worthier of the honour if they are put in possession of " un talent 
si n^cessaire." ^ 

Nothing came of Natoire's proposal, but the feeling that the 
training of engravers — except in what may be called the me- 
chanical part of their profession — was insufficient determined a 
motion brought forward in 1790, at a moment when all other 
regulations were relaxed, but when, through the influence of Vien 
and David, the reaction in favour of a severer style and stricter 
method was daily gaining strength. 

*' They wanted," says Wille, " at one of our last meetings to 
make a rule that all engravers who come up to be agri^s shall 
show with their engravings academy studies recently executed in 
the schools under the eye of a professor. This proposal shocked 
me and I opposed it hotly. I gave my reasons and was supported 
by other engravers, even by M. Pajou, our president, and the 
proposal was reje(5ted. I maintained that no one ought to be 
humiliated, and that artists having various talents ought to be 
treated equally and without any distinction : that they ought all 
to add to their works, whether' painting, sculpture, engraving, 
etc., drawings from the life and academies executed by them — 
even the flower-painters — all was agreed."^ 

' G. B. A^ 1870, pp. 268, 270. * MJm., Sept 7,yA^ 1790. 

158 



db, Google 



Wille had been chafing all his life at the inferior position Engravers 
which he and his fellows occupied as compared with painters and 1"**]**' 
sculptors in that Academy ot which he proudly records that, when 
visiting Marigny on New Year's Day, its representatives took 
precedence of the Academy of Archite^ure, " qui y 6toit aussi."^ 
The engraver, even within the fold of the Academy, found him- 
self in a position inferior to that of other artists, whilst outside the 
Society the incessant commercial relations with the public — 
made necessary by the sale of impressions — tended to relegate him, 
in general opinion and in that of his fellows, to the ranks of those 
in trade, and also gave rise to vexed questions not only between 
engravers and their brother artists but between buyers and sellers. 
When the Revolution gave the signal for the revolt of the " agriis" 
against the Academicians, the engravers at once made common 
cause with them, under the leadership of the sculptor Pajou, and 
thus seized the opportunity to make better terms for themselves. 

In addition to the annoyance that they had always ex- 
perienced from the half-veiled contempt which accompanied the 
insufficient protedion received from the painters and sculptors, 
engravers were subject to harassing attacks from printers and 
publishers, on whose domain they were supposed to encroach. 
Driven to despair " les graveurs en taille-douce " presented a 
memorial in 1767 to the unsympathetic Academy, imploring their 
intercession with Marigny in order to secure a favourable hearing 
for their petition, entreating his proteftion " pour conserver la 
liberti de leur art." ^ 

The desired freedom unfortunately led to abuses which are set 
forth in a letter from Lenoir to d'Angiviller in reply to the com- 
plaints brought before him as to the libels on Mmes. Vigee Lebrun, 
Vallayer-Coster and Labille-Guyard, published in connedlion with 
the Salon of 1783.' The insults of which they complained are 
attributed to the abuse of the concessions which had been made 
to the " graveurs en taille-douce." " What has occurred, sir," 
writes Lenoir, *' is a fresh proof of the abuses which I could have 
wished to have been more speedily checked. There are many 
cases in which, by means of line engravers or of engravers of 
music, violent attacks and obscenities are published contrary alike 
* aux bonnes moeurs et k la bonne police,* but under the pretence 
of freedom, the men of this profession at Paris are not inspected ; 
they put their presses to an ill use. . . ."* 

' Mim., Jan. 3rd, 1762. ' P. V., Sept. 20th, 1767. 

' See Pomlis, '* Ad&'i'de Labilie-Guiard " (G. B. A., Dec., 1901, pp. 4.83, 484). 

* Guiffrey, "Expositions du XVIII. Siicle,*' p. 61. 



d by Google 



Engravers Troubles as to the rights of reprodudion and publication were 
and the ^igQ frequent. In July, 17 19, the engravers presented a petition 
to the Academy and complained that M. Poilly,* in spite of their 
" pleintes," " contrefiut tous leurs ouvrages." On this the 
company directed their secretary to write to Poilly, so as to give 
him a chance " avant de se porter contre luy a quelque juste 
violence."^ Later in the century no less than six Academicians 
combined to obje6l to the reproduQion of their works — executed 
"pour le Roy" — by a certain Henriquez, a p-otigi of d'Angi- 
viUer. This was simply a protest against the employment of an 
incompetent hand, but piracy — such as that of which Poilly was 
accused — was of frequent occurrence. Augustin de Saint-Aubin 
in November, 1788, attacked Delaunay, his fellow agrii^ for 
copying and selling a portrait of Necker, whereby he was injuring 
- the sale of Saint-Aubin's own engraving after the original portrait 
of Necker by Joseph-Silfrcde Duplessis, the pupil of Subleyras.' 

There were also graver matters than these to be settled. 
Balechou,^ a pupil of L^picie, who is best known to us now by 
his two spirited engravings after Joseph Vernct, also executed 
portraits in the manner of his contemporary Beauvarlet, such as 
his well-known rendering of Fran9ois de Troy's portrait of 
Watteau's friend and patron, M. de Julienne. To him had been 
entrusted the reprodudion of that by Rigaud of Augustus III., 
King of Poland and Eledor of Saxony, which was destined to be 
placed at the beginning of the "Galcric dc Dresde."" The 
engagement made with the King's agent, Leieu, was brief: " Nous 
soussignis," it says, " sommes convenus que moi Jean-Joseph 
Balechou, m' engage i graver entiercment au burin, le portrait de 
S. M. Ic roi de Pologne, conform^ment a I'original qui m'en a hk 
remis peint par M. Rigaud, sur une planche de cuivre de deur 
pieds, dans I'espace de deux ans pour le prix de 5,000 It." 

The result was pronounced equal to Balechou's best work, 
rivalling his achievements in the portraits of Mme. Aved and 
Mile. Loizerolles, or that executed in 1750 of the Count de Briihl 
after Silvestre, which was placed at the beginning of the collection 
of engravings after works in his gallery. The plate carried out 
for the King of Poland was, however, soon found to be in a bad 

' Not to be confused with F. de Poilly, the engraver of the " Viergc au Linge." 
Sec " Catalogue de I'oeuvre de F. de Poilly." Drevet finished de Poilly's portfait 
which had b«;n begun by Roullet in 1699. 

* P. v., July 29th, Sept. 30th and Odt. 28th, 1719. 

' P. v., Nov. 8th, 1788. See "French Painters, etc^" pp. 155 and note and 157. 
See also Wille, Mim., t li., p. 117 note. 

• 1719-1764. A., March 29th, 1749. ' N. A., 188a, ri. i42-aio. 

160 



d by Google 



condition, and the engraver was accused of having pulled as many Engravers 
as six hundred proofs on his own account. The matter was a"^!?' 
brought before the tribunal of the Academy, and on April 8th, 
1752, that body was called on to consider a series of questions 
drawn up in a " M^moire " signed by the " Comte de Loss, 
Ambassadeur de Sa Majeste le Roi de Pologne, £le£teur de 
Saxe." 

Some of these questions seem rather irrelevant, as, for example, 
No. 8, which runs as follows : " Des ipreuves non finies d'une 
planche peuvent-elles Stre bonnes 4 vendre ou k faire des presents 
k des personnes que Ton considere, et surtout en y joignant la 
dispense d'un cadre et de sa glace." Others tended to elicit strift 
limitations of the number of occasions on which impressions might 
be taken during the progress of the work. These were laid down 
with laconic precision by the commission, on which sat no less than 
fourteen engravers.^ 

The deliberations were directed by " M. de Silvestre, Diredeur 
et ancien Refteur et premier peintrc du roi de Pologne," and 
Balechou was found guilty.^ In spite of the violent opposition of 
men of good character, such as DauU^,* Lc Bas and L6pici^, 
backed by the support from outside of the Dukes of Nivernais and 
Clermont, the name of Balechou was struck off the register of the 
Academy and he was expelled from France. The rest of his life 
was spent at Avignon, then still Papal territory. 

The chief witness against Balechou was, it would seem, his 
printer, and we cannot help suspefting that there was something 
in this affair of which we are left purposely in ignorance, when 
we find that on the testimony of this man, " dont le dire variait 
considi^rablement, du reste, sur le nombre d'cpreuves tiroes," the 
Academy cast out one of the most skilled engravers of the day. 
No doubt some of his colleagues wished to get rid of him and 
they succeeded. 

" II y a k Avignon," says Diderot, writing of " Les Ports de 
France," " un certain Balechou . . . qui court la m6me carrifere 
et qui les icrase."* He refers, probably, in this sentence to the 
two engravings after Vernet, " Lc Calme " and " La TempSte," 
the second of which seems one of Balechou's best works, though 
I do not think that it is really a truthful interpretation of Vernet. 
He himself was, however, not ill pleased with the free translation 

' Duchange, Audran, L^pici^ Mass^ de Larmessin, L. Surueue, J. Moyrcau, 
J. DauU^ L. Cars, Tardieu, Le Bas, Cochin, Cochin fila, Surugue nis. 
* P. v., AprU 8th, 1752. 

' See Deliniircs, " Jean-Franf ois DauUi." * Salon, 1763. 

161 Y 



d by Google 



Engravers and strokes of unauthorized force and efFe£t which the engraver 
and the h^s substituted for the easy harmony of his model. He proposed 
that Balechou should reproduce the " Baigneuses " and wrote 
enthusiastically : " II n*est qu*un Balechou en France ; je ne suis 
pas content des gravures de mes autres marines depuis que j'ai vu 
les vdtres ; si vous voulez vous charger de ce travail, il vous en 
reviendroit un tr^s-grand avantage, et 4 mes peintures une tres- 
grandc gloire," At the same time Wille enters in his diary : 
" Wrote to M. Balechou at Avignon. I complimented him on his 
•Bathers/ which he has engraved after M. Vernet. I have 
ordered fifteen to twenty proofs of him and one proof before 
letters."^ 

In his exile Balechou was not forgotten by his friends in Paris, 
nor did the scandal which had banished him prevent Nattier from 
at once sending him his portrait of " Mme. I'lnfante Duchesse de 
Parme sous la figure de la Terre," ^ but the Academy remained in- 
exorable and on the i8th August^ i764> this unfortunate man died 
in exile. 

On the fifteenth of the following month Grimm writes : " We 
have just lost one of our most famous engravers. Balechou died a 
short while back at Avignon, where his irregular condud had for 
some years past banished him. He did not draw correi5tly, but he 
had a most singular vigour and warmth of execution. Some things 
which he had engraved after Vernet have the greatest reputation 
and sold for a high price during his life. Their value will not be 
lessened by his death. The only great engraver now remaining 
in France," adds Grimm, with proper patriotism, " is a Hessian, 
who is called M. Wille," 

In spite of the rules laid down by the Academy in the case 
of Balechou, difficulties of a similar chara£ter continued to arise 
from time to time. The word " arbitraire," affixed to one of the 
questions put for decision, left certain points undecided, and 
various courses were open, more especially when the process 
employed was that usual one which involved a mixture of etching 
and line engraving, or the preparation of the plate h Veau-forte by 
one man, in order that it should be terminated an burin by another.' 
It was not long before Etienne Fessard — sufficiently esteemed to 
be employed by Boucher to engrave his ** Light of the World " 



Mim., Sept. 2Stli, 1 762. See also Balechou's reply, ibid.^ t. i., p. 108, and La- 
e, " Josmh Vernet " 
P. v., Feb. 23rd, 1753. 
Mire ei 

162 



8''*"B*j "JosgA Vernet," pp. 212, 213. 

' P. v., Feb. 23rd, 1753. 

' Wc have seen Le Alire employing Le Veau in this way (pp. loa, 105). Mweau 
was also thus serviceable to Wille {Mim., Nov. 13th, 1765 ; July 29th, 1766). 



d by Google 



and " L'Amour d^sarmi" — became involved in an a£lion at law Engravers 
on this account. Acldcmy 

The aftion was brought by " le Sicur Germain " to recover * *™ 
two proofs — " eaux-fortes " — taken by Fessard from plates en- 
graved after Germain p^re. Once more the quarrel was submitted 
to the Academy, but on this occasion judgement was given with- 
out reserve in favour of the engraver.^ ** It is," they say, " the 
established custom from all time that the proofs which are pulled 
in the course of the work, and specially of the first ibauche, which 
is called eau-forte^ are never handed to the proprietor of the plate 
unless, indeed, there is an express stipulation to the contrary." 

It is to the beginning of this aiFair that Wille probably refers, 
under the date February 29th, 1760, when he writes that he and 
Cochin "have been cited before the Grand Council to judge and 
esteem a portrait of the King that M. Fessard has engraved for an 
individual with whom he is at law. The afi!air ts not ended." 
Indeed, it reappears in the journal on June 15th, 1761, when 
Cochin and Wille are " again cited before the Grand Council to 
examine and judge the engraving, executed by M. Fessard, from 
the King's portrait." 

During the course of the century the Academy formed that 
great colleftion of engravings which was transferred, in 1792, to 
the " Cabinet du roi," together with those of the " sur-intendance 
de Versailles," the " depot des Menus- Plaisirs," the " maison de 
ville de Paris" and of various other establishments.^ In 1693 
the society possessed only three plates ; two portraits, one of 
Claude Perrault, the other of Chancellor Seguier, together with 
the engraving of the " catafalque " which had figured at his 
funeral obsequies. From 1706, when the regulations came into 
force which obliged engravers on their reception to give the 
plates of two portraits prescribed by the Academy, these diploma 
works became a valuable property. 

These collections once established were frequently enriched 
by the generosity of ** honorary amateurs " and other friends and 
patrons. Courtin ^ presented a- series of engravings by Michel 
Aubert;* de Julienne gives "Toeuvre de Watteau" — "quatre 

' P. v., April 4th and July 24th, 1761. 

* See " Not. hist, stir la Chalct^raphie " (Musfe Nat. du Louvre). 

' P. v., April 7th, May 26th, 1736. Jean Courtin was a " pcintre-graveur " 
born at Sens. He died at Paris in 1752. See A. B. C. Dafio, Mariettc. 

* Mariettc says of Michel Aubert, "mort a Paris a la flcur de son ^e, en 174O1" 
but if this ia so there were two Michel Aubert, for we find engravings signed in this 
name in Che La Fontaine of Oudry. The date of 1757 is also given as that of his 
death. See the note to Mariette's article. 

163 



d by Google 



Bngravers beaux volumes, reliez en maroquin, contenant une suitte de toutes 
A*^d^' Ics estampes gravies d'apres Wattcau, Acadimicien." ^' From 



Academy. 



Boucher the society received two sets of " Pastorals " and of 
" Chinese figures," engraved after his drawings by an English 
artist, John Ingram.^ In 1737 Duchange gave them a copy 
of his magnificent publication, " La galerie du Palais du 
Luxembourg."' « 

A few years later, through the generosity of Coypel, they 
came into possession df the twp hundred and twenty-three plates 
engraved by de Caylus from the drawings of the Royal colleflions,* 
and amongst other noteworthy donors may be cited Chardin, who 
on May 30th, 1778, is said to have " prii rAcadimie d' accepter 
la collection dcs estampes gravies d'apres ses ouvrages reliis en un 
volume in-foHo " ; Surugue, who on finding the plate engraved by 
Bernard Picart of the portrait of de Piles, presented it to the Academy, 
together with a hundred proofs ; and Jean-Jacques Caffieri, who, 
according to his wont, gave a fine set of engravings on condition 
that his liberality should be acknowledged by a return of equal 
munificence in kmd." 

In addition to the other sources through which the possessions 
of the Academy were increased, the tax of two proofs imposed on 
the publication of any engraving before its author could put it on 
the market with the obligatory '* cum priv, regis," soon became 
profitable. Books, if they contained engravings, required the 
same privilege,^ but books seem to have borne in pradice a small 
proportion of the tribute levied from the publishers of prints. 

Nicolas de Larmessin offers proofs of his reprodudion of 
Lancret's " Amours du Bocage," which are " re9ues et aprouvies 
pour jouir . . . du privilege du Roy accorde a TAcadimie par 
Arrfit du Conseil du 28 de Juin 1714." In like manner the 
Academy obtained proofs of his best work, " Les Pelerins de 
Cythcre," after Watteau ; of the " Frcre Luc," after Wleughcls ; 

' P. v., Dec. 31st, 1739. 

* P. v., Jan, 31st, 1744. He was born in London (1721), but worked chiefly in 
Paris. He is said to have engraved the etching by Cochin of the ** Illumination a 
Versailles a ToccasJon du second mariage du Dauphin, le 9 fjvrier 1747 " (see P<Hta]is 
and BJraldi). Chal. du Louvre, No. 4034. 

' P. v., Oa 5th, 1737. * P. v., May 27th, 1747. 

* P. v., April 30th, 1774. 

* P. v., April 1st, 1786, we find LcBarbier l'ain£ applying for this ** privilege "on 
account of the edition of Gcssner illustrated fi^m his designs, and on May 27th, 1 747, 
Friret submitted to the Academy the project for his work on " Costume " ajid the 
** Sieur Car6me " was ** nomm^ pour en taire les dessins et les planches " with the title 
of " dessinateur attach^ a TAcidJmie pour ce sujet." Cartme was expelled the 
Academy Dec l6th, 1778. 

164 



d by Google 



db, Google 



Digiizodb, Google 



db, Google 



La pktite Fii.lk au volant. 

(BeRNARH L^PlCllf, AFTER ChARDIN.) 



d by Google 



" Lcs oies du Frfere Philippe" and " Les quatre heures du jour," Eneravers 
after Lancrct.^ a d*^* 

" M. Moyreau," says Bachaumont, " a beaucoup gravi, d'apris ^* "^^' 
les tableaux de Wouvermans passablement," ^ and the enormous 
series of engravings after Wouvermans which Jean Moyreau seems 
to have passed his life in executing, found its way into the port- 
folios of the Academy.' To this immense work Moyreau now and 
then added a little scene after Raoux, or a "Conversation de 
Matelots " after Claude, le Lorrain,* but as a rule he is absolutely 
faithful to his favourite master. From Charles-Nicolas Cochin 
also a vast quantity of work was received — at first chiefly proofs 
from plates after Restout de la Joue;" then we find mention of 
Chardin : La Blanch isseuse. La Fontaine, L'Ecureuse, Le Garfon 
Cabaretier.* 

These engravings are amongst the best executed by Cochin, 
though as an interpreter of Chardin he was surpassed by Bernard 
L^pici^,' who succeeded Dubois de Saint-Gelais as Secretary to 
the Academy in 1737. "A good engraver," says Bachaumont, 
"he has wit and letters; he writes well enough in prose, and 
makes pretty fair verses, which he usually puts at the foot of his 
engravings." To this, he adds in conclusion, " il faut le voir. II 
est poly, obligeant et communicatif." ^ Rarely do we find L^pici^ 
as 6atis^£tory, as full of interest and simple charm as in his 
suflScient yet modest translations of Chardin's masterly work. The 
long series from which the Academy regularly profited begins 
with "La Gouvcrnante" (1739) and includes the noble " Bene- 
dicite" (1744). L^pici^ must, indeed, stand first on the list of 
those who have interpreted Chardin, although that list contains 
the names of Laurent Cars and Le Bas, not to mention lesser lights 
such as Filloeul and Pierre-Louis Surugue.* 

Few artists, says M. Duplessis, found amongst their contem- 
poraries interpreters equally intelligent, and he suggests that either 
Chardin himself superintended those who reproduced his work, or 
that the engravers themselves were captivated by the qualities of 

' P. v., Dec. 31st, 1735 i Jan- 26th, 1737. 

* Wille, lAim^ Appendix. 

* P. v., Feb. 23rd, April 26U1, Sept 28th, 1737; March 29th, 1738; 1739; 
1740: Sept. 26t(i, 1744. He exhibited constantly at the Salons from 1737 to 1761. 

* P. v.. Sept 28tl^ 174.3 i April 2Sth, 1744; Sept. 28th, 1759. 

' P.V., Sept. 28th, 1736; March 2nd, 1737 i March 29th, 1 738. 
' P. v., June 27th, 1739 i Sept. 24th, 1740. 

^ 1698-1755. He was a pupil of Jean Mariette, but completely abandoned the 
pradice of engraving after his appuntment as Secreury and Historian to the Academy. 
' Wille, Mim., Appendix, and Feb. 3rd, 1761. 

* See Chap. V., p. 81, note 7. 

.65 



db, Google 



Engravers Chardin's execution and seized instinctively on the essential 

With the engravers who paid enforced homage to the Academy 
came the painters who, as did Chardin, presented prints after their 
own works. Nattier brings proo^ of Tardieu's famous reproduc- 
tion of his portrait of the Queen.' He is preceded by de Troy' 
and followed by Duplessis,^ " peintre Acadimicien," who presents 
engravings of his portrait of M. Gluck, " musicien cilibre." 
Duplessis, it should be remembered, had, like Bolssieu,^ a strong 
natural feeling for landscape, but had been forced to take to 
portraits in order to earn his bread. 

By the middle of the century the Academy had made a 
thriving business out of this branch of their coUeftions. They 
bought and sold and gave commissions on their own account to 
the engravers, whom they persisted in regarding as an inferior 
order. Plates after works by de Troy and Le Brun were pur- 
chased in 1764-1765; in 1770 they made 1,716 It. from the sale 
of prints, the larger part of which was derived from Demarteau's 
diploma work — a reproduction of" Lycurgue bless^ " after Cochin,* 
to which reference has already been made more than once. 

The receipts from this source touched their highest point in 
1773, when they amounted to 3,878 It., of which 714 are 
accounted for by the sale of Porporati's" popular rendering of" La 
chaste Suzanne " after Santerre. In 1776 eighty-three proofe of 
this work were sold, and again in 1777 the chief profits were 
brought in by the sale of the same print. 

The inventory, taken in 1775, shows that in addition to fifty- 
four portraits and the engraving of the funeral pomp of Chancellor 
Siguier, the Academy were then in possession of three hundred 
and twenty-eight historical and other subjects, a collection which 
was steadily increased until the total — including diploma works, 
purchases and gifts — had reached in 1789 over four hundred and 
seventy pieces.' 

' P. v., March 22nd, 1755. * P. V., Jan. 7th, 1736. 

' P. v., Feb. 2Sth, 1775. See p. 160. 

* 1736-1810. See "Hommage rendu ... par le Conseil du Conservattxre des 
Arts" and "L'Eloge par Dugas de Montbel," Lyon, 1810; also Wjlle, Mim., 
July 28th, 1 762. Some of bis b^t drawings were made in 1 765, when he accompanied 
Alexandre de la Rochefoucauld to Italy. The Print Room in the British Museum 
has several specimens of his work : Interior of a mill ; Water-cdour landscape ; Study 
in sepia of a bridge, etc., etc. 

' P. v., Sept. 2nd, 1769. 

' 1741-1816. A. and K. May 8th, 1773, on the "Suzanne" after Santeire. 

^ See also Miintz, ** L'Acadimie de Peinture et de Sculpture a la Chalcog^phie du 
Louvre." 

166 



db, Google 



This Inventory is also particularly interesting, because it was Engravers 
in 1775 that the society began to give commissions — none too ^"^j*"® 
generously paid — to its engraver members. We get the par- 
ticulars of ^ese bargains two years later.^ The " planches gravies 
au profit de I'Acad^mie " are, we are told, to be carried out at the 
fixed price of 4,000 It., whilst only 2,000 It. are to be paid for such 
as are executed as diploma works. Coustou represented that the 
sum of 2,000 It. was too low for the execution of work out of 
which the Academy expe<^ed to make money, as those entrusted 
with such commissions would naturally delay their performance 
for other and more profitable orders. The committee, however, 
stood firm, and as a check on the long delays of which Coustou 
spoke, a resolution was brought in,^ by which it was enacted that 
engravers should in future, like Porporati and Demarteau, present 
their work and have their fate decided on the same day. 

This rule, by which aspirants were agrees and re^s on the 
same day, protefted engravers from the attacks of the imprimeurs 
by the suppression of a dangerous interval. In accordance with it 
we find Simon-Charles Miger, Cochin's commis — certainly no dis- 
tinguished talent — received on Carle Van Loo's " SuppHce de 
Marsyas," ^ which he had been commissioned to engrave for the 
Academy, whereas the elder Lempereur, a^ii in 1759, was not 
received till 1776, when he also was ordered, to finish the " Enleve- 
ment de Proserpine," after de la Fosse.* Miger was, however, 
also obliged to execute, as a gift, the portrait of Michel Van Loo," 
and a few years later induced the Academy to pay him 300 It. for 
the portrait of Laurent Cars,' which he had engraved after 
Perronneau. 

Better business was done when in August, 1782, the company 
bought from his sister for 3,400 It. all the plates left by Jacques 
Flipart, Even at that date the work of this fine engraver had a 
considerable sale, for he had engraved many of the most popular 
works of Greuze : " L'Accordie de Village ; Le Paralytique ; Le 
Gateau des Rois" — suggesting, as far as possible, the manner in 
which Greuze painted — placing his tints side by side. To this 
end Flipart carried his work almost to completion with the 
etching-needle, a system in which he was followed by others — 

* P. v., May 3r8t, 1777. 

* p. v., July 26th, 1777. The death of Coustou was announced on the same day. 

* See p. 47, note 1. 

* No. 985, Chal. du Louvre. 

' P. v., Jan. 31st, 1778. No. M13, Chal. du Louvre. 

* P. v., May 25th, 1782. 

167 



d by Google 



Engravers 8uch as his pupils the two Ingouf^ — who were of inferior 

Acldem *'^^"- 

Though the acquisitions of the library could not so easily be 

turned into money, they were valuable and important. TJie " Gazette 
Litteraire " was regularly received from the Duke de Praslin, but 
for the most part the presents sent in were works of a costly 
character magnificently illustrated, such as Descamps' " Vies des 
Peintres"and " Voyage pittoresque," Saint- Non's "Voyage pittor- 
esque d'ltalie" and the " Description general de la France," illus- 
trated by Nee and Masquelier.'* During the same years too came 
in the " Histoire de la France," published by Le Bas, d'Argen- 
ville's *' Voyage pittoresque de Paris " and Choiseul-Gou flier's 
" Voyage pittoresque de la Grece," Tribute too was received 
from the " Direfteur-g^n^ral [des bitiments] de S. A. S. TEleaeur 
Palatin," who sent in for approbation " la Galerie de Dusseldorf, 
grav^e sous sa direftion,"^ and from England, whence " Le Sieur 
Cozens " sent his " Principles of Beauty " with Bartolozzi's 
illustrations.* 

The Academy — whilst deriving profit from the exertions of 
engravers — had always refused to acknowledge the art as equal 
with Painting and Sculpture in the designation of the society, 
but by an odd accident their last consultations were devoted to the 
concerns of the despised engravers. On the *' 27 Juillet 1793, 1'an 
II de la R^publique Fran^oise," they received a report from Wille, 
Lempereur, Levasseur, Moreau and Renou, on Bachelier's inven- 
tion, " pour remplacer le mirroir dont se scrvent les graveurs pour 
retourner de droit k gauche les objets qu'ils ont ^ graver." Twelve 
days later the society was suppressed by the decree of the National 
Assembly,^ together with all other organisations of a similar 
charafler endowed by the nation. 



' See p. 88, note i. Both were popular engravers in the later yeais of the 
century. Franfois-Robert le jeune (1747-1812) sent to the Salon in 1793 *' Le 
Retour du Laboureur," " La Libert^ du Braconnier, d'apr^ Benazech," and ** Canz- 
diens au Tombeau de leur £n&nt, d'apris le Barbier I'ainj." This last had the 
honour to be reproduced in terra-cotta by Marin, who exhibited the group in 1795. 
* See for these gifts: P. V., March 31st, 1764; May 2nd, 1761 j Nov. 25th, 
777-1780. 
v., Nov. 29th, 1776. 

' P. v., oa. 29th, 1785. 

' « Dicret rendu sur la proposition du Comit£ d'tastruAion publique. Article I". 
Toutes les Academies et Society littjraires, patent^ ou doties par la Nation sont 
gupjH'im^. ... La Commune des Arts a ^e iublie par un DJcret du 4 Juillet pr^ 
c^ent. Les Ecoles ont itb maintenues provisoirement par un DKret du 28 
Scptembrc 1793" (P. V., 1793, p. 224). 

168 



.76jj_.^77 



db, Google 



The revolt against privilege had found expression the more Engravers 
effeftually because the work of centralisation as begun by Richelieu l""* j*** 
and Colbert had been perfectly accomplished. All the associations 
virhich had been created under the old rule, to complete the rigid 
circle of its police, were swept away by the spirit which pro- 
claimed the gospel of liberty, of fraternity, of equality. The fall 
of the Academies was but an insignificant detail in the great over- 
throw of that despotism which had been founded on the ruins of 
Huguenot France. The outburst of 1789, with its hateful passions 
and bloodguiltiness, was needed to unlock those sources of spiritual 
life which had been arbitrarily sealed by the rulers of France. 
Once more the thoughts of men were kindled as with fire from 
on high, and their dreams were visited by the generous vision of 
a new " Harmonia Mundi." 

No mystic schemes, such as had satisfied the sixteenth-century 
monk,' could serve the needs of a society which, deprived of all 
outlook on the unseen, had beheld its nobles lavishing the re- 
sources of the state on the lowest forms of personal luxury and its 
people perishing of hunger and sorrow, whilst the arts of pleasure 
triumphantly glorified all the desires of flesh. As soon as the way 
had been made clear the whole nation joined in the heroic attempt 
to formulate rules for every phase of life and condud — rules 
which, standing free from any petty conventions of time and 
place, should have universal authority ; define the relations of the 
ideal family, the ideal man, the ideal citizen, and draw the world 
towards that spirit of perfect charity and brotherhood which still 
remains before us as a dream. 

The ideals of this moral evolution were unfortunately — perhaps 
necessarily — embodied in a fashion disastrous to the arts, on the 
movement of which it imposed intolerable limitations. No divine 
gift of beauty or of charm could be accepted in expiation of the 
failure to fulfil conditions fixed by a tyranny as exa^ing as that of 
the Academic rule which it had replaced. 

Those who might have learned from Prud'hon the secret of 
perfect freedom in the application of classic precedent to the treat- 
ment of themes inspired by the passions of their own day, followed 
on the track of David and the archsologists. Carried away by 
the enthusiasm born of a new creed, they demanded the pedantic 
sanation of a logical perfedion only to be obtained at the cost of 
every principle of life and growth. Not till a clear note was 
struck by the leaders of the Romantic movement were the 

' Fnnciacus Georgiiu (1460-1540). His **De Harmonia mundi totius cantica 
tria," published at Venice in 1525, received the honoun of the Index. 

169 z 



d by Google 



Engravers slumbering forces aroused which had been held fast for nearly half 
and the ^ century in the sterile bonds of the doctrinaires. 

The Romantic movement released from artificial pressure 
tendencies which were in genuine harmony with the development 
of modern democracy, but the task of tracing the relation of their 
various manifestations to the currents set in motion by the dajrs of 
*93 has yet to be accomplished. 



170 



d by Google 



APPENDIX 

(A) List of Works by the Cohtb db Caylus. 

(B) NOTB SUR tA Famillb de M. Maribttb. 

(C) Extracts from thb ** Partaob obs Biens de la succession de 

Monsieur Mariette." 

(D) List of Works exhibited at the Salon bv 

Bbauvarlet (Jacques-Firmin). 
Cars (Laurent). 
Cathelin (Louis-Jacques). 
Cochin fils (Charlbs-Nicolas). 
Daulle (Jean). 
Debucourt (Louis-Philibert). 
Delaunay l'ajnI (Nicolas). 

EisEN (Charlbs-Dominique-Joseph). [Works exhibited at the 
Academy of St. Luke.] 

FlIPART (jBAH-jACQjrES). 

Larmessih (Nicolas). 

Lb Bas (Jacques- Philippe). 

Lempbreur (Louis-Simon). 

MORBAU LB JBUNB (JeaN-MiCHEL). 

Saiht>Aubin (Auoustin de). 

Saint-Aubin (Gabriel db). [Works exhibited at the Academy 

of St Luke and at the Colysee.] 
Wille (Jeah-Georoes). 



d by Google 



db, Google 



(A) 
THE WORKS OF DE CAYLUS 

Far bis printid works stt LewiiUy *• Bihlitgraphy »f Eigkutnth-Ctntury Art "pp. 98-IOO. 
For tbt cataUgut ef bit MSS.^ whiek are if an tnarmtus mimitr, iti CKbiii, Mim. 

inid.y Apptndix II. 
His diteourses at tbt Acadimy baving a tpecial intertst will hi fmmd in srdir itbw. 

Discours sur les Dessins. 

Reflexions sur la Peinture (Sorbonne MSS.). 

Discoura sur h Maniire (Sorbonne MSS.]. 

Discours sur Thannonie et sur la couleur (Sorbonne MSS.), 

Vic d'Antoinc Watteau, 

Vic de M. Trimoliircs. 

Vie dc M. Le Moyne. 

Dissertation sur I'Amatcur. 

Vie de M. Le Sueur. 

Vie dc M. Sarrazin. 

Vie de Michel Anguier et celie de Thomas Reenaudin, avec un 

Discours ... sur I'art de trailer Ics bas^reltefs. 
Vie de M. Lcranbert. 
Vie dc M. Guilain. 
Vie de M. Girardon, 
Vies de MM. Buyster et Poissant. 
Discours au sujet du portrait de M. Dufr^oy, peint par M. Le 

Brun, dont il a &it pr^nt a I'Acadimie. 
Vic de M. Van Opstal et ccllc de M. Van Clive. 
Discours sur la Composition. 
Vic de M. Mignard. 
Vie dc Francois Perricr. 

Disscration sur I'importance et I'^tendue du Costume. 
Reflexions sur la Peinture. 
Discours sur I'Etude des Tites. 
Discours sur la Peinttire des Andens. 
Discours sur la Peinture des Anciens. Suite, 
Discours sur la Peinture des Anciens. Suite. 
Mjmoirc sur Ics Sculpteurs Grecs. 

Discours sur la niccssite des Conferences. , 

Dissertation sur la Gravure. 
M^moire sur la Peinture i I'encaustique et sur la Peinture i 

la cire &it present a la Compa^ie. 

'73 



1732. 


Juin 7. 


■747- 


Juin 3. 
Sept. 2. 


„ 




Nov. +. 


1748. 


Fi., 3. 


„ 


Av. 27. 


)> 


S^: 




Nov. 29. 


■749- 


Mars I. 




Mai 3. 


1750. 


Jan. 10. 
hv. 7. 


^ 


Mai 2. 


;; 


luil. 4. 

Aoat I. 




oa. 3. 


„ 


D&. i 


17S1. 


Man 6. 




Mai 8. 


1752. 


Juil. 1. 




Nov. ♦. 


'753- 


oa. 6. 




Nov. 10. 


■754- 


Mars 2. 




Mai 4. 


„ 


Juin I. 


1755- 


Juin 7. 




AoOt 2. 


,. 


Aoiit 30. 



db, Google 



The 


I7S5- 


oa ♦. 


Works 


1756. 


Mii 8. 


ofde 


1758. 


Kc. 2. 


Caytus. 


■759- 
i7?o. 


fh. 3. 

oa. 6. 




Mars I. 




.76.. 


oa. 30. 



Disserution sur U ligirct£ de I'outiL 
Diicoun lur Tavantage des vettus de soci^& 
Discours but PHermaphrodite. 
Reflexions sur la Sculpture. 
Discours lur I'^ude des testes. 
Discours et proposition aux Amateiu^. 

M. de Callus &it pr^nt de la vie de M. Boucbardon , , . doot 
il a rait lecture cy devant. 

1763. D6c. 31. Lettre de M. le C. ae Caylus concernant un Prix pour b Per- 

spedive. 

1764. Mai 5. Discours sur la n£cessit{ de I'^ude de I'Ost&iIogic. 

M. MiJntz (Revue Bleue, 19 Mai 1897) mentions also ** Dissertation sur \a 
Causes de la Petite Maniirc de I'Ecole fran^aise." This appean to be the ** Oiscoun 
■ur la Mani&re" delivered Sept. 2nd, 1747. 



(B) 
NOTE SUR LA FAMILLE DE M. MARIETTE 

Pierre Mariette, libraire et graveur, nic St. Jacques, a I'Esp^rance, en i66a^eut 
trois enfans. Savoir : 

1°. Denis Mariette, libraire et graveur en 1691, Syndic de sa communaut£ en 
1716. II jpouaa N. Langlois, fille de Francois Langlois ' dit dc Chartres libraire en 
1 634 dont Ic portrait a ite gravi par Pcsne cTapr^ Van-Dyck qui I'a rcprisent£ jouant 
de la musette, parccqu'il en jouait sup^rieurement ; il ^it connaisscur en tableaux, 
dessins et cstampcs, dont il faisait un grand commerce, et sous ce rapport il tatt 
honors de la confiance de Charles l" roi d'Angleterre. II mourut en sa maison rue 
St. Jacques et fat inhum^ a St. Benoit, II n'eut de son mariagc qu'une fille, marife 
a N, Chomcl mfdecin. 



d by Google 



premier volume in f n*a paru qu'en 1738; d'autres librures esdm^ sont devenus i^ote 
associ^ et en t8o2 it y avwt 13 volumes imprimis ; te gouvemementa lait continuer snr la 
les 14" et 15'. ^ Pamitte 

P. J. Marictte fit paraitre ce goiit hiriditaire pour les arts en giniral, partioJi^c- de M. 
ment pour les dcssins ct les cstampcs et il se perfe^lionna en voyageant en Allcmagne Mariette. 
et en Italic. Scs grandes connaissances en cctte partie sur laquellc il jtait souvcnt 
consult^ le mirent dans le cas de m^riter la con&tnce dcs pcrsonnagcs les plus dis- 
tinguis et de plusieun souverains. 

II fut auteur de plusicurs Ouvragcs, savoir : 

Dti Littres a M' it Cayht sur la fontaine de Grenclle; Des descriptions qui 
se trouvent dans le recueil du planches grav^ d'apr^ les tableaux de M' Crozat^ 

Des descriptions des travaux relatifs a la fbnte en bronze de la statue jquestre de 
Louis XV. 

Mais le plus interessant de tous est son Tralle det pietres gravett qui lui fiut 
autant d'honneur par la pureti du stvle qu'a scs presses par la beauti d'exicution typo- 
graphiquc. Les grandes relations le mirent a meme d'^tendre son commerce de la 
maniire la plus brillante et de pousser sa fortune jusqu'ou clle pouvait aller } on peut 
dire qu'il realisa dans son £tat la devise que son p^re avail adopts. 

£n 1750 il se Aimxt de son imprimerie en faveur de L. F, Delatour ct vendit son 
Ibnds de Librain'e en conservant par honneur une part dans I'ouvrage des historiens de 
France; et en 1752 avec l'agr£ment ct I'cstime du chef de la magiscrature, il fut 

riurvu d'un office de secretaire du roi, controleur g^njral de la grande chancellcrie de 
ranee: II ipousa Angilique-Catherine Doyen,' fille de Louis Doyen^ notaire, et 
mourut en 1774, en sa maison, rue St. Jacques, Paroisse St. Benoit, ou il (iit inhumi. 
On a deux gravures de son portrait dont une de St. Aubin d'apris le dessin de 
Cochin. 

II laissa quatre enfans, Savoir : 

1°. Jean-Pierre Mariette, conseiller i la Cour des Aides; 

2°. Corneille-Guillaume Mariette, maistre des comptes ; 

3*. Ang^que-Gencvi^ve Mariette, femme de J. B. Brochant ; 

4°. Gencviive-Thir^c Mariette femme d'Achille le B^ue, secretaire du roi. 

Cctte note est de M' Delatour, successeur de M' Mariette. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE "PARTAGE DES BIENS DE LA 
SUCCESSION DE MONSIEUR MARIETTE" 

(M" GueSPBRBAU, NOTAIRB, IJ AvRIL I776) 

** A I'Egard des Estampes, livrcs et autres objets composant le cabinet dud. rieur 
Mariette, la vente en a iti fatte par M. Chariot, Huissier Commissaire Priseur au 
ch&tclet suivant son procis-verbal en date au commencement du \sie\ mil sept cent 
stHxante quinze : Le prix de laquelle vente s*cst trouvj monter en totaliti i la lomine 
de trots cent quatre vingt treize miUe quatre cent soixantc une livres cinq sob, 
dans laquelle somme d'apris la declaration laite par lad. dame Mariette dans I'in- 



r note give 



■75 



db, Google 



Extra<ft8 venuire l^k apiis le itcia dud. sieur son nury, il a iti reconnu que la porticm dan 
from the '^- ^stampes livres et autra objets qui provcnaient des successions de M. ct M* 
" Partage Mariette pire et mire qui £taient propres fidifs dud. difunt sieur Mariette et apportenant 
des Biens auxd. sieurs et dames scs cnfants, monte a la somme de deux cent treize mille ncuf 
de la Sue- cent trente six livre huit sols, et que la portion revenante a lad. dame Mariette pour 
cession cc qui faisait [nrtie de la communauti monte a la somme de cent soixantc dix neuf 
de Men- millc cinq cent vingt quatre livres dix sept sols ; sur laquelle sommc de deux cent 
^eur ^^ treize millc ncuf cent trente six livres huit sob rcvenantes auxd. sieurs et dames 
Manette. hjtiticrs dud. sieur Mariette, il convient d^uire ccUc de vingt un mille quabxze 
livres dix huit sob pour la remise de dix pour cent sur Ics premiers trois cents 
mille livres et de huit pour cent sur le surplus accord^ au sieur Bazan marchand 
d'Estampes pour I'arrangemcnt dud. cabinet, la confe&ion du Catalogue et scs vaca- 
tions i lad. vente, ct pour les Irais du proc^-verbel d'icelle, en sorte qu'il ne revient 
plus auxd. h^ritiers dc net dans le prix de lad. vente que la somme de cent quatre vingt 
douze mille neuf cent vingt unc livres dix sols qui entrera en masse." 



*' Plus a donnj et ligu6 aux pauvres de la Parotsse de Croissy ou £tait situ£c sa 
maison dc campagnc, la somme de six cent livres. . . ." 



** Plus led. sieur Mariette a dfelar^ qu'il d&irait qu'on remit au sieur Ji^n et a sa 
femme une somme de trois cent livres pour I'entretien et la nourriturc de leur fils 
qui jtait pour lors en apprentissage chcz M, Bcauvarlet, graveur, ct aussy ce qu'il 
fiiudrait paver aud. sieur Bcauvarlet pour les mois d'apprentissagc, et cc pendant 
quatre annccs a partir du premier Janvier mil sept cent soixantc quatorze, pa$s£ lequci 
temps il ne serait plus rien pay£," 



" Plus a donni et ligyii i M. Mariette son fils zmi un diamant jaunc qu'il avait re^ 
de M. le Prince Eugene en le priant dc le conserver commc une marque des bont& 
que ce prince avait cues pour luy et comme une marque honorable pour leur lamille." 

^rt. 7. 
** Maisons rue St. Jacques. 

" II dependait de la succession du d^funt sieur Mariette et repris en nature 
unc grande maison situ^ ii Paris rue St. Jacques dans laquelle est Aicidi led. sieur 
Mariette ; laquelle maison en composait autrefois trois et n'en forme plus qu'unc 
aujourd'hui au moyen dc la reconstruction que M. et M*** Mariette ayeux paterneb 
des parties en ont lait laire a neuf. Laquelle maison avcc une autre maison sise a 
Paris susd. rue St. Jacques vis-a-vis la rue des Mathurins oil pend pour enseigne la 
croix d'or aussi reprise en nature, ont iti vendues a sieur Cbude Nicolas Buffault 
marcband dc vin a Paris." 

-rfr/. II. 
" Autre maison rue St. Jacques. 

" Plus il djpend de lad. succession une autre maison sise a Paris rue St. 

i'acques Paroisse St. Benoist, 011 pend pour enseigne les trois croissans ; laquelle maison 
es parties convienncnt de laisser en commun cntr*clle3 pour £tre les loyers d'icclles 
echus ct a icheoir touches par led. sieur Mariette conseiUer ct 4trc par luy employes 
jusqu'a due concurrence au payemcnt des arriragcs des rentes et pensions viagires et 
autres charges annuclles de la succession dud. sieur Mariette." 



.76 



, Google 



(D) 
LIST OF WORKS EXHIBITED AT THE SALON 

BEAUVARLET 0ACQUES-FIRMIN), Gr. 

1763 Le Jugcmcnt de Paris. 

L'Enl^vement des Sabines. 
L' Enlevement d'Europe. 
Galath^ sur Ics Eaux. 

D'apris Lucas Giordano. 

1765 Deux pctits Enfons, s*amusant a laire jouer un chien sur une Guitarre. 

D'apr^ M. Drouais le fils. 
Une oftrande a Vinus et une autre a Ccr^. D'apres M. Vien. 
Deux desseins d'apris Ics Tableaux de feu M. Carle V anioo ; I'un la conversation 

Espagnolc ; I'autre la Ie6ture. Ces morceaux sont destines a £tre gravis. 

1767 Monseigncur le Comte d'Artois ct Madame. D'apris M. Drouais le fib. 

Deux dcssins : I'un, Mercure et Aglaure, d'apris la Hire; I'autre, une -F£te 
de Campagne dans I'intirieur d'un Maison, d'apr^ Tenicrs. 
Ces Morceaux sont destines a etre gravis. 

1769 La Conversation Espagnole, Gravie d'apr^ Carle Vanloo. 

Dcssins au Crayon noir. 
Une Vendange. D'apris David Tenicrs, de 2 picds de largeur sur 17 pouces 

de haut. 
La Vierge avec I'Enfant Jesus et Ic petit Saint Jean. 
Deux Pastorales. Dcssinis d'apr^ Ics Tableaux de M. Boucher, premier 

Peintre du Roi, et destinis a £tre gravis. 

1771 Cinq Dcssins ovales, dont quatre sont les quatrc Heures du jour, et le 
dnquiime une Pretresse tenant une Corbeilie de Fteure. D'apris Ics 
Tableaux de feu M. Carle Vanloo, 
Deux Dcssins qui rcpriscntcnt des Sultanes. D'apris les Tableaux de feu 

M. Carle Vanloo, qui sont au Chateau de Menars. 
La Conversation. Estampe d'apris feu M. Carle Vanloo. 

1773 Le Portrait de M. Ic Marquis de Pourbalio, Ministre du Roi de Portugal. 

D'apris le Tableau de L. M. Vanloo ; la Mer et le fond sont peints par 

M. Vernet. 
Le Portrait de J. B. Pocquelin de Moliere. D'apris le Tableau de Bourdon. 
La Leflure Espagnole. D'apris le Tableau de Carle Vanloo. 

Dessins destinis a tue gravis. 
Les Couseuses. D'apris le Tableau du Guide; du Cabinet de feu M. le 

Baron de Thien. 
Tilimaque, racontant ses Aventures a la Nymphe Calipao. D'apiis le 

Tableau de Raoux. 
Le Midecin aux Urines. 
La Marchande de Gibter. 

Ces deux Dcssins sont d'apris les Tableaux de Gerard d'Ow : du 
Cabinet de M le Due de Cboiseul. 

177 A A 



db, Google 



Beau- Dcssins. 

varlet 1 775 Qiutre Morccaux de la suite de I'Histoire d'Esthcr : 

(Jac(^ue8- Esther couronn^ par Ic Roi Assu^rus. 

Firmin). Evanouissemcnt d'Esthcr dcvant Assu^rus. 

Mardoch^ refuse de flfchir les genoux devant Aman. 
Repas donn£ par Esther a Assuirus. IVapr^ te Tableau de W. 
Troy Ic fils. 

Estampes. 
La S Itane ' f '^'"P^^* '^ Tableaux de M, Carle Vanloo. 

1777 Le Triomphe de Mardochj. 
La Toilette d'Esther. 
Aman arrfit6 par ordre d'AssuJrus. 

Suite dc I'Histoire d'Esther, d'apris M. de Troy le fils. 

Esutnpes. 
Le Portrait de M. Sage. 
Le Portrait de M. Bouchardon. Cest le Morceau de Reception de I'Aut< 

1779 La Marchande d'Amour. D'apr^ le Tableau de M. Vien. 

1781 Toilette d'Esther. D'apr^ le Tableau de M. de Troy; hauteur 18 poi 
largeur 22. 

1783 Esther, couronnje par Assu^rus. Estampe grav^c d'apr^ de Troy. 

Renaud et Armide. Dessin au papier Ueu, d'apris le meme, pour 
gravt 

1 793 Triomphe de Mardoch^c. D'apris Detroye. 2 pieds ct demi de hauteur, 
un pied et demi de large. 
T61£maque dans I'Isle dc Calypso, d'apr^ — . Largeur i pied 8 pouces, s] 
pied 5 pouces de haut. 



CARS (LAURENT), Gr. 

1737 Deux Sujcts des OEuvres en gravures. 

1738 <Xuvres gravies. 

1747 Un Sujet gravi, rcpr^entant le Temps qui enleve la Viriti; didii a W 
Toumehem ; d'apr^ le dernier Tableau de feu M. Ic Moyne, Prci 
Pcintre du Roy. 

1753 L'EnlJvemcnt d'Europe, d'aprb M. Lc Moyne, Premier Peintre du Roy. 
L'Aurore enljve Ciphale, d'apris le mcme. 
Epreuve a Teau-forte pour faire Pendant au Morceau ci-dessus. Ce Tati 

est au Roy. 
Une Nativity j d'apris M. Carle- Vanloo. 
Unc Dame variant scs amusemem ; d'apr^s M. Chardin. Ce Tableau est 

du Catnnet de M. de Vandieres et I'Estampe luy est didifc. 

.78 



.Google 



»\«n«n.iaKWSB«:ii.^AV>:-i».Hi\i«»'A>c 



'755 Troi) Sujets d'apr^ ftu M, Le Moine, premier Peintre du Roi : Cars 

Le premier. Adam et Eve. (Laurent), 

Le second. L'Aurore qui cnleve Ccphalc. 

Le troisiimc. Hercule qui terrasse Cxus (^preuve a I'eau forte). 
C'csc le Morceau de r^eption dc M. Le Moine a I'Acad^mie. 
Pliisieurs Portraits, en medallion, grav^ sur les desseins de M. Cochin : dont 

cntr'autrcs cefui de M. Boucher, et celui dc M. Chardin. 
Trois Sujets des Fables de la Fontaine : 
L'Ane charg^ de Rcliques. 
Le Chasseur^ le Pitre et le Lion. 
Le Meunier, son Fils et L'Ane. 

1757 L*Aveuglc trompi. O'apris le Tableau de M. Greuse. 

Trois Portraits en M^daillons. Messieurs Slodtz. D'apr^s les Desseins de 
M. Cochin. 

1761 Le SacriEce d'lphig^ic. 
Hercule combat Cacus. 

Ces deux Estampes sent d'apris Ic Movne. 
Le Frontispice du Catalogue de MM. Ics Chevaliers de I'Ordre du S. Esprit. 
Allegoric d'apris le dessein de M. Boucher. 
Vignette pour le mSmc Livre, ou est la midaille du Roi. 



CATHELIN (LOUIS-JACQUES), Gr. 

1775 Le Portrait de M Turgot, Brigadier dcs Armies du Roi. D'apris le Tableau 

de M Drouais. 
Le Portrait de feu M Paris de Montmartel. La t£te, d'apr^s M. de la Tour, 

le restc d'apris le Dessin de M. Cochin. 
Le Portrait dc M. Vernet, Peintre du Roi. D'apris M, L. M. Vanloo. 
Le Portrait dc M. Juliette, D'apris M. Tocqui. 
Le Portrait de M. Tocqui, Peintre du Roi. D'apris le Tableau de M. 

Nattier. 
Le Portrait dc MoHcre. D'apris le Tableau dc Mignard. 

1777 Le Portrait dc M. I'Abbi Terray, ancien Controleur-G^iral. D'apris 
M. Roelin i c'est Ic Morceau de Riception de I'Auteur. 

1779 Le Portrait de M. Franklin, D'apris le Tableau de Mde. Filleul. 

1781 Le Portrait de Louis XV. D'apris Louis-Michel Vanloo, 

Un Corps-de-Garde Italien, on y voit une dispute de Joucurs, D'apris le 
Valentin. 

1783 Mort de Lucrcce, D'apris Pellegrini, 

- Portrait en Midaillon dc M, Ic Bas. D'apris M. Cochin. 
Autre Portrait en Midaillon de M. Sacchini, D'apris M.Jay. 
Portrait en petit de Charles Rollin, D'apris C, Coypcl. 

1787 Portrait de M, d'Agay, IntendanC de Picardie, D'apris Chevalier. 
Portrait de Mile. Dion de Beaumont. D'apris M. Ducreux, 
Pt^trait de M, Gritry. D'apris Madame Lebrun. 

1789 Portrait de M. Louis, Secritaire perpituel de I'Acadimie Royalc dc Chirurgie, 
D'apris M. Greuze. 

179 



db, Google 



Cathelin > 7^ Portniit de J. J. Balechou, Graveur. D'apris le pastel de M. Arnaron, I 
(Louil- noinc d'Avignon. 



Jacques). 



1800 Esscid-Aly-Eficndy, ambassadeur de la sublime Portc-Ottomane. 
Portrait dc Nicolas Poussin, peint par lui-m£me. 
Portrait de BufFon. 
Portrait de Bernard de Jussieu. 



COCHIN FILS (CHARLES-NICOLAS), Diss, et Gr. 

As Ctcbln ditd in April^ >790i bt saw n»nt »f the werk at the SaUm ^'91, *93 
tbtugb sunt if It was arrangtd far hj him, as far exampU tht twt vinos tfi. 
btfart his dtath, 

1 741 Un Dessetn a la gloirc des Arts, rciw&entant I'Acadimie Royale dc Pm 

et de Sculpture conduite par le gjnie du Dessein, qui s'jievc au T< 

de MJmoire, sous la prote^on dc Sa Majesti. 
Un Dessein dont le sujet est tnh dc i'Histoirc romainc, repr&entant Virg 

qui tuc sa fille. 
Autre Dessein tirj pareillement de THistoirc Romaine, qui rcpr^ 

L. Junius Brutus, Consul Roinain,qui fait mourir sa deux fib pour 

conspirj contre la R^publique. 
Une Estampe ou Ton voit la decoration du Feu d'artifice, qui a ttt t 

Versailles en 1739, i I'occasion du mariage dc Madame Premiere 

Dom Philippe, deuxi^me Infant d'Espagne. 
Dix petits Dessetns de difF6rens Caprices, et une Estampe repr&cnti 

Triomphe dc la Religion Chritiennc. 

1742 Un Dessein rcpr&entant la pompc fimebrc h'lgte dans I'Eglise Cathedra 

Notre-Dame de Paris, le 22 Scptembre 1741, a I'occasion du dec^ 
Reine de Sardaignc. 



Cette pompc. ordonn^ par M. le Due de Rochccfaouart, Pre 

ntilhomme de la Chambre du Roy, a iti compost et conduite pa 

de Bonneval, Intendant ct Controleur general dc I'Argenterie, M 



Plaisirs et Affiiires de la Chambre de Sa Majcst^. 

Dessein allegorique, qui repr^nte la lumiere du Messie qui pcnetre Ics M 

de I'ancienne Loy, et se fait connoitre aux Prophetes et aux Patriarcl 

Autre Dessein, ou Ton voit Mars qui rc^ott dc la G^mctrie des Le^ns 

se conduire dans les travaux dc la Guerre. 
Six petits Dcsseins pour Ic Lutrin de Boilcau : 

Chant I. La Discorde sous la figure d'un vicux Chantrc, jvcil 
Prtiat, et luy reproche son indolence. 

Chant II. La nuit annoncc a la mollcssc itcndue dans les bn 
sommeil, la division ct le trouble qui va s'^lever dans I'Eglise. 

Chant III. Le Sacristain, le Porte-Croix, et le Perruquicr < 
vcnus de nuit pour ritablir le Lutrin, sont cfirayez, et fuyent i la viie 
Hibou : la Discorde, sous la figure dc Sidrac, leur reproche Icur lAcfae 
les rallie. 

Chant IV. Lc Grand Chantre et les Chanoines se jettent si 
Lutrin et le mettcnt en pieces. 

Chant V. Rencontre du Pr^lat et du Grand Chantre ; bataille 
Livres sur lc Perron de la Sainte Chapelle : le Pr^lat met en fiiite le Cha 
et les Chanoines, en leur donnant sa benedi^on. 
180 



y Google 



1742 Chant VI. La Piet£ accompagn^ de la Foy, r^perance et la Cochin 

Charit^ vient sc plaindre i la Justice du disordre que la Discorde cause Pils 
dans I'Eglise. ^ if-** 1 *'r 

Un petit Dessein ou est fcrit au bas, Le Mcdedn observateur. On j voit un Nicolas). 

jeiine Mcdecin qui dlte le pouls ik une Dame malade. 
Ncuf pctits Sujcts tircz de Virgile : 

Georeiques, liv. II. Un Laboureur a Tabic avec toute sa Famillc, 
reprisente la douceur de la vie champfitre. 

JEne'idCy liv. I. JEnie sort de la nu^ qui TenvironnDit, et se fait 
connoitre ^ Didon, 

^nci'de, Uv. II. Laocoon, PrAtre de Neptune ct scs Fils, sont tuez 
par deux Serpens d'unc grandeur extraordinaire. 

^neide, liv. III. Mnte ordonne a sa Troupe de prendre Ics armcs 
pour chasser les Harpies qui venoient troubler leur repas. 

^neide, liv. IV. Mort de Didon. 

^neiide, liv. VII. Ascagne et quelques Troyens ayant blessi a la 
chasse un Cerf appartenant a la sceur du gardJcn des troupcaux du Roy 
Latynus, la Discorde excite les Paysans a prendre les armcs pour venger 
sa mort. 

^nci'de, liv. IX. Nisus ct Euryale, deux Amis intimes, apr^ avoir 
traverse le camp des Latins, et y avoir &it un grand carnage, furent 
d&ouverts par un parti de Cavalerie, qui les obligea 2 prendre la fuite 
vers un Bois : Kuryale fut atteint en fuyant, et fait prisonnier : Nisus 
appercevant son Amy entre les mains des Ennemis, se cacha dans le Bois, 
et lan^ quelqucs darts dont il tua plusieurs Soldats : le Chef de la Troupe, 
furieux de la mort de ses Gens, se jette sur Euryale pour le tuer; alors 
Nisus se montre, et veut en vain d£tourner sur luy-m£me le coup qui 
menace son Amy. 

^nei'de, liv. X. Mntt ayant bless£ le Roi Mezence, est pr£t a Ic 
tuer; Lausus, Ills de Mezence, couvre son pere avec son Bouclier, ct 
s'oppose si la colere d'^nie. 

^neidc, liv. XI. Pallas, fils d'Evandre, ayant iti tu£ dans un 
combat, ^n^c luv rcnvoyc son corps : ce Pere vicnt au devant, et est saisi 
de douleur a la vue d'un si triste spcdacle. 

'743 Quatre Vknettes, et huit Culs>de-lampe, destinez pour une nouvelle Edition 
des C£uvres de Rousseau. 
Plusieurs petits Dcsseins, dont trois concement I'Art Militaire. 

1 745 Un grand Dessein sous Glace, a la mine de plomb, rcpr&entant la C^monic 

de I'Audiencc accord^c par le Roy a I'Ambassadeur Turc, 

1746 Morccaux pour un Livrc de Voyage, in-4*' reprfsentsins les difFerens usages 

des Peuples d'Orient. D'apris les Desseins de M. Cochin fils. Par M. 
TarJitufils. 

1 748 Deux autres [sujets], des Animaux ; d'apr^ les Desseins dc M. Cochin fils. Par 
M. Tardhu. 

1750 Les quatre Fttes grav^ du premier Mariage de M. le Dauphin, dessinies par 
Cochin fils. 
Le Bal par £. 
Le Bal masqu£ dans la grande gallerie de Versailles, 

Ouvrage de M. Ctcbtn U ptri. 
Le Mariage dans la Chapelle dc Versailles, 
La Comraie, 

181 



db, Google 



Cochin 
FilB 

(Charles- 
Nicolas). 



1750 Un Dessein reprbentant le Rot, tenant grand appartement dana la erande 
Gallerie de Versailles; la Table dejeudu Ro]r,celledelaRcineet dautres 
Tables distribub dans ladite Gallerie pour diffiirens jeui^ 

Autre Dessein reprdsenunt Ics Illuminations des deux grandcs Ecuries dc 
Versailles jointes ensemble par des Arcades de lumiere: lesdeux Dessdoi 
se gravent a^ellement. 

Les vingt-neurEstampes de I'Histoirc de France de M. le President Haynaut, 
in-4'', en vingt-neuf Parties, sous verres et bordures, desainto et gtavto 
par le m£me. 

Le Portrait de M. Batlleul et de son Epousc, dcssin^ par le mSme. 

'753 Trois Vi^ettes, dont I'une reprJscntc Ics Arts ; gravte d'apris le Deasetn de 
M. Cochin le fils par M. Galimari. 
Quarante-six pctits Portraits en Medallions, dessin^ par M. Cochin Ic fils. 

1755 IV Desseins pour I'Histoire du Roi, par M^ailles, 
P" M^daille, la Naissance du Roi. 

Dans Ic Bas-relief ovale, on voit Madame la Duchessc de Bourgogne 
couch^e sur un lit au moment qui suit sa dJlivrance : on lui pr^cnte le 

J'cune Prince qu'elle vient de donner au monde. Au-dcssous est une 
^cmme repr&entant I'Esp^ance. Forcie d'abandonner deux pctits cn&ns 
que lui cnlevc la mort sous la Hgure d'unc fcmmc voil6e, elle tend les 
bras a I'enfant nouveau-n^ qui est dans le Bas-relief. A droite, une 
Femmc arrose un laurier dans un vase ; allusion au Prince naissaat, A 
nuche, une autre Femme enveloppc de voiles fun^raires deux jeuncs 
Cyprisj symboles des deux jeunes Dues dc Bretagnc morts, I'un en 1705 
et 1 autre en 1712. 

Seconde M^daille, sur la mort de Lou is-lc- Grand. 

Dans le Sujet en Bas-relief, on voit Louis XIV au lit de la mort. 
Cc Bas-relief dKore la face d'un tombeau sur les c6t£s duquel sont rangte 
cinq Urnes s^pulcrales, d'autant de Princes de la Famille RoyaJe, morts 
avant le feu Roi. Quatre Femmes en pleur? cxprimcnt la d&olation de 
la France ; en haut Plmmortalitj sur des nuagcs souticnt la M^daillc. 

Seconde M^daillesur la mort dc Louis XIV et troisi£mc du Livre. 

La Renomm^ attache le Medallion de Louis XIV a une pyramidc 
jlcvie sur un tombeau. Lc Medallion de Louis XV est soutenu par le 
G^nic de la France ; cc G^nie porte un bouclier d'ou rayonnent des traits 
de lumiere. La France se tourne avec inquietude vers son G^nie tutjlaiFe, 
et jette ses regards sur Ic portrait de son jcune Monarquc. Aux pieds du 
tombeau de Louis le Grand, on voit la Discorde et la Guerre enchaui^cs : 
elles font effort pour rompre leurs chaines et pour se relever, mais Ics 
rayons du Boucuer semblent, en Jcburant leurs mouvemens, les rendre 
immobile!. 

QuatTi£me et cinqui6nie M^daille : 

La Rigence mhh. au Due d'Orl&ns. 
La Prudence rcf oit de la Justice les renes d'un Char qu'elle doit ctMi- 
duirc sur un chemin difficile; les Animaux d*espcces diverxs, attel£s i cc 
Char, sont les symboles des caraA^res opposes dont le contrastc semble 
partager un peuple nombrcux en difFerentes classes, si la Main qui les 
gouverne ne sfait Ics tenir unis. Le Lion est I'cmblcme de ces hommcs dont 
le courage aspire i I'lnd^pendance. Le Chicn courageux mais fiddle et 
soumis, repriscnte le Sujet dont la valeur est anim^e par ses Maitres. Le 
Mouton et le Renard sont le symbole, I'un de la simplicity, I'autre de 
rintrigue. 

Plusieurs Desseins de Ruines antiques et autres vues d'apres nature, dcssinfo 
en lulie. Tiris du Cabinet de M. le Marquis de Marigny. 

182 



db, Google 



1755 Quatorze Desscins faits i Rome, d'apr^ les Tableaux et Sculptures des Cochin 
gnuids Maitrcs. PjJ* 

Six Vignettes d'aprislcs Desseins de M. Cochin, dom entr'autres la Peinturc, l9. f ?* 
le Giaie du Desscin ct la Couleur, d&ign^ par une Muse qui tient un Nicolas), 
prisme : un Ginic s'oppose aux ravages du Terns. Par M. GaUlmard. 
Six petits Morceaux gravis d'apr^s M. Boucher et M. Cochin. Par At. FHpart. 
1757 I'rois Portraits en Medallions. Messieurs Slodtz. D'apris les Desseins de 
M. Cochin. Par M. Cars. 
Six pedts morceaux sous un mfime verre^dont quclques-uns d'apr^ les desseins 
de M. Cochin. Par M. FHpart. 
1761 Lrfcurgue blessi dans une sedition. Dessein au crayon rouge. 

Les quatre premieres Estampes de la suite des Ports de France, d'apr^ 
M. Vernet, gravies en sociiti avec M. Cochin. Par M. Le Bat. 
1763 Les quatre Estampes de la seconde suite des Ports de France, d'apris M. 
Vernet, gravies en sociiti avec M. Cochin. Par M. Lt Bas. 
Cinq petits Morceaux, d'apris M. Cochin, Par M. FHpart. 

1765 Un dessein destini a servir de Frontispice au livre de I'Encyclopidie. On y 
voit les Sciences Qccupies a d&xiuvrir la Viriti. La Raison et la 
Mitaphysique cherchent a lui oter son voile. La Thiologic attend sa 
lumiere d'un rayon qui part du Ciel: pris d'elle la Mimoire et I'Histoire 
ancienne et moderne. A zbtt ct au-dessous sont les Sciences. D'autre 
part, rimagination s'approche avec une guirlande, pour orner la Viriti. 
Au-dessous d'elle sont les diverses Poisics et les Arts. Au bas sont 
plusieurs Talens qui dirivent des Sciences et des Arts. 

Plusieurs desseins ailigoriques sur les rigncs des Rois de France. lis sont 
le commencement d'une suite d'estampcs que I'on grave, pour ctre placics 
dans le livre de I'Abrigi Chronologique de I'Histoire de France, par M. 
le Prisident Henault. 
1767 Plusieurs desstns alligoriques sur les rignes des Roi's de France . . . destines iL 
etre gravis pour ... la nouvelle edition de I'Abrigi Chronologique, etc. 

Un Dcssin reprisentant I'EcoIe du modile dans I'instant ou les jeuncs Gens 
concourent au Prix d'Expression fbndi par feu M. le Comte de Caylus, 

Les deux Estampes de la quatriime suite des Ports de France; par M. Vernet, 
gravies en sociiti avec M. Cochin. Par M. Le Bas. 

All^orie sur la vie de feu Monseigncur le Dauphin. 

La Justice protige les Arts. 

Notre Seigneur au Tombeau, d'apris le Caravage. 

Une Sainte Catherine, d'apris P. de Cortonne. 

Tous ces Morceaux, imitant le crayon, sont gravis d'apris les Dessins 
de M. Cochin. Par M. Demarteav. 
1769 Plusieurs Dessins alligoriques sur les rignes des Rois de France. 

lis sont destinis a itre gravis pour I'ornement de I'Abrigi chrono- 
logique de I'Histoire de France par M. le Prisident Hinault. 

Douze Estampes de cette mime suite. 

Le Portrait dc M. de Parcieux, et autres Dessins. 

Lycurgue blessi dans une sidition. 

Gravi dans la maniire qui imite le crayon, d'apris le dessin de M. 
Cochin. Par M. Demarttau, 
1 77 1 Un Dessin destini a recevair les diverses Inscriptions relatives a I'itablissement 
de t'Ecole Royale Militaire. On y voit les Armes du Roi; la Midaille 
frappie a Toccasion de cet Edifice ; sur les c6tis, les Figures Alligoriques 
de Mars ct de I'Etude ; et en bas, quelques-uns des Exercices des Elives. 

Plusieurs Dessins, qui ont iti gravis pour servir a I'ornement de la Tradu^on 

183 



db, Google 



Cochin 1771 ^^ Terence, par M. l'Abb£ Ic Monnier; le Frontispicc de sa Tradudion 

Pilg de Perse et autres. 

g'barles- La France timoigne son aRe^ion a ta ville de Liige, Cene estampc a hi 

icolas). grav^ en rcconnoissance de I'exemption du Droit d*Aubaine acc(H'<l& pir 

K Roi aux Citoycns de la ville de Li^gc. 
Une Figure, Etude d'apris nature. 

Cette Estampc et la pr^^dcntc sont gravies a rimitation du Cra^n, 
d'apr^s Ics Dessins de M. Cochin. Par M. dt Marteau. 
Quatre Estampes ; deux pour les Comedies de Terence, une pour le Poeme de 
la Peinlurc, et une pour le Frontispice des quatre Po^tiques, traduites par 
M. I'AbU Battcux. D'apr^s M. Cochin. ?ai M.4U St.-AMbin. 
Dix'huit Portraits en MMaillon. D'apris M. Cochin. Par M. de St.-AiAa. 
iTJI Plusieurs Dessins des Avcntures de Til^maque. Desrin& a une Edition in-!" 
de ce Livre, 
Deux Dessins, alligoriques sur I'Histoire de France. Continuation de b 
suite, dcstin^ a orncr I'Abrdgi chronologi'quc dc I'Histoire de Fianc^ 
,Ktr feu M. le Pr&ident Henault. 
Les Portraits de MM. Piron, Philidor, Beaum^ et Cochin. D'apris la 

Dessins de M. Cochin. Par M. De Saint-Aubin. 
Frontispice du Livre intitul^ Eaai sur U caraSh-e^ let Moeurs tt FEifril 
des Femmes : par Monsieur Thomas, D'apr^ le Dessin dc M. Cochin. 
Par M. De Saint-Aubin. 
1775 Un Suiet de TAstrfc. 

Deux Sujets de I'liiade d'Homere. 

§uatrc Sujets des Aventures de TiKmaque. 
uit Sujets des [unncipales F£tes de I'ann^e. Ces Dessins ont i±6 composfa 

pour le Missel de la Chapelle dc Versailles. 
Quatre Dessins des principales Pieces dc Th^itre de M. de Belloy. 
Autres Dessins. Sujets AUigoriqucs. 
he Portrait dc feii M. Paris dc Montmartel, La tSte, d'apris M de la Tour, 

le teste d'apr^ le Dessin dc M. Cochin. Par M. CathtUn. 
Six Portraits en Midaillon : M. de Trudaine, M. Pierre^ M I'AbbJ Rajoal, 

etc. D'apris les Dessins de M. Cochin. Par M. De Saint-Aubin. 
T^I^maque aborde dans Tlsle de Calipso. D'apr^ Ic Dessin de M. Cochin. 

Cctte Estampe est pour I'Edition projettic in-8% dont le texte doit ctrc 

gravi. Par Af. De Saint-Aubin. 
1777 Un Frontispice AUigorique. D'apr^s les Desuns de M. Cochin. Esumpe 

par M. de Saint-Aubin, 
Pluacurs Portraits en M^daillons. D'apr^ les Dessins de M Cochin, sous k 

mfime numiro. Par AI. de Saint-Aubin. 
Deux quadrcs contenant chacun six petits Sujets. D'apris MM. Cochin, 

Monnet et Moreau, pour les Editions de Roland Furieux, TJIiiDaquc, etc. 

Par M. Dtlaunay. 
1779 Le Portrait de feue Mde. G • *, 

Le Portrait de M. de Fontanieu, Intendant et Contrdlcur-G^n£ral des MeuUa 

dc la Couronnc. 
he Portrait de M. le Comte Maurice de Brilhl de Martinsldrke. 
Le Portrait de feu M. J. J. Dortons de Mairan. 

Ces Portraits sont d'apris M. Cochin. Par M. Miger. 
Sujct All^rique, dans Icquel doit itre ptac£ le Portrait de Mgr. le Due 

d'Orl&ns. 

Cc Morceau doit servir de Frontisnce a I'Ouvrage, intitulj: Dtscrif- 

tien des Pterrii gravies de S, A. S. Mgr. le Due d'OrUans. Ouviage 

petit in-fblio. 

184 



db, Google 



1779 Vignette destin^e pour le mfime Ouvr^e. Cochin 
Les deux Esumpes sent faites d'apris les Dessins de M. Cochin. Par fjIb 
M. Dt Saint- Auhin. (Charles- 
Portrait par M. Dt Saint-Aubin. J. J. Caffieri, Sculpteur du Roi. D'apris Nicolas). 
M. Cochin. 

1781 Vue du Port du Havre, laisznt ta seizieme EsUmpe de la coIlcAion des Ports 
de France ; cettc vuc est dessin^ par M. Cochin et grav^e en soci^j par 
MM. Cochin et Le Bas. 

Ella a 28 pouccs de large, sur 20 de haut. Par M. Lt Bas. 
Un Dessin repr&entant I'enl^vcnient des Sabines. 
Autre Dessin. Les Nimphes de Calipso, mettent le feu au vaisseau bftd par 

Mentor. 
Plusieurs Dessins dont les sujets sont tir^s de I'Emile de J. J. Rousseau, 
destines a T^dition de Geneve. 

1783 Portrait en Midaillon de M. Le Bas. D'apris M. Cochin. Par M. Cathtlin. 
Le Portrait de M. Perronnet, Chevalier de I'Ordre du Roi, premier Ing^nieur 

des Ponts et ChaussJes. D'apris M. Cochin. Par M. dt Saint-Aubin. 
Portrait de M. Pigalle, Chevalier de I'Ordre du Roi. D'apris M. Cochin. 

Par M. it Saint-Aubin. 

1785 M. P£rignon, de TAcad^mie Royalc de Musique. D'apr^ M. Cochin. Par 
M. Miger. 

1791 Une petite Gravure, d'apr^ M. Cochin. Par M. Anctlin. 

1793 Un grand Cadre contenant diffiirens Sujets d'apr^s Rotenhamer, Beaudouin, 

Bonnier, et plusieurs Vignettes pour les CEuvres de Gessner, Roland, les 

(Euvres de Rousseau, et d'apris Cochin, le Barbier et Marillier. Par 

Ponet. 
Un g-and Cadre contenant 18 Vignenes, pour Roland, d'apr^ les Dessins de 

Cochin. Par Penct. 
Un Cadre contenant des Vignettes d'apris Cochin, pour la Jerusalem et le 

Pocme des Mois. Par la Cit. Ctmtl. 
Un Cadre contenant six Vignettes, d'apr^s Cochin, Moreau, Monnet, Eisen et 

Marillier, pour diffirens Ouvrages. Par la Cit. Cernil. 
Une Estampe dapris le Citoyen Cw:hin, pour le Poemc de la Peinture. Par 

la Cit. CtmtL 
Vue du Port et de la Ville de Rouen, prise de la pointe de i'lsle de la Croix, 

au Sud-Sud-Est. 
Vue du Port et de la Ville de Rouen, prise de la petite chauss^, a I'Ouest de 

la Ville. 

Dessin^ d'apr^ nature par C. N. Cochin, et gravis sous la dire^on 

de Lebas et Choffiird. 

Ces deux Estampes sont les N" 17 et 18 de la Colle£Hon des Ports 

de Mer de France, d'apr^s Vemet et se trouvcnt chez Bazan, rue 

Serpcnte, N" 14. 

1796 Un cadre contenant cinq vignettes d*apr^ les dessins des citovens Cochin, 
Regnault, Monsiau, Moreau et Marillier, destinies a orner les oeuvres de 
Virgile, de Rousseau, de Montesquieu et de Dcshouliircs. Par Nicolas 
Pmct. 



185 



d by Google 



daull£ geanx Gr. 

1 7+2 Trois Sujets gravcz : 

C]aude Deshais Gendron, Do£teur, Medecin de la Faculty dc Mont- 
pellier. D'apr^ M. Rigaud. 

Catherine Mignard Comtesse de Feuquiercs, tenant la Portrait dc 
son Fere, pcint par lui-meme. 

HUcinthe Rigaud, Ecuyer, Chevalier de 1'Ordrc de S. Michel, 
ancien Direfleur, et Refleur de 1' Academic Royale de Peinture et de 
Sculpture, avcc son £pouse, pcint par lui-mSme. 

1743 Trois portraits gravez d'apr^s differcns Maitres : 

Cclui de Marguerite de Valois, Comtesse de Caylus; d'aprb M. 
Rigaud, Ecuyer, Chevalier dc I'Ordre de S. Michel. 

Fierre Louis Morcau dc Maupertuis, d'apr^ M. De Tourniere. 

Pierre Augustin Lc Mercier, imprimeur ordinaire de la Ville, d'aprb 
M. Van Loo, Premier Peintre du Roy d'Espagne. 

17+5 Lc Portrait gravi de Claudius dc S. Simon, Episcopus Princeps Metensis. Par 
Francix S. R. J. Princeps. D'apr^ M. Rigaud. 

1748 Douze Morceaux gravez. 

1750 La Naissance ct le Triomphe de Venus, d'apr^ I'Esquisse de M. Boucher. 
Les Amours en gayet£, d'apr^ le mcme. 
L'Enfant qui joue avcc PAmour, d'apr^ Wandik. 
L'Essaycusc de Flechcs, d'apr^ M. Nonnottc. 

Le Portrait du Pcre Chambroy, Abb£ General de SaJnte Genevieve de Paris, 
d'apr^ M. Peronncau. 

1753 Depart dc Marie de M^dicis, appel6 commun£ment le Quos Eco; d*aprcs 
Rubens. 
Deux Portraits de jeunes gens en pied ; d'apris le mflme. 
Une Madeleine, d'apr^s lc Corrigc. 
Une Vierge et I'EnAint Jesus, d'apris Carle Maratte. 
Un Diog^nc, d'apris I'Espagnolct. 

Lc Portrait a Chcval de M. de Nestier, Ecuyer ordinaire de la grande Ecurie 
du Roy ; d'apr^ M. de la Rue, ^grH de t'Acadfmic. 

175s Cinq Sujets: 

Le PcM'trait de Monsieur * * * en Robe de taffetas rayj, d'apr^ le 
Tableau de M. Nonnottc 

Le Portrait dc Madame Favart, sous I'habit dc Bastienne, d'apr^ le 
Dessdn de M. Carle Vanloo. 

L' Amour mena^ant, d'apris le Tableau de feu M. Coypel, premier 
Peintre du Roi. 

T — A _ _ . _u I!_8» r d'apris les Desseins de M. Boucher. 

Les Amusemcns champetres, J '^ 



1757 S. Pierre, tir£ de la Gallerie Royale de Dresde, d'apr^ lc Lanfranc. 

Les Charmes de la Vie Champetre, didii a M. le Marquis de Marigny, 
DireAcur et Ordonnateur G^nJral des Batimens dc Sa Majesti, d'apris 
M. Boucher. 
Le Portrait dc Monseigneur Dc Lamoignon, Chancelier de France. D'apris 
M. Valade. 

186 



d by Google 



Lc Portrait de Racine. D'apr^ Santerre Daulli 

Lc Portrait d'un Vieiliard, D'apris Rubens. (Jean). 

Un Savoyard montrant la Lanterne magique. D'apr^ M. Pierre. 
La Muse Uranie, d'apr^ M. Jeaurat. 

Jupiter sous la forme dc Diane, Amoureux de Calisto, d'apr^ le Poussin. 
Didii a M. de Betzlcy, Gii\irz\ Major ct ChambcUan de Sa Majestj 
rimpiratrice de toutes ics Russics, Chevalier de I'Ordre de Sainte Anne. 

Le Turc qui regarde pAcher, d'apris M. Vernet, 

La Grecque sortant du Bain, d'apr^s M. Vernet. 

La surprise du Bain, d'apris le Nain. 

Unc Chienne Braque avec ses petits, d'apr^s M. Oudry. 



DEBUCOURT (LOUIS-PHILIBERT) 

1781 Le Gentilhomme bicniaisant. Un Seigneur ouvre sa bourse pour soulagcr 
une ^tnille, dont le pirt expire, dans I'instant que Ton vient pour dettes 
enlever les meubles de la maison. Ce Tableau a 20 pouces de large, >ur 
17 de haut. 

L*In$tru^ion Villagcoise. Tableau de 15 pouces de large, sur iz de haut. 

Le Juge de Village. De mcme grandeur. 

La Consultation redout£e. De 13 pouces sur 11. 

Plusieurs petits Tableaux. 

1783 Vue de la Halle, prise a I'instant des rijouissances publiques donn^es par la 
Ville lc 21 Janvier 1782, a I'occasion de la naissance de Monseigneur 
le Dauphin. 3 picds 8 pouces de large, sur 2 pieds 9 pouces de haut. 
Un Charlatan. 8 pouces de large, sur 6 de haut. 
Deux petites F£tcs, meme grandeur. 
Plusieurs petits Tableaux, 

1785 La fcinte caresse. Un vieillard aourit en regardant le portrait commence de 
S3 jeune Spouse qu'il fait pcindre, tenant le sien en ni6dailIon, tandis 
qu^ppuyie sur son ipaule, elle lui caresse la iouc, et profite de sa folle 
confiance, pour glisscr un billet au jeune Artiste, qui lui baise la main. 
15 pouces de large, sur I2 de haut. 
Autres Tableaux. 



DELAUNAY L'A1n£ (NICOLAS), Or. 

Marche de Silene. D'apris Rubens. 

Endymion. 

L^. 

Le Portrait de M. I'Abbf le Bloy. D'apr^ M. Roslin. 

La Complaisance Maternelle. 

L'Heureusc Fteonditj. D'apr^ M Fragonard. 

Trois Sujets, sous le m^me quadre, pour la Nouvelle Htioiise. 

Prcmiire Ruine Romaine. 

Seconde Ruine Romaine. 

Le Four a Chaux. 

La Chute dangereuse. 



.87 



db, Google 



Delaunay '777 Deux quadres contenant chacun six pedts Sujets. D'apria MM. Cochin, 
" ' ' Monnct ct Moreau, pour let Editions de Round Furiciix, T^l^maquc, etc. 



I'alni 

(Nicolas). 



Noce interrompue. D'apris M. te Prince. 

1779 La Bonne Mirc. D'apr^ M, Fragonard. 

Lc Bonheur du Manage. D'apr^ M. Ic Prince. 

1783 La Partie de plaisir. D'a[K-is Woenix. 
Dites, s'il vous plait. 
Les Bcignets. 

Deux Estampes grivies d'apr^ M. Fragonard. 
La Gaieti Conjugale. D'apr^ le Dessin de M. Frendebcrg. 

1785 La Consolation de I'Absence. D'apr^ Lavreince. 
L'Enlant ch^ri. D'apr^ le Prince. 

1787 La premiirc Iccon d'amitif li-aterncilc. D'zprh M. Aubry. 
Angilique ct M£dor. D'aprk Raoux. 
Le Chiffi-c d'Amour. D'apr^ M. Fragonard, 
L'abus de la cr6dulitj. D'apr^ M. Aubry. 

1789 Portrait de feu M. de Troy fils, DireAeur de TAcad^mie de France i Rome. 
Portrait dc feu M. le Clerc, Profcsseur dc perspc£tive. 

1791 L'Education fait tout. Estampc gravfe d'aprb M. Fragonard. 
Autre Estampc. Lia gaiet^ de Silene. 
Une Estampc Lc petit Pridicateur. 
Les Regrets mWtis. 



EISEN (CHARLES-DOMINIQUE-JOSEPH) 
[Expositions de l'Acad£hie db St. Luc] 

1751 Un Tableau, repr&entant Icare et D£dale, fait pour la reception de I'Auteur. 
Un Plafond alljgoriquc, rcprfsentant la Nature qui dent une Corne d'abond- 

ance d'une main, ct de I'autrc rctient par une de ses ailcs lc G^ic qui 
semblc toujours s'^rter du vrai. On y voit les attributs de l'Arch>- 
tcdure, de la Sculturc et de la Peinture. 
Plusieun Dessins et Equisses. 

1752 L'Histoire de Lucas Sinorelli, un Tableau dc toilc de quatre pieds sur trois eo 

hauteur, repr^sentant PAttcIicr d'un Pcintrc occup^ a faire te Portrait d'un 

jeune Homme qui vicnt d'etre tu£ ; ce que I'on reconnoit a I'expression 

d'un Vicillard ou la douleur et la fermeti se confondenL Ce Sujct est tiri 

de I'Histoirc abregje des Peintres de Depille, 
Une Esquisse du Serpent d'Airain qui a iti reprisentj en grand. 
Deux Desseins faisant Pendant en hauteur, faits pour Madame la Marquise de 

Pompadour, dont I'un repr^scntc une Automnc, dcssin£e d'apris un Bas- 

Relief d'y voire qui tui appartient. 

Et ['autre un Printcmps dcssinj ct compost par le sieur Eiscn. Ca 

deux Desseins sont gravis par Madame la Marquise dc Pompadour. 
Un Dcssein qui avoit iti fait pour servir de Cul-dc-Lampc i POratson 

Fun6brc de Madame Hknriette de France. 
Pluaieurs Dcsseins. 



db, Google 



1 753 ^^ Dessein d'unc Vue dc Paris du Pont Royal au Pont Neuf. Les figures Etsen 

repr^ntent I'entrfe dc Son Excellence M. le comte de Kaunicz Ritzberg, (Charles- 
Ambassadcur dc I'Empereur. Lr Dessein a environ trois peds et demi Domin- 
dc large sur deux de haut.' i*"*'i,\ 

Plusieurs autres desscins tirfa des Contes de la Fontaine. Joaeph). 

D'autrcs qui doivent servir d'Ornemcnt au Poemc de la Christiade. 

Le Dessein du Frontisptcc fait pour la nouvcllc ^ition d'Alphonsc du Fresnoy. 

Autre pour la nouvellc Edition du PufiendorfF. 

Plusieurs Vignettes pour le meme Ouvrage. 

Plusieurs autres Desseins d'un (Euvre, suivis a I'usagc de difFfrens Artistes, 
Architcdure, Sculpture, Ciselure,Orfi^vreric, Bijouterie, que I'Auteur fait 
graver pour lui contenant six fcutlles chaque Livrc, dont il vicnt de mettre 
le premier au jour, qu'il a cu I'honneur dc d^dier a M. Ic Marquis dc 
Voyer d'Argcnson (Lc restc de cet article manque sur Edition A. Le 
suivant est sans doute le mfime qui est en tfite des ccuvrcs d'Eiscn sur cet 
&lit. A.) Mar^chal des Camps et Armte du Roi, Lieutenant G£niral 
pour Sa Majcsti en sa Province d' Alsace, Gouverneur de Romorantin, 
Inspe^cur G^nfral de Cavalerie de Dragons, Diredeur G^n^ral des 
Haras du Royaume, 

Le Portrait d'une Demoiselle, peint a i'huile, de grandeur de Tabati^re. 

1 756 Un Frontispice de i'Histoire Militaire de Flandre. L'on voit, dans cc Dessein, 
Minerve tenant une M^aille qui repr&ente le Roi ; elte ordonne a la Re- 
nomm^ d'aller publier les exploits guerriers de ce Prince et de le couronner 
de lauriers. Cette M^daille est soutenuc par le Terns que des Enfiuis 
enchainent, et dont ils arrachent la faux, pour retardcr I'instant ou ce 
Monarque bien-aimj doit ctrc plac£ avec ses Aycux au Temple de 
MJmoire : c'est le vccu qui hit I'Auteur comme le plus respe£tueux et 
plus fidile sujet de Sa Majesty, hauteur de 11 pouces 8 lignes, sur 
J pouces de large. 

Un r rontispice qui doit servir en Cour d'Hollande : l'on voit dans ce Dessein 
une Figure qui cara£l£rise la Hollande sur son Throne, tenant d'une main 
une Couronne d'abondance, de I'autre une Caduc^ ; un Indien qui lui 
priscnte lea Tributa de sa Nation ; a coti, un G^nie tenant les armes de 
la Maison dc Nassau ; deux autres sont occuptb a tenir un Gouvernail, 
I'autrc met la boussole autour du tronc ; plusieurs ballots de Marchandises 
cara^jnsent le Commerce; le fond repr^sente un Combat Naval, de 
J pouces 8 lignes de hauteur, sur 4. pouces 8 lignes de largeur. 

La Vignette de 1 Epitre D6dicatoire du meme Ouvrage repr&ente les Armes 
de Monseigncur le Due d'Orl6ans que Minerve couronne ; on voit a cdti 
les G^nies qui caradiriscnt la Guerre et les Arts. Ce Dessein a 8 pouces 
dc long, sur 3 pouces de haut. 

Le premier Sujet du Pastor Phido repr&cnte Neve du grand zele montant, 
pr^chant au bord du Fleuve Alphe, a I'omlxv d'une plaine, lorsqu'un 
Habitant des eaux, lui remettant son Fils entre les mains, lui recommande 
d'en avoir soin, devant etrc le bien et I'appui de sa Patrie ; l'on voit, dans 
lc fond le Temple de ce Dicu, et dans un coti du lointain, un orage se 
preparer. Ce Dessein a 6 pouces de haut, sur 4 pouces dc large. 

La Poesie, L'on voit dans ce Sujet des Poetes et des Philosophcs appliques a 
jtudier cet Art, et les autres s'empresser de montrer leur Ouvrage a 
Appollon pour avoir ses lumieres. 

La Peinture, la Sculpture et I'ArchiteAure. L'on y voit la Peinture avec ses 
Attributs ; la Sculpture appliquie a faire un Buste du Roi i TArchitedure 

' A la place de cet article, Vid, A contieut le auivant : Un pedt portrait de gnudeur d'unc 
Tabatiire, p«iDt a I'huile. 

189 



d by Google 



Bisen 

(Charles- 

Domin- 

ique- 

Joseph). 



1 756 achevant un modelc en iWvation : Ton voit au bas des GJnies occupfc i 

dessiner d'apr^ la bosse. 

L'Astronomie. L'on y voit dcs Ecudians aux Astres ; un dent un papier, sur 
lequel est trac^ unc Mappcmonde ; dans le fond, dcs Ing^ieuis <}ui 
travaillent sur le tcrrein ; au-dcssus de cet Sujet, est Appollon qui pr&ide. 

La Statue Pjdestre du Roi : des jcuncs MilitaJres fkisant rexercice auqud 
pr&ide Minerve. Ces quatrc Dcsseins ont chacun 10 pouces il ligno, 
sur 8 pouces 8 Itgnes de long. 

Deux Desseins all^goriques de meme grandeur. 

Un jeune Militaire ^tudiant I'Art de la Guerre, tandis qu'un Officier descs 
amis cntre doucement dans le Cabinet, accompagnj de la GJnirasitj 
voilje; etie pose sur la table un depot ct semble a[^rjhcndcr d'toe 
apper^ue dans I'aiSion gin^reuse qu'elle l^it. Ces Figures sont historiquc- 
ment habill^es. Le jeune Gucrrier entrant dans le Cabinet du Firmade, 
son bienfaiteur, accompagni de la reconnoissanc^ qui vient pour lever le 
voile de la g£n£rosit£ qui accompagne toujours ce Philosophe, qui se levant 
prestement, pour aller d'une main prendre le bras de la Reconnoissance, 
et accueillant de I'autre le jeune Militaire qui sVn saisit et la boiK. Co 
deux Desseins ont chacun six pieds de haut, sur 4 pieds de long. 

Deux Desseins de m€me grandeur. Le premier repr&ente Hercule qui 
^oufFe Ant^. L'autre repr^ente Bellerofon qui combat Chienne. 

Deux autres Desseins rcpr^sentans Saint Sibastien, faits pour servir d*£squisse 
a un Tableau d'Aute), de 8 pouces de haut, sur 4 de large. 

Un jeune Seigneur au Berceau, entour^ des Arts, de 1 1 pouces de hauteur, sur 5 
de large, 

Une Etude d'un Cheval ; d*un i»ed i pouce de long, sur huit pouces de Iai]gc. 
Trois Paysages dessin& au crayon rouge. 

Un repr&entant I'entr^ d'une Foret d&erte, des Animaux que des Gent 
menent. Ce dessein a 14. pouces 10 lignes de long, sur 10 pouces de 
haut. 

Les deux autres repr&entent une Tempcte sur Mer, de chacun i pcd de haut, 
sur 10 pouces de large. 

Une Pastorale, lav^ a I'encre de Chine, de la longueur de 7 pouces, sur 
5 pouces de haut. 

Une Estampe repr£sentant la Gallerie du Roi de Pologne, Ic G&iie da 
beaux Arts ordonne de placer la nuit du Corr^ge, qui est le principal 
Tableau que possede ce monarque : au bas sont des Genies qui s'amusent 
a chercher I'avis du Peintrc dont il examine les Tableaux. Le fond 
repr&ente la Gallerie ou sont attaches les Tableaux. Cette Estampe a 
8 pouces de long, sur 6 de haut. 

Plusieurs Desseins de difiSrentes grandeurs. 
1762 Un Tableau de quatre pieds, sur trois pieds, repr&entant Lucas SignioreUi, qui 
peint son Fils qui vient d'etre tui. 

Un Projet dessin^ pour une Chapelle de Communion. 

Une Esquisse de Tableau d'Autel de ce m£me Projet, repr^sentant Notre 
Seigneur qui fait la C^ne avec scs Apfitres. 

Autre £squisse, repr&entant I'Annonciation de la Vierge, ex£cut& en grand. 
Ce Tableau a 13 pieds ^ de haut, sur 10 pieds de large, iait pour Ft^ise 
CoUigiale de Douay en Flandre. 

Autre Esquisse, repriscntant le Mariage de la Vierge. 

Le Portrait de Madame Vincent. 

Le Portrait de M. I'Abbi de * • *. 

Quelques Esquisscs et plusieurs Desseins. 
1764 Sainte Genevieve assise dans la Campagne, faisant la le&ure. Ce T;^eau est 
I()0 



d by Google 



1764 deslin£ pour la Chapclle tl*un Chateau; il porte 6 picds de haut sur Bieen 

+ picds dc large. (Charlee- 

L'Enlevement de Proserpine. Domin- 

Plusicurs dcsseins a la mine dc plomb, et lavfa a I'encrc dc la Chine, rcprf- '<Juc- 
3cntant diffifrens Sujets. Joseph). 

1774 Le Triomphe de Cybele et les Forges'de Vulcain, repr^sentfs tous deux par 

des cn&ns. Ces Tableaux portent 12 pouces de haut, sur 15 de large. 
Diane ct Endimion. Ce Tableau est de la meme grandeur que le pr^c^dcnt. 
Erigonc, et 1' Amour sous la forme d'une grappe de raisin. Hauteur 14 pouces, 

largeur 16 pouces. 
L'Aurore semant des fleurs ct chassant les Ombres de la Nuit. Hauteur 

15 pouces, largeur 16 pouces. 
Sainte Famillc, ct pour Pendant le Songe de Saint Joseph. 

Ces deux Dcsseins sont a la Sanguine, rchauss^ dc blanc. 
La Cbarit^ repr^ent^ par unc Femme entourfc d'Enfans, Dessein a la 

plume et au bistre. 
Les trois Graces. Petit Dessein colori£ de forme ronde. 
Deux Dcsseins colori&, dont un repr^nte un March^. lis sont pendans. 
Des Enlans jouant avec une Chivre, Dessein a la plume et a I'encre de Chine. 
Plusieurs Desscins. 



FLIPART (JEAN-JACQUES), Gr. 

1755 Adam ct Eve, d'apr^ le Tableau dc M. Natoirc. Du Cabinet de M. de 

Villette, Trisorier dc 1' Extraordinaire des Guerrcs. 
Une Sainte Famillc, d'apris Jules Romain. Dc la Galleric du Roi dc Polt^ne, 

Elefleur de Saxc. 
Six petits Morceaux graves d'apris M. Boucher et M. Cochin. 

1757 Deux Estampes d'apris M. Chardin. 

Six petits morceaux sous un mfimc verre, dont quelques-uns d'apris les desscins 
de M. C4}chin, 

1763 Vinus et Enie. D'apris M. Natoirc. 

Un Morccau gravi d'apr^ M. Boucher, servant de Frontispice i la vie des 

Peintres. 
Une jeune Fille qui pelotte du cotton. D'apres M. Greuze. 
Le Portrait de M. Greuze. D'aprds un Dessein fait par lui-mfime. 
Cinq petits Morceaux, d'apris M. Cochin. 

1765 Une Tcmpfite. D'aprjs M. Vernet. 

La ycrtueuse AtWnienne. )jy. ^^ ^ yien. 
La jcune Lorinthienne. J '^ 

1767 Le Paralytique servi par ses Enlans, 

Une jeune Fille qui picure la mort de son Oiseau. D'apres M. Greuze. 

1771 L*Accord& de Village. D'apr^ le Tableau de M. Greuze, du Cabinet de 
M. Ic Marquis de Marigny. 

1773 Une TcmpStc au Clair de la Lune. D'apris M. Vernet. 

Une Chasse aux Tigres. D'apris le Tableau dc F. Boucher; du Cabinet 
du Roi. 

1777 Le Giteau des Rois. D'apris M. Greuze. 

191 



db, Google 



LARMESSIN 

1737 Quaere sujcts gravez d'apr^ ( 

1738 CEuvres en graviires. 

1739 Un Sujet des Ouvrages en gr 

1741 Le Portrait de Monseigneur I 
Les Quatre Heures du jour, d 

1742 Le Calendrier des Vieillards, 
Les Remords, d'apr^ M. Lar 
On ne s'avise jamais dc tout, 

1743 Le Fleuve Scamandre ; grav^ 

1 745 Les 4 Saisons, d'apr^s M. Lai 
Le Portrait gravi de M. I'AH 

1746 Un Morceau grav j. 

La Savoyarde ; d'ap 

1747 La Savoyarde ; d'apr^ M. Pt< 

1 748 Le Portrait gravi de M. de 

Marshal dc France, Chi 
Professeur. 

1 751 Un Frontispicc all^goriquc, d' 

1753 Quatre Sujcts dc TAncien 1 
Jourdain, David, Isai'e. 



LE BAS QAC 

1737 Deux sujets en gravure d'aprj 

1 738 CEuvres gravies. 

1739 Deux sujets dcs Ouvrages gra 

1740 Huit Sujets pour la Traduftit 
Rendez-vous de Chasse 1 ., 
Le Chasseur fortuni J * 

1 741 Le Sangtier forci, d'apris Wc 
Prise du Hiron, d'apris Vanf 
Deux Estampes d'apr^ Be 

Matin. 
Deux Parages d'apr^ Tin 
I'Arc-en-Ciel. 



db, Google 



1742 Cinq Sujets gravez. Le BaB 

Lc Ncglig^, ou Toilette du matin. D'apris M. Chardin. (Jacques- 

Haltc oe Cavaleric. D'apris Wouvermans. Philippe). 

Depart dc Chasse, D'apr^ Wanfalens, 

Le Midi de fierghem, dMi^ a M. le Baron dc Thiers. 

L'apr^din^ de Berghcm, 6id\i au meme. 

1743 Quatre Sujets graves d'apr^ diSifrens Maitres. 

Sloiyon o„ 3- .as de Fkndres 1 j, j, p y^^.^ 
Jeu de Boule, ou 4* vue de i<landresj '^ 
Conversation ealantc, d'apris M. Lancret. 
Courrier de Flandres, d'aprJs Bott, 

1745 Neuf Morceaux gravez. 

Lc SifHeur de Linotces. 

Le Gagne-petii. 

La Ferme. 

La Basse-cour. 

La Guinguettc Flamande. 

La P*chc. 

La Vcntc de la Peche. 

Le tout d'apr^ David Tcnier. 
La premiere et seconde vue de fieauvais, d*apris M. Boucher. 

1746 Sept morceaux gravez d'apr^s Tenicrs; dediez par I'Auteur a difercns 

Seigneurs, par mi Icsquch sont, 

Le Concert et Famille de Teniers. 

Le Port de Mer. 

La Tetitation de S. Antoine. 

Le Fluteur. 

Le Chimiste, etc. 
1748 Trois F4tes flamandes; d'apris David Teniers. 

Vue dc Santuli<Bt, Village d'HolIande ; d'apr^ Wanderver. 
Viie dc Schcvelinge, aussi Village de Hollande. 
Le Maitre Galant ; d'apr^ Lancret. 

1750 Lcs Philosophes Bachiques, de David Teniers. Tiri du Cabinet de M. le 

Comte de Vence. 
Lcs Miseres de la Guerre, d'apr^s le mSme. Du Cabinet de M, le Marquis 

de Calviere. 
Les P6cheurs Flamands, d'apr^ le m6me. Tiri du Cabinet de M. lc Comte 

de Vencc. 
Vflc de Flandre, d'apr^ lc mfime. DWiie a M. Slodtz Taini. 
Autre Vue dc Flandre. DWife a M. Slodtz de S. Paul. 
Autre Vue de Flandre. D^di^e a Mvlord, Comte de Castlcmain. 
Fete Flamande, d'apr^ le meme. Tir^ du Cabinet de M. lc Comte de 

Choiseuil. Didi& a Madame la Marquise de Pompadour. 

1751 L'Enfant prodigue ; d'apr^ D. Teniers, N" 61. 
D^rt pour la ?6chc ; d'aprb M. Vernet de Rome. 
Port de Mer d'ltalie ; d'apr^s le m£me. 

1753 ^ F£tes de la Ville du Hftvre de Grace, en six Morceaux, dcssinte sur les 
lieux, par le Sieur Descamps, Peintre et membre de 1' Academic de Roiien ; 
a Toccasion du voyage ct du s^jour que lc Roy y a fait en 1749, let- 
quelles FStes ont 6ti pr&ent^es a Sa Majest^, ainsi qu'a la Famille Royale, 
le 29 juillct, par les D£put^ de ladite Ville, ayant a leur tgtc M. le Due 
de S. Aignan, le Comte dc S. Florentin, et M. RouiU£. 

193 C C 



d by Google 



Le Bu '753 Embarquement de Vivres ; d'aprii le Bci^hcm ; did\i a M. k Comtc 
(Jacques S. Florentin. 

Philippe). ,yjj SixMorceau.. 

Neuviime Vue d'Anvers, d'apris Tenicrs. 
Dixiime Vue d'Anvers, d'apris le mfime. 

Du Cabinet du Roi de Polognc, £[e£leiir dc Saxc 
La Pgche Hollandoise, ct la Vue de la Montagne dc Tersato: pt 

Pays^es d'apris Ruysdal. 
Lc Portrait dc M. Grandval, d*apri$ le Tableau dc feu M. Luia 
L'CEconome, d'apr^ le Tableau de M. Chardin, ConsdUct 
Trfeorier de 1' Academic. 

1757 Deux Estampcs, d'apr^ M. Chardin, d^dito a la Reinc dc SuMc. 
L'une, la bonne Mucation. 
L'autrc, I'Etude du Dcssein. 



IT - » f d'apris Tenicrs. 

Le Jour naissant J '^ 



Deux autres Esumpes, d'apr^ le mime, reprfsentans dcs Canards ; djdji 

M. le Baron de Nagel. 
Des gens qui icossent dcs legumes, d'apris M. Greuze. 

1759 Plusieurs Estampcs tir^ du Livre indtulf; Les Ruines des plus b( 
Monuments de la Gr£ce. Didit a M. lc Marquis de Marignjr, par N 
Roi, ArchtteSc du Roi. 

1761 Les quatre premieres Estampes de la suite dcs Ports dc France, d'a 
M. Vernet, gravies en sociitj avec M. Cochin. 

1763 La recompense Villageoise, d'apris le Tableau original dc Claude le Lon 
du Cabinet du Roi. 
Les quatre Estampes de la seconde suite des Ports de France, d'apris M. Va 
gravte en soci^ti avec M. Cochin. 

1765 Les quatre estampes de la troJsi^me suite des Ports dc France, par M. Vef 
gravis en sociiti avec M. Cochin, 

1767 Les deux Estampes de la quatri^me suite dcs Ports de France ; par M. Ver 
gravies en sociiti avec M. Cochin. 

1769 L'une des seize Estampcs qui sont gravies a Paris pour I'Empereur dc la Cb 
EUe reprisentc un combat ies Chinois contrc les Taitares. Ellc 
gravic d'apris le dcssin hit en Chine par lc P. Castillon, Jisuitc 

1 7 71 Trois Estampes, faisant partie des seize qui sont gravies a Paris pour t'Empc 
dc la Chine, et qui reprisentent ses ConquStes ou des Cirimonies Chino 
Ellcs ont 2 pieds 9 pouccs dc haut, sur i pied 7 pouccs de large. 

La Revue de la Maison du Roi au Trou-d'EnFer. 

Deux Estampcs ; I'unc la Source abondante ; l'autrc, les Occupations 
Rivage. D'apris M. Vernet. 

Vue des environs de Groningue. D'apris Ruisdaal. 

Troisiime et IV' F4tes Flamandcs. D'apris Teniera. 

Deux autres. Du Cabinet de M. le Due de Choiseul. 

L'Embarquement dcs Vivres. D'apris Berghem, 

Autre, dont le litre est : Ptnsent-ih h la Musique, D'apris Tinicre j 
Cabinet de M. le Due de Praslin, 

La Vue de I'ancicn Pont de Mcssine. D'apris lc Tableau dc Claude Lon 
appartenant au Rot. EUe fait le pendant a la Ricompensc Villageois* 

194 



db, Google 



1773 Achillc reconnu par Ulysw. D'apris Tenien. Le Bas 

Un Paysage. D'aprfa Pinnaicer. (Jacqoes- 

La Saintc Famille. D'aprAs Reimbrant. Philippe). 

Les trois Moulins, ct la Route de Flandres. D'aprAs Breughels de Velours, 

Ccs cinq morceaux sont du Cabinet de M. le Due de Choiscul. 
Les Satyrcs et Ics Driades. D'apr^ Berghem. 
Un Taureau. D'apris P. Potter. 
Le tnarchj conclu, la cinquieme et la sixieme Ffite de Village. Trois Sujets, 

d'apr^ Teniers } du cabinet de M. de Baudouin, Capitainc aux Gardes 

Francises. 
La septicme F£te de Village. D*aprb Teniers ; du Cabinet de M. le Due 

deCossJ. 

177; Le Retour i ta Fn-me. D'apris Berghem ; du Cabinet de M. le Due de 

Coss£. 
L'Embarquement des Vivrcs. Du Cabinet de M. le Due de Praslin. 
Plusieurs Estampes. D'apr^ Teniers ; du Cabinet de M. le Marquis de 

Brunov. 
Plusieurs Estampes. D*apr^ Teniers; du Cabinet de M. le Comtc de 

Baudouin. 

1777 Vuc du Port et de la Citadelle de Saint-P£tersboui|; sur la Nerwa, prise dessus 
le Qu!u, pris du Palais du Grand-Chancelier Comtc de Bcf^uchefl Elle 
doit £trc d&lidc a 5a Majesti Tlmp^ratrice de toutes les Russies. D'apris 
le Tableau de M. le Prince, appartenant a Madame la Marquise de 
I'Hdpital. 

Ancicn Aquedue de P^nestre, pr^ de Rome. D'apris Corneillc Poulembourg ; 
didii a M. le Due de Coss^ et tiri de son Cabinet. 

IX' F«te Flamandc. D'apr^ le Tableau de D. Tenig^, dtdiie a M. le 
Comte de Baudouin. 

Vues du Cotentin, en deux Estampes. D'apris les Tableaux de Michau, aussi 
didiia a M. le Comte de Baudouin. 

Ruincs d'Eph^e et I'ancien Temple. D'apris Bartholomfe Br^embei^ ; 
d^ite i la M. le Due de Nivernois, et tiroes de son Cabinet. 

1779 Port de Dieppe. D'apris M. Vernct. 

Figures de 1 Histoire de France ; Ouvrage propose par souscription. 

1781 Deux Cadres contenant ehaeun 35 sujets de figures de I'Histoirc de France, 
dessin& par M. Moreau, le jeune. 

Nala, II a paru 6 livraisons de 1 8 Estampes chacunc de cet Ouvrage, 
propos^ par souscription, la septicme paroit a(^uellement. 
Vue du Port du Havre, ftiisant la seizieme Estampe de la eolIeSion des Ports 
de France ; cette vue est dessin^ par M. Cochin cC grav^ en sod^j par 
MM. Cochin et le Bas. 

Elle a 28 pouces dc large, sur 20 de haut. 
Deux vucs de I'lsle-Barbe, sur la riviere de Saone, au-dessus de Lyon, gravies 
d'apr^ les Tableaux dc M. Olivier, ancicn Pensionnaire du Roi de 
Sardaigne. Largeur 28 pouces, hauteur 20. 
La belle Apris-dtnie, d'apr^ un Tableau dc Carle Dujardin, tiri du Cabinet de 
S. A. S. Mgr. Ic Prince dc Condf, Cette Estampe dc 13 pouces dc haut, 
sur 1 1 de large, lait pendant i la Fraichc-matin£c. 
Vue des environs d'Anvers. 
Vue des Environs de Bruxelles. 

Ces deux Estampes bisant pendant, dc 14 pouces de large, siu- 
10 de haut, sont grav& d'afwis Breugle de Velours, et didite i S. A. R. Ic 
Prince Charles de Lorraine. 

■95 



db, Google 



Le Bat ^7^' Seconif Vue de Bruges, d'apris le mcme Autcur, dri du Cabinet de S. A,S. 
(Jftcquei- Mgr. le Prince de Cond^. i6 pouces dc large, sur i2 de haut. 

Philippe). Un cadre rcnfermant plusieurs Dessins pour I'Histoire de France, grav& sons 

la dire£lion de M, I^bas i qui ils a|^rtienncnt. Par M. Aitrtn It 

jmtt. 

1793 Vue du Port et de U Ville de Rouen, prise de la pointe de I'Isle de la Craii, 
au Sud-Sud-EsL 
Vue du Port ct de la Villc dc Rouen, prise de la petite chauss£e, a I'OiUR 
de la Ville. 

Dessin^ d'aprb nature par C. N. Cochin et gravis sous la diredion 
de Lebas et Choflard. 

Ccs deux Estampes sont les N°* 17 et 18 de la Colledion des Fore 
de Mer de France, d'apr^ Vemet, et se trouvent chez Bazan, rue Scrpcntc: 
N-.+. 



LEMPEREUR (LOUIS-SIMON), Gr. 

1761 Lcs Forges de Vulcain, d'apris M. Pierre, d^dife i M. le Marquis deMarigOT. 
Quelquei autres Estampes. 

1763 Lcs Baigneuscs. D*apris M- Carle Vanloo, Premier Peintre du Roi. 
L*£nl£vement d'Europe. D'apr^ M. Pierre. 

1765 Le Triomphe de Silene. D'apr^ feu M Carle Vanloo. 
Titon et 1 Aurore. D'apr^ M. Pierre. 

Ccs Tableaux sont du Cabinet du Roi. 
Le Portrait dc M"" Lccomte. D'ap-is Ic Dcsscin de M. Watclet. 

1767 Le Portrait de M. Watelet. D'apris le Dessin de M. Cochin. 

Le Portrait de M. de Belloy, sujct alligoriquc, d'apris le Tableau de M. Jollain, 
Peintre du Roi. I^ Ville de Calais prisente au G6iie de la Pofsie le 
MJdaillon de M. de .Belloy, pour ctre atuchi a la Pvramide de 
rimmortalit j. Sur la Pyramidc, on voit un Bas relief oii le Roi Edouvd 
est repr&enti condamnant a la mort Eustache de Saint-Pierre ct les 
gjn&'eux Compagnons. Au bas est un Enfant qui ticnt lcs dels ct lcs 
armes de la Ville, et pr^ de lui un Chien, symbole de la fid^liti de ccs 
vatllans Citoycns. On apercoit dans le fond le Port de Calais. 

C'est sous lcs ordres de M. le Due de Charost, Gouverneur Je 
Calais, que cctte Estampc a iti grav^. 

1769 Les Jardtns d' Amour. Estampe connuc aussi sous le nom de la Famille de 
Rubens, dont elte pr^nte lcs Portraits. D'apr^ le Tableau de Rubens. 

1773 Le Fesdn Espagnol. D'apr^ Palamede Stevens. 
Les Sermens du Bcrgcr. D'apr^ M Pierre, 
Lcs PrJsens du Better. D'apr^ F. Boucher. 

1775 Une Vieiile faisant des remonstrances a sa Fillc. D'apris le Tableau de 
M. Wille le fils. 

1777 La Mire indulgente, 

Les Conseils Maternels. D'apris les Tableaux dc M. Wille le fils, 
Le Portrait de M. Jeaurat, Rei^eur de 1' Academic. D'apris M. Roslin ; c'est 
le Morceau de Reception de I'Auteur. 
1779 L'enlivement de Proserpine. D'apria !e Morceau de Riception de la Fosse. 
Cctte Estampe est ... de la suite que 1' Academic iait graver. 
196 



d by Google 



'779 Sylvie gaint Fhilis dc la piquure d'un Abcille. Lem- 

L'Amour ranime Aminte dans les bras dc Sylvie. pereur 

Sytvie fuit le loup qu'etle a blesȣ. (Louis- 

Ces trois Sujets tir^s de TAminte du Tasse, sont d'apris M. Boucher. Simon). 

1781 Unc VJnus. Estampe grav£e d'apr^ Annibal Carrache. 

1789 Lks Graces lutmies par Ics Amours. D'apris M. dc la Gren^. 
Les Amours enchain^* par les Graces. D'apris Ic m£me. 



MOREAU LE JEUNE (JEAN-MICHEL), Dess. et Gr. 

1777 Deux quadres contenant chacun six petits Sujeis. D'apris MM. Cochin, 
Monnet et Moreau, pour les Editions de Roland Furieux, T^l^maque, 
etc Par M. Dtlaunaj, 

1 78 1 Deux Cadres contenant chacun 35 sujets de figures de I'Histoire de France, 
dessin^es par M. Moreau, le jeune. 

Nita. II a paru 6 livraisons de 18 Estampcs chacune de cct Ouvrage, 
propose par souscription, la septtcme paroit afhiellcmcnt Par M. Li Bat, 
Cir^monic du Sacrc de Louis XVI. 

Ce Dessin a iti ordonn^ par M. le Mar&:hal Due de Duras ; c'est 
le moment oil Sa Majcst^ prononce le serment. 
Estampe grav^e d'apr^ la mfime Dessin. 

X'Estampe dc mSmc grandeur que le Dessin, a 30 pouccs de long, 
sur 19 de haut. 
Dessin dc I'lllumination, ordonn^c par M. le Due d'Aumont, pour le manage 
du Roi. 

Cette vue est prise du bas du tapis vert, d'ou I'on voit toute t'^tendue 
du Canal. 

Cctte Estampe et ces deux Dessins pr&jdents appartiennent au Roi. 
Dessin rcprfscntant Louis XV a la Plaine des Sablons, passant en revue les 
Regimens des Gardes-Francises et Suisscs, I'instant est celui ou les troupes 
d^hlent devant Sa Majcst^ 

Ce Dessin a I pied de haut, sur 2 pieds 3 pouces de long. 
Trois Etudes au pastel, une tete de Femme et deux de VieilEards. 
Le Portrait de Paul-Jones, dessin^ d'apr^ nature, en 1780. 
Vingt-neuf Dessins in-4'' des CEuvres de J. J. Rousseau, pour I'^dition de 

Bruxellcs. 
Un cadre renfcrmant plusieurs Dessins pour I'Histoire de France, grav& sous 

la dire^ion de M. Lebas a qui ils appartiennent. 
Autre cadre contenant cinq Dessins in-8° pour les CEuvres de I'Abb^ M£tastase, 
et unc grandc vignette pour mettre a la t6te de la Description g£n^rale de 
la France; le sujet est I'^tablissemcnt de I'Ordre de la Toison d'Or, par 
Philippe le Bon, Due de Bourgogne. 
Une vue de TOrangerie dc Saint-Cloud. 

Plusieurs Dessins in-4'', sujets de la Henriade, qui formeront la premiere 
livraison des Estampes proposjes par souscription, pour I'omement des 
Editions dc M. dc Voltaire. 

Cette livraison paroitra en Janvier 1782. 
Arriv^ de J. J. Rousseau au s^jour des Grands Hommcs ; sur te devant, 
Diogene souffle sa lanterne, 

Cette Estampe paroitra au jour dans trois mois. 
Plusieurs Dessins et Esquisscs. 

197 



db, Google 



Moreau '7^3 Q^^^'^^ Dessins des Fetes de la Vjile, a I'occasion de la naissan^ de Mgi. ii 

le jeune Dauphim : 

(Jean- Le premier, I'arrivje de la Rdne a rHdtel-d^VJUe. 

Michel). Le second, le Feu d'Aitifice. 

Cet deux dessins ont 27 pouces de long sur 17 dc haut. 
Le troineme, le Repas donnj par la Ville a leurs A&jest&. 
Le quatrieme, le BaJ Masqui. 
Dessin all^gonquc pour la convalescence de Madamb Comtesse d'Artob. 

14 pouces de long, sur 10 de haut. 
Autre Dessin alligorique. 12 pouces de haut, sur 9 de large. 
Douzc Dessins pour Ics CEuvrcs de Voltaire, dont la collefHon est d£di& 1 

S. A. R. FrW^ric-Guillaume, Prince dc rnisse. 
Fabricius recevant des D^put^ au moment qu"!! fait cuire des legumes. Ce 

Dessin appartient a M. le Due de Chabot. 
F£te projettic sur remplacement de TOrangcrie et de la piice des Sutcset i 
Versailles pour la Naissance de Mgr. le Dauphin, en deux Dessins dc 
trente-trois pouces de long sur treize de haut j le premier repr^sente le 
plan et la coupe sur la plus grande longueur ; le second la vue peispefiiic 
prise de I'Orangerie. 
Portrait de Madame de la Fert£. 

1785 Dix-huit Dessins pour les CEuvres de Voltaire: 
Catilina 
Olympie 
Oreste 

Adelaide du Guesclin 
Don Pedro 
Irene 
Agathocle 
Le Guesbres 
Les Scythes 
Les Loix de Minos 
Socrate, drame 
L'Ecossaise 
Le Baron d'Otrante 
Le D^positaire 
Memnon 1 /-< ^ 

Z«lig. )c»""«- 

2 dessins. 
Le Frontispice pour les Estampes des CEuvres de Voluire. 

Portraits, Dessins. 
M. Renou, Adjoint a Secretaire de I' Academic. 
M. Martini, Graveur. 

M. Guillotin, Do£teur en M£decine de la Facultj de Paris. 
Mile, le Prince. 
Mile. Sauerain, Graveur. 
Mile. De Conuic^. 

Dessins. 
Cams Marius qui, par son seul regard, arrete le Soldat qui veut le tucr. 
Mort de Caton d'Utique. 

Un quadre contenant 15 Dessins, pour les Figures de I'Histoire de France 
Ouvrage d^i£ au Roi. 

17S7 Un grand Dessin repr^sentant I'Assembl^ des NotaUes. 
Dessin ordonnj par le Roi. 
198 



TragUies. 



Comedies. 



.Google 



1787 Autre, reprjsentant Tullie, ^siuit passer son Char sur le corps de son Pere ; il Moreau 
doit fitre gravd pour U reception dc I'Auteur. le jeune 



Ce Dessin apparticnt a M™ dcs Entelles. 
Sept Desans destinis a orncr l'£dition de Voltaire : 



Jean- 
Hichel). 



Enphilc J 
Llng^nu 
Candide 

La Princesse de Babylone Contes. 
Teannot et Colin 
La F^-Urgelle 
1789 Quatre Estampes pour les f£tes de la Ville. 

Ouverture des Etats-Gin&aux, du 5 Mai 1789. 
Constitution dc I'Assembl^e Nationale, du 17 Juin suivant. 
Tuilie laisant passer son char sur le corps de son pere. 

C'est le morceau de reception de I'auteur. 
Patriotisme et iidjlit^ au Roi. 

Le 24 Ffivrier 1525, Jean le S£n6chal, Seigneur de Molac ct de 

Carcado, Capitaine de cent hommes d'Armes, Gentilhomme de la Chantbre 

de Francois premier, sauva la vie a cc Prince par le sacrifice de la sienne. 

« Voyant un Arquebusier prSt a tirer sur le Roi, il se pr^ipita au-devant du 

coup et tilt tue, 

Estampe d£di£e a M. le Marquis de Molac, Chef de nom et armes 
des grands Sin^haux fiodh et h^rfditaires en Bretagne. 
1791 Douze Cadres. Portraits de Depute. Par MM. Moreau et Labadie, 
Cadre contenant dix Dessins. Sujet du Nouveau Testament. 
Un Cadre contenant dix Dessins. Sujet txri du Nouveau Testament. Autre 

cadre repr6scntant la Procession d'Isis. 
Le Dessin du Frontispice des C^r^monies Religicuses, 
Deux Estampes, repr^sentans les Euts-G^niraux. 
Un Cadre contenant dix Dessins. Sujet tir£ du Nouveau-Testament. 
Une Tete de Femme, dessein. 
1793 Une Estampe repr^ntant la Commie et la Trag^ie, d'apris les desans du 
Citoycn Moreau. Par Penee, 
Un Cadre contenant six Vignettes, d'apr^ Cochin, Moreau, Monnet, Eisen 

ct Marillier, pour dilFi^rens Ouvrages. Par Pgnct, 
Deux Cadres contenant chacun dix Dessins pour les Evangeles. 
Les Fun£railles d'une Reine d'Egypte. 2 pieds de large, sur i pied 7 pouces 
de haut. 

Pour I'Histoire g^nfrale'et particuliirc des Religions et du Culte 
de tous tes Peuples. 
1796 Un cadre contenant cina vignettes d'apr^ les dessins des citoyens Cochin, 
Regnault, Monsiau, Moreau et Marillier, destinies a ornerles ccuvres de 
Virgile, de Rousseau, de Montesquieu et de Deshouliires. Par Ptnct, 
Ccs objets appartiennent a I'auteur, 
Un cadre renfermant dix dessins des a^tes des Apotrcs. 
Un /dVm, renfermant six dessins du voyage d'Anacharsis. 
Un cadre renfermant quatre dessins, deux de I'lliade, et deux de JuvJnal. 
Deux Desstiu dc la vie de Phocion, et deux de celle de Marc-Aurelle. 
1 798 Cadre contenant 47 dessins &its pour une Miiion de Gesner, en quatre volumes 
in-S", que le C, Renouard publiera le i*^ Vend^miaire prochain. 
Cadre contenant 18 dessins, A^es dcs Ap6tres, pour T^dition in-S" du nouveau 

Testament dc Saugrain. 
Un Dessin pour Anacharsis. 

'99 



db, Google 



Morean 1798 Un Dessin repr&cntant R^liu retournaot a Carth^e, pour les ceuvnsb 
le jeune Montesquieu, 10-4.°. 



(lea 
Mid 



lean- 



;hel). ^799 ^^ Com^die et la Tragfdie, d'apr^ Moreau par Panci. 

1800 La reception de Mirabeau au Champs-EIys^cs d'apris Moreau, Ic jeune. Pv 
Maiquelitr. 



SAINT-AUBIN (AUGUSTIN DE), G«. 

1771 Quatre Portraits et Etudes, dessinis d'apr^ nature 
Vertumnc et Pomone. D'apris fcu M. Boucher. 
Quatre Sujets des Metamorphoses. Dont trois d'apr^ M. Boucher, et ua 

d'apris M. Ic Prince. 
Quatre Estampes ; deux pour les Comedies de Terence, une pour le Poeme dc 

la Peinture, et une pour le Frontispice des quatre Po^tiqucs, traduitcs ps 

M. I'Abbi Batteux. D'apr^ M. Cochin. 
Une Estampe de la Suite des Conquctcs de I'Empereur de la Chine. 
Dix-huit Portraits en Medallion. D'apr^ M. Cochin. 

Cinq Portraits en Midaillon. , 

Lc Portrait dc feu M. de Cribillon. D'apris le Buste de M. le Mo^ne. 
Le Portrait de M. Diderot, en Midaillon. D'apr^ le Dessin dc M. Greuze. 
Une Elstampe reprisentant un ancien us^e Russe, D'apris le Dessin deM. 

le Prince, tirj du voyage de ieu M. PAbb^ Chappe de Haute-Roche, 

1773 Le Portrait de leu M. Helvftius. D'a^^ L. M. Vanloo. 

Les Portraits de MM. Piron, Philidor, Beaum^ et Cochin. D'apr^ les Desaus 

de M. Cochin. 
Frontispice pour I'Histoire de la Maison dc Bourbon. D'apr^ F. Boucher. 
Frontispice du Livre intitule, Esiai lur le earaSttre^ les Mteurs et l*£sfntJa 

Ftmmet : par Monsieur Thomas, D'apfis le Dessin de M. Codiia 
Dessins, 
Portraits et Etudes, 
Autres Portraits en Medallion. 
Un Concert Bourgeois, et un Bal Par£. 

1 77s Six Portraits en Midaillon : M. de Trudaine, M. Pierre, M. t*Abb< RaynaJ, etc 
D'apr^ les Dessins de M. Cochin. 
T^l^maque aborde dans I'Isle de Calipso. D'apris le Dessin de M. Cochin. 
Cettc Estampe est pour I'Edition projettie in-8% dont le texte doit 
etre grav6. 
Deux Cadres; ils renferment chacun douze Sujets et Tttes; d'apris les 

Picrrcs gravies du Cabinet de M le Due d'Orl^ans. 
Dessins. Plusieurs Portraits et Etudes, d'aprb Nature. 

1777 Dessins. Douze Dessins a la Sanguine et douze lav£s a I'encre de la Chine et 
au bistre ; d'apris les Pierres gravies antiques du Cabinet de M. le Due 
d'Orl&ns, dont on se propose de donner une Colleton. 
Ils sont renfermis sous deux quadres. 
Plusieurs Portraits en Medallions, et Etudes de Tetcs dessin^es a la mine de 
plomb, metres d'un peu de pastel, 

Estampes. 
VinuB. D'apris le Tableau du Titien, qui est au Palais Royal. 
Un Frontispice AUigorique, D'apris les Dessins de M. Cochin. 
Alexis Piron. D'apris le Buste, en marbre, dc M. Caffiiri. 
200 



d by Google 



1777 Plusieurs Pratniits en Midaillons, D'apr^ les Dessins de M. Cochin. Saint- 

1779 Sujet AUigorique, dans lequel doit <tre plac* le Portrait dc Mgr. le Due ^^p^tin 

Ce Morceau doit servir de Frontispicc i I'Ouvrsigc, intituli : Descrip- '' 
lian dtt Pitrrtt gravies dt S. A. S. Mgr. It Due d'Orliam. Ouvrage 
petit in-folio. 
Vignette destinie pour le mtme Ouvrage. 

Les deux Estzmpes sont faites d'apr^ les Dcssins de Jt4. Cxhin. 
Portrait. J. J. Caffieri, Sculpteur du Roi. D'apr^ Af. Coehin. 
L. E. Baronne de • • *. 
A, S. Marquise de • * *. 

Dcssinfe et gravis par Augustin de Saint Aubin. 

1783 Un cadre renfermant quatre ovalcs, dans chacun desqucis est rem'&entfe une 
ligurc de Femme vuc i mi-corps, dessin^e au crayon noir, mCw d'un peu de 
pastel. 
Plusieurs Portraits, dessin^ \ la mine de plomb m&t& de pastel 
Deux cadres contenant chacun douzc Dessins a la saiieuinc, d'apris les pierrcs 
- grav^ antiques, du cabinet de Monseigneur le Due d'Orlians. 

Gravures. 
Le Portrait de M. Perronnet, Chevalier de I'Ordre du Roi, premier Ing&iicur 

des Fonts et Chaussies. D'apr^ M. Cochin. 
Portrait de M. dc la Motte-Piquet, Chef d'Escadre. 

Portrait de M. Pigallc, Chevalier de I'Ordre du Roi. D'apris M. Cochin. 
Portrait de M. Linguet. D'apr^ M. Greuze. 
Pmtrait dc M. Pilerin, savant Antiquaire. 

1785 M. Necker, ancien Diredeur-G^niral des Finances. D'apris M. Duplessis. 
M. de Finilon, Archevfique de Cambray. D'apr^ Vivien. 
Un quadre rcnlermam 8 Portraits. 
Autre quadre, contenant 6 vignettes ct front is pices. 

1789 Portrait dc M. Necker, D'apris M. Duplesds. Format tn-12, gravi en 

Juillct 1789. 
Lekain, dans le role d'Orosmane. D'apr^ M. le Noir, Peintre du Roi. 
Un Cadre renfermant plusieurs petits Portraits d'Artistcs de la SoditJ des 

Enfans d'Apollon. 
Deux demi-figurcs dans des ovales ct fkisant pendan^ dessin^ et gravies par 

I'Autcur. 
Plusieurs Portraits dcssinfs i la mine de plomb, mtiis d*un peu de pastel. 

1793 Jupiter et Lida,d'apris le Tableau original de Paul Vironise,qui itaitdans la 

Colledion du ci-devant Palais-Royal. Grandeur du Cadre, 17 pouccs de 

haut, sur 14 pouces de long. 
Un petit Portrait en Midaillon imiunt le Camie, d'awis Sauvage. 
Vinus Anadyomine, d'apris le Tableau original du Tttien, qui itoit dans la 

CoUedion du ci>devant Palais Royal. Hauteur ii pouces, sur 8 de 

large. 



d by Google 



SAINT.AUBIN (GABRIEL DE) 

ExpoemoNs D£ L'AcAoiuis di St. Luc 

Par M. de Saint-Aubin, Adjoint i Professeur. 

1 774 Le Triomphe de rAntour sur tous les Dieux. Plafond de 3 (neds de huit,sv 

4 [Mcds de large. 

L'Ecole de Zeuxis. . . . L'an du monde 3564. Hauteur, t pied 10 povce^ 

largeur, t pied 6 pouces. 
Eflet du Trcmblemcnt de terra de Lisbonne. Hauteur, 2 {Heds 6 pouco, 

largeur, 2 pieds. 
Un Sujet des Contes de la Fontaine. Hauteur, 1 pied 3 pouces, la^ew, 

I pied. 
Fete de Village et Pendant, Hauteur. 2 pieds, largeur, 2 pieds 8 pouces. 
L'Amour maternel et filial, repr^nte par une Femme allaitaiit son cnEuL 
[See sketch of "M^e donnant de Ea bouillie a s<hi cn&nt," lep. de 
Goncourt, **L'Art du XVIIL Siicle."] Hauteur, i [»cd 4 pouoes, 
largeur, t pied 2 pouces. 
Une jeune Dame laisant riciter la Ie(oii a un petit ^(on. Hauttur, ll 

pouco, sur 9 pouces de large. 
Plusieun Tableaux. 

Exposition au CoLvsii, 

1776 Son ptntrait &it par lui-m£ni^ de 14 pouces de haut sur 11 dc large. 
La Tcntation de Saint Antcune de forme ronde. 
Deux pendants de dix pouces de haut sur dix dc large : l*un est une seine 

tiagique, I'autre un concert. Esquisscs. 
Une mire allaitant son enfant en peinture iludorique, de 17 pouces de baut 

sur treize de large. 
Le Triomphe de Pomp^ m£me peinture de dix pouces de haut sur treize de 

Urge. 
Le trait de bienfaisance de la Reine a Fontainebleau de $ pouces de haut sur 

7 pouces de targe, esquisse a gouache. 
Une Sevreuse et des enfimts, deux pasteb de quinze pouces de haut sur 

quatorzc de large. 
La Rentrje du Parlement. 
Le Roi posant la |»-emiirc pierra de I'amphithifltre des fcoles de Chtrurgje. 

Ces deux pendants sont de 9 pouces de haut sur 6 de large. 
Vue de llnt^eur de la rotonde du Colysie. 
Un FajTsaM. 

Ces deux pendants dc forme ronde sont de 5 pouces dc diamitre. 
Nouveau trait de bien^sance de la Reine arrivj au vill^ dc Saint Michel, de 

6 pouces de haut sur 8 de laive. 
Le Carnaval Ajt Parnassc, repr&cntant le caraSire des 3 th£fltres, de 9 

pouces de baut sur douze de large. 

Ces deux numiros sont des gouaches. 

Note.— I have not seen the livrtl of this exhibition, which is described hf 
M. Guifirey (" Expositions de 1' Academic de Saint-Luc," p, xv) as nothing more than 
** un Salon posthume de TAcadimie de Saint-Luc." The extra£l given above is taken 
ii-om the de Goncourt (^'L'Art du XVIIL Siicle," pp. 417, 41^. They add thit, 
three years after the death of Gabriel, Pahin de la Blancherie rc-cxhibited, at his hmvs 
Salon de la Correspondance, the little sketch for a " plafond pmjttt en 1 752 " and 
** Un Paysage avec figures dans le genre de Watteau." 
202 



d by Google 



WILLE QEAN-GEORGES) 

1757 La Devideuse, mere de Gerard Daw, d'zpris Gerard Daw. 
Za Mjnagere Hollandoiae, d'apris le mtme. 
La TricoCteuse Hollandoise, d apr^ Micris. 

1759 he Portrait de M. de BouUongne, Controleur G^niral dcs Finances, Com- 
mandeur et Grand Trisoricr des Ordres du Roi, d'apris le Tableau de feu 
M. Rigaud. 

1761 Le Portrait de M. le Marquis de Marigny, d'apr^ Ic Tableau de M. Tocqu£. 
Le petit Pliysicien, d'apris Gaspard Netscber, 

1 763 La Liseuse. D'apris Girard Dow. 

Le Jeune Joueur dlnstrumens, D'apris Schalken. 

1 765 Les MusicJens atnbulans. D'apris M. Dietrich, Peintre de S, A. Eledorale de 
Saxe. 

1767 L'lnstruftion Patcrncllc. D'apris G. Therburg. 
L'Observateur distrait. D'apris F. Miens. 

1 769 Le Concert de Famille. D'apris le tableau de Scalken. 

1771 Les Ofires r^proques. D'aprAs le Tableau de M. Dtetricy, Peintre de 
I'Eleaeur de Saxe. 

1777 Les bona Amis. D'apris A. Ostadc. 

Agar prjsentfe a AlN^iham. D'apris Dittricy. 
Le repos de la Vierge. D'apris le mtnie. 

1779 Mort de Marc Antoine. D'a[N-fa Pompeo Battoni. 



203 



d by Google 



db, Google 



INDEX 

Abbreviations. 
Arch. = archiuH. illus. = Ulustrattd by. 

dtsi. = dfisimateur. n. = nsU. 

id. =i£teur. p. =sptintrt. 

gr. =graveur. sc. =i sculptiur. 

Tttlti of works are printtd in italics : nanus of artists after whom they have bten engraved 
are placed in brackets after them. 



Abbeville, 51 n. 2, 62, 86 n. 2. 

Abonnenc, Justine, 19 n. 3. 

Academic d'Architcfture, 159. 

Academic Royalc, 8, 4.5, 47 n. 3, 48, 56, 61, 
63, 66 n, 3, 76, 88, 96 n. 2, 130, 135 
n. 5, 141 n. 3, 143, 144; acquisition of 
engravings by, 163-168; admission of 
members, 6, 1 1, 14, 26 and n. 5, 27, 28, 
43, 44, 54, 58, 61 n. 2, 73, 75, 79, «», 

87, 93, "3, 136, 144, 145, 152, 15s; 
— and colour engraving, 149-151 i posi- 
tion of engravers in, 2, 158-168. 

Academic de St. Luc, 14, 85, 120 n. 5, 
121, 122, 123, 125, 127, 133 and n. 3. 

Academy of Florence, 27, 

Academy of Rouen, 128. 

Academy of St. Petersburg, 139. 

Accident imprivu, V (Lavreince), by Darcis, 
92 n. I. 

Accord parfait (Moreau), by Helman, 142 
n. t. 

Accordie de Village (Greuze), by Flipart, 

88, 89, 167. 

A£te de partage, lamille Mariette, 20 n. 1, 

23, 28. 
Adam and Eve (Natoire), by Flipart, 88. 
Adieu to Susany by Gravelot, 113 n. 3. 
Adieux, Les (Moreau), by R. Delaunay, 

142 n. I. 



Adrienne Leeouvreur (Coypel), by P.-I. 
Drevct, 59, 60, 69. 

Adrienne-Sopbie, Marquise de . , ., by A. 
de St-Aubin, 136. 

JSaoft early editions of, 98. 

Afemmt avare, galant escroc, after Lancret, 
71 a. S. 

Aiglonne et les paoni, L'y by Le Gouaz, 109. 

Atbani, Cardinal, 12. 

Aliamet, gr., 34 n. i, 49 n. 3, 91, 107 and 
nn. 2 and 3, 139. 

Alix malade, by Le Veau, 102. 

AlUgorie sur la vie du Dauphin (Cochin), 
by Demarteau, 150 n. 9. 

Almanack dt CEcole Royalty '7^0, by Gra- 
velot, 117; — iconologiquty ay Cochin 
and Gravelot, 1 19 n. 2 ; — national^ by 
Debucourt, 156 n. i. 

Amanli decouverts, — poursuivis, by Debu- 
court, 155 n. 4. 

Amour^ i*, after rragonard, 154. 

Amour diiarmi (Boucher), by Fessard, 
163. 

Amour en ribotte (Eisen pire), by Halbou, 
121 n. 5. 

Amour Midecin, by Baquoy, 108. 

Amours des Dieux, by Schmidt, 76 n. 2> 

Amours du Socage (Lancret), by Larmessin, 
164. 



205 



d by Google 



Amntrt tn gaytti (Boucher), by Daullj, 

64 and n. 3. 
Amaterdain, B. ^cart at, 81 n. 7, 99 n, 4, 

105. 
Anacreon, illus. Massard, 78 n. 1. 
Anattasit, La prinasst (Roslin), by Daull^ 

27, 65, 66. 
Anchin, work of Bellegambe at, 125 n. i. 
Andr£ coUefHon, 77. 
Angiviller, d', 151 n. 4, 159, 160. 
Jnguier, Muhil (Revel), by Cars, 84 n. 1. 
"Annates du Regne de Marie-Thirise,*' 

104. 
Anntttt it LiitiHjhy Gravelot, 1 16, 
Aitntntiatimy by Eisen, 125 i — (Sdimen), 

by Le Mire, 100 n. i. 
AptlU and tht Pythn (Gravelot), by Le 

Veau, 106. 
Afru'dtHi^ V (Berghem), by Le Has, 90 

n. I. 
Argenson, Marquis d*, 1, 122. 
Argenvilte, d', 136, 168. 
Armada, Spanish, 112 n, 7. . 
Armand coUe^on, 134. 
Armtirty L'y by Fragonard, 4. 
Arnaud, Bacukrd d , 107 n. 2, 126 n. 2. 
Arrivii dt la Rtinty itCy by Moreau, 143 

n. 4. 
Arrivit dt Rtusttau au sijeur dts Granii 

Htmmtty by Moreau, 143. 
Arrivit d'unt Dillgmet, by L. BoiUy, 146. 
Arrivet, gr,, 108. 
Arsenal, exhibition at the, 122. 
** Ars Poetica," transbdon by Colman, 119 

n. 9. 
"Art de Peindre," by Watelet, 10 n. 4, 13 

and n. 2. 
Artm, AlUgary m tht Ceunttis ^, by Moreau, 

142 and n. 3. 
AruHdtl, Lard\yuiiyck\ by P. A. Tardieu, 

78 n. >. 
Asia Minor, visit of de Caylus to, 5 and 

n. 2. 
Aistmtlit an Ctnctrt, — au Salan^ by 

Lavreince, 154 n. i. 
Aiftmtlit dt iretanttmrif by Charles Coypel, 

AsitmbSi dts NttabUt, by Moreau, 143, 

144. 
'*Astrie, L'," illus. Gravelot, 113. 
Aubcrt, Anne. Sec Mme. Eisen. 
Aubeit, Michel, gr., 163 and n. 4. 
Audouin, er., 87 n. 4. 
Audran, Benoit, gr., 57 and n. 1, 161 



Audran, Benoit II., gr., 57 and a. l 
Audran, Claude, p.-d£c., 56, 57 and n, t. 
Audnn, Claude le p£re> 58 n. 2. 
Audran, G^nud, gr^ 56, 57, $8 and n. 1, 

61. 
Audran, Germain, gr., 58 and n. 2. 
Audran, Jean, gr., 56 and n. 2. 
Augsburg, Imperial Academy of, 14 
Augustus III. ofPotaod (EleOor of Sassy], 

28, 64 n. 4f 82 n. 1, 94 n. 3} poniM 

of (Rigaud), by Balechou, 160, t6i. 
Aumale, Duke d', 13. 
Au HuiMs S9jt% discrtty by A. de St-AoUi, 

130. 136, »38j 149- 
Aumont, Duke d% 40, 143. ^ 
Austria, Empress o^ 28 ; Empress Dow<fe 

of, 80. 
Autmuu (Eisen), by Mme. de Pompadon, 

122. 
Avarty L\ by N^ 108. 
Avtdy Mmt^ by Balechou, 160. 
Avcline, Fnuifois-Antoine, gr^ 110 vd 

n. I. 
Avelinc, Pierre, gr., 31 and n. 4, 99 a !■ 
AvtHturtt dt Dm ^uhtUy by Charie 

Coypel, 3 n. 3. 
Avtu diffktlty V (Lavrdnce), by Juinct, 

»S4- „ 
Avignon, Balechou at, 161, i6a. 
Avnl, gr., 78 and n. 4. 

Babel, gr., 103 n. i. 

Babuty, M., 84 n. 3. 

Baecbanalts, by Frsgonard, 4. 

Bacciarelli, Mme., p., 14 n. 4. 

" Bachaumont, MuiKiircs secrets de," l, ^^ 

86, 93, 115 n. I, 118, 121 and D. If 

165. 
Bachelay, gr., 93 and n. 3. 
Bachclier, gr., 168. 
Baden -DurWch, Margrave of, 80. 
Baigntusit (VernctV by Balechou, 162. 
Bain dt Ziliiy by Eisen, 125. 
'^Baisers, Les," by Dorat, 103, 126. 
Bal d'Autmily by G. de SL-Aubin, iS') 

132. 
Bal masquiy by Cochin, 1 43 ; — by MoRUi 

143 n. 4. 
Bal Pariy by Cochin fils, 49 j _ by A. it 

Sc Aubin, 137 and n. 2 ; InvitaMt f --> 

by Cochin his, 49 and n. 6. 
Balechou, Jean-Joseph, gr., t6o and n-4i 

161, 162. 
Balvay. See Berwic. 
Banier, abb£, loj. 



206 



d by Google 



Bspst coIle^on, ii6 n. i. 

Baptime lutvant U ritt Grecy by Le Prince, 
152. 

Baquoy, Charles, gr., 33, 101 and n, 3, 
106, 107, to8, 109, 14-2 n. t. 

Barathier^ Gtneral (ChoffiircJ), by Miger, 
103 n. I. 

Barruiy portrait of, ordered of Orcvet fils, 
59. 

Bartolozzi, gr., 92 n. i, 157, 168. 

Basan, Mine., 32 and n. 5, 34. 

Basan, Pienre-Franyois, gr., 29-36, 81, 82, 
89, III, 135 n. I ; his commerce, 30, 
32 n- 3> 35i 36, S'j 12» n. 5; en- 
gravings by, 31, 32, 33 n. 3, 132; 
publications of, 98 ; — Catalt^e Mzn- 
cttc, 7 n. 2, 29, 33, 34; Di£tionnaire 
des Graveurs, 30 n. 2, 36, 150 n. 5; 
Ovid, 33, 34, 105, 106, 140; Recueil, 
31, 32 ; sales conducted by, 34 and n. i, 
35- 

Basseportc^ Madeleine, p., 53 n, 2. 

Bastille, 6 n. 2. 

BatailUs £Altxendrty by G. Audran, 56. 

Baudouin, p., 78 n, i, 97 n. 2, 106 nn, 4 
and 9, 107 n. 2, 140, 

Baudouin, Count, 94 n. 3. 

Bayeux, Mus^ 142 n. 3. 

Biau aim, Lt (Wattcau), by de Caylus, 6. 

Beaumarchais, 143 n. 5. 

Beauv^us, gr, 61 n. 3. 

Beauvarlet, gr., a, 31 and n. 3, 86 and n. 2, 
87, III, 160. 

Becket, M., 115 n. 2. 

Be[,avocat, 51. 

Belle, p 38. 

Belle, Mme., 37. 

Bell^ambe, Jean, 12$ n. i. 

Belle-Isle, Marichal de, 74, 75 n. I, 151 ; 
portrait (Rigaud), by Wille, 64, 65, 66 
"■ 3. 72, 74, 75. 

Bclloy, Marquise de, 2. 

Benazech, p., 168 n. i. 

BtKtJicSu (Chardin), by L^piciJ, 165. 

BtHtdia XIV., by Subleyras, 37 n. i. 

Btrgtr Napalitain (Boucher), by Daull^ 
67. 

Birght dts Mptt, by Gravelot, 116. 

Berghem, p., 90 n. i. 

Btmardy Samuil (Rigaud), by Drevet ills, 
60 and n. i, 67, 68. 

Berryer, Ren^ 46 and n. 2. 

Bertnault, rr., 147 and n. 3. 

Birtiit, Mlu., by Janinet, 153. 

Bertinazzi dit Carlin, a. 



Berwic, C, gr, 51, 78 and n. 5. Index. 

Betsky, General, 27, 65, 66 ; portrait 
(Roslin), by Dupuis, 65 n. 4. 

Bibliothiquc de I'Universiti, Paris, 6 n. i. 

Bibliothique Nationale (Print Room). See 
Cabinet des Estampes. 

Billet Daux (Boucher), by Miger, 47 n. I. 

Binet, gr., 106 and n. 5. 

Black Horse, Cornhili, 113 n. 3. 

Blancbisinisty La (Chardin), of Cochin 
pire, 165. 

Bletterie, M., 70. 

Blue-ctat Beys, by Gravelot, 113. 

Boccaccio, early editions, 98 ; ilTus. Grave- 
lot, 85 n. 1, 100 and n. 4, lOl, 103, 1 16 
and n. 5, ii7, 136. 

Boilcau, illus. Cochin, 49 ; — £isen,49 n, 
I, no, 122, 124 i — B. Picart, 49 and 
n. 2. 

Boilly, Louis-L^pold, p.-dess., 146, 147. 

Boily, C, gr., 105 and n. 2. 

Boissieu, p., 166 and n. 4. 

Bolingbrokc, Lwd, 4 n. 1. 

Bolswert, gr_ 42 n. 3, 89. 

Bombarde, M., 45, 46. 

Bonac, M. de, 5. 

Bantu EductUttH, after Greuze, 1 39. 

Btnnt Mkre, La (Fragonard), by Delaunay, 
99 n- 2- 

Bonnet, gr., 150 and n. 4. 

Bonneval, Count de, ctMiroUur dts mtnas, 
39i 40) 41 and n. 2. 

Bontemps, M., 132. 

Bordeaux, engravmg of Lcmoyne's statue 
at, 61 n. 4. 

Borghese, Princess, 12. 

Bessittt (Rigaud), by Drevet fils, 59 and n. 3, 
60, 63 ; by Grateloup, 104 n, 2. 

Bott, p., 93 n. 5. 

Bottan, 19, 21 and n. 2, 24 and n. 4, 25 
and n. 2. 

Bouchardon, Edme, sc., 6, 8, 18, 34, 40, 
48 n. I ; portrait (Drouais), by Beau- 
varlet, 86 n. 2, 87. 

Boucher, Francois, p., 50, H2, 115, 137, 
151 J engravmgs after, 33, 47 n. i, 74 
n. 1, 99 n, 4, 100 ; by A. de St.-Aubin, 
106, 136 n. 3i by Cars, 85, 91 ; by 
Daull^ 64 and n. 3, 67; by Fessattl, 
162, 163; by Flipart, 88, 89; by In- 
gram, 164 ; by Larmessin, 71 n. 5, 97 j 
by Simonet, 106 n. 9 ; colour engraving 
after, 150, 151, 153. 

Bouchot, M., loa. 

Bouhier, President, 121. 



207 



d by Google 



Bouillon, Duke dc, 71 n. 4. 

Boull(^ne, de, p., iS, 59^ 

Bmlltgiu pirty portrait, by L. Surugue, Si 

n. 7. 
Bourden, Stbaititn (Rigaud), by Can, 84. 

n. I. 
Bourgeois, Francois, «»im(H«/r/, 127, 1 28. 
Bourguienon. See Gravelot. 
Bowles, John, tA., 113 n. 3. 
Boydell^ John, gr^ 81. 
Boyer d'AguiUcs collection, 27 and n. 3. 
Brandt, Count, 83. 
Brenet, p., 131, 156 n. 3. 
Brcteuil, Count de, 2. 
British Museum, 43 n. 1,44 ; Print Room, 

67, 103 n. 2, 1 13 and n. 4, 166 n. 4. 
Brochant femily, 20 and n. i. 
Briihl, Count de, 64 nn. 3 and 4, 82 n. 1 ; 

portrait (Silvestre), by Balechou, 160. 
Brunoy, Marquis de, 94 n. 3. 
Brussels, Eisen at, 127. 
Buchelay, Savalette de, 1 1. 
Bullion, hotel, 34. 
Byrne, William, gr., 81. 

"Cabinet Crozat," by Mariette, 27 and 
n. 2, 29. 

Cabinet des Dessins, 48 n. 1 ; — des 
Estampes (Print Room, Biblioth^ue 
Nationale), 6, 7, 32, 48 n. 2, 89, 102 
n. 3, 113 n. 2, 132 n. 3, 133 n. 2, I35, 
140 ; — des MJdailles, 7 ; — des M6- 
dailles (Vadcan), 21 n. 2 ; — du Roi, 6, 
7 n. 2, 28, 29, 39, 89, 163, 164. 

Cacbitte dicauvirte (Fragonard), by De- 
launay, 99 n. 2. 

Cad*au deluat, by L. Boilly, 146. 

Caffieri, Jean- Jacques, sc, 164. 

Cahitrs d'imagis pour Us infant:^ by Grave- 
lot, 112 n. J. 

CaUndritr dt la Ripublique, by Debucourt, 
156 n. 1. 

Callet, p., 78. 

Calme, Le (Vernet), by Balechou, 161, 162. 

Camargo dansant (Lancret), by Cars, Sj. 

Cambrai, Archbishop of, 75 and n. 2. 

Camligue, gr., 142 n, 2. 

Campion, ContriUur-ghiral, 3 and n. I. 

Canaditni au tsmieau dt Uur tnfant^ after 
Le Barbier, 168 n. 1. 

Caracci, Annibai, p., 8, 21. 

Caravage, p., i jO n. 9. 

Car^me, dess., 164 n. 6, 

Carmontelle, Louis Carrogis dit de, dess^ 
a, 13, 14. 



Carnarvon, colledion of Lor 

Carnaval du Pamastt (Gab. 1 
by Basan, 33 n. 3, 132 ani 

Carriera, RosaJba, p^ 25, 43, 

CarrogJB, Louis. See Carmc 

Cars, Laurent, gr,, 2, 40 n. 
97. 99. i6»n- ', '65; en 
Boucher, 85, 91 ; after L 
91, II I J Mlie. ClairoH a 
s6; his pupib, 85 and o. 
89, 136 and n. 3 j portrait 
by Migcr, 167, 

Cars pire, gr., 84 and n. 2. 

Casanova, p., ij6 n. 2. 

Caatilion, Pire, 95. 

Cathelin, gr., 91, 108 and n. 

Caylus, Comte de, I, 4-10, I 
and n. 6, 26 and n. 3, 56, 
the Academy, 5, 6, 8, 48 
colle^on of, 7 and n. i, 
noisseur, 4, 5, 8, 1 o, 19, 20, 
^Xt S> ^> 7 ^'"^ I- ^^ 9] 21 
25, 164; relations with 
DauiU,27,6s,66; Didcr< 
94} Mariette, 18 and nn. 2 
25,26,27,66} Marmonte 
9, 10 ; Watteau, 4, 6, 8. 

Caylus, Comtesse de, 4 n. 1 
by DauHf, 63. 

Caylus, Duke de, 7. 

Ca%tSj portrait, by Le Bas, 9 

Cazin, ^d., 99 n. 2. 

''C^r6monies religteuscs de tot 
112, 114. 

Cernel, la citoyenne, «■., 48. 

(Ttit unfiis^ MamitUT (Moreai 
109, 142 and n. I. 

Chagrini dt V Amaury by L. E 

Chains mists astx TbutlUriti, 
Aubin, 132 and n. 3. 

Chalcographie. See Louvre. 

Challe, MM, p. et sc., 66 n, 

Chamtau tt Its batans flattam 
Aveline, 99 i- i. 

Champagne, Ph. de, p., 14 n, 

Chancey, Claude de, 6 n. 2. 

" Chansons de la Borde," i 
109 and n. 3, 141 and n. i 

Cbantilly coUeaion, 13 and 1 

Chardin ills, p., I3I. 

Chardin, J.-B.-S., p., 37 and 
88, 146,164, 165,166. 

Charles VU., cleaion of, 75 

Charnou, Catherine, 58. 

Charost, Duke de, 2. 



208 



d by Google 



Charriire, Mmc. de, 145 n. 6. 
Chartres, Duke de, 2, 105 n. 3. 
Chartrti, Finvs of, by Sergent, 156 n. 4. 
Oiasu it rOurs (Van Loo^ by Flipart, 88. 
Chasu au Tigre (Boucher), by Flipart, 88, 

89. 
Cbaste Suzanne (Santerrc), by Porporati, 166 

and n. 6. 
CUtelet, 55. 

Chat Panlerre, Le^ after Oudry, 32. 
Chauchard colleiftion, 140 n. 2, 
Chaulnes, Duke de, 2. 
Chcdel, gr., 87 and n, 6. 
Chenneviires, M. de, 24, 26 and n. 4, 52, 

91 n. 1, 92. 
Chenu, gr., 93 and n. i. 
Ch^reau, Francois, gr., 33, 35, 61 and n. 2, 

67, 68. 
Chireau, Jacques, gr., 61 and n. 3. 
Chevreuse, Duchess de, 130 n. 3; Duke 

de, 2. 
Childrtn af Rubttts (Rubens), by Daull6, 

67. 
China, drawings for Emperor of, 95 and 

n. 2. 
Chintsi figures (Boucher), by Ingrain, 164. 
Cbofiard, Pierre- Philippe, gr., 35 and n. 4, 

51, 56, 91, ro3 nn. i and 2, 136, 137, 

140, 145, 146; books illustrated by, 16, 

103, 104 i Comes de la Fontaine, 103; 

Ovid, 33, 105 and n, 3; Terence, 110 

n. 2. 
Choiseul, Duke de, collei^ion of, 34, 94 

n- 3» 95- 
Choiseul-Gouffier, 168. 
Chouchou, Mile,, 126 n. 2. 
Christ eeuronae d^Epints (Van Dyck), by 

Bolswert, 42 n. 3. 
" Christiade," iilus. Eisen, i22. 
Christian, Prince, of Denmark, 89 n. i. 
Christina, Queen, of Sweden, 7, 
Chriitophe, portrait, by L. Surugue, 81 

n. 7. 
Clairon, Mile., 53; — en Medee (Van 

Loo), 79, 86, 87 i medallion or, by 

Gravelot, 118 and nn. i and 2. 
"Clandestine Marriage," by Garrick and 

Colman, 119 n. 9. 
Claude le Lorrain, p., 165. 
Clause, Sr. J.- J., 127 and n. 6, 128. 
Cliopatrt (Netscher), by Berwic, 78 n. 5. 
Clermont, Count de, 2 ; Duke de, 161 ; 

Princess de, 25 n. 6. 
Cochin, Charles-Nicolas fils., dess. ct gr., 

29. 34, 37-55, 79> 88, 94 n. 2, 106 n. 4, 



108 n. 3, 119 n. 2, 122, 148, i6j n. i. Index. 
163, 167 ; — and the Academy, 43, 45, 
48, 136, 140 ; — and Caylus, 4, 5, 6 
n. I, 9, 18 and nn. 2 and 5, 65, 66; 

— and Le Bas, 39, 89, 91 } — and 
Marigny 2, 30, 37, 42, 43, 45, 47, 48 j 

— and Manette, 20, 26, 27 1 visit to 
Italy, 41-44, 52, 112. Work of: book- 
illustrations, 49 and nn. 3 and 4, 99 n. 4, 
100, 109 n. 5, III, 136 n. I J Fables de 
la Fontaine, 45, 46, 99 ; Histoire de 
France, 45 and n. i ; Lutrin, 49 ; Pastor 
Fido, 49 and n. 5, no, 139; Terence, 
no n. 2. Drawings'. BaJ Pari, invita- 
tion to, 49; Files, 38-41, 49, 52, III, 
143, 164 n. 2; Lycurgut bletsi, 37 n. i, 
133, 151, l66j Riception de l*Jmbassa- 
dfur ture, 40 and n. 1, 45 ; Ttstes J' Ex- 
pression's, 50; allegories, 45, 49, 127, 
150 n. 9. Engravings, 31, 46 and n. 5 ; 
Ports de Franctj 50-52, 95, 96, 103 n. I. 
Portraits by, 50; Mme. Le Cemte^ Ji; 
Lntis XV., 38 n. i, 108 j Mariette, iyj\ 
Marigny, 10 ; Les SledtXy 40 n, 3. 

Cochin, C.-N. p^re, gr., 37-39, 42 n. 3, 
45 "■ 3, 4^, '^1 >>■ i> '05; Eetesy after 
Cochin fils, 38,41; Ptmpes funibres, 37, 

38> 39, 41- 

Cochin, Mme., gr., 37, 39, 47 and n. 3. 

Cecu imaginairt, by Delaunay, 108. 

Coigny, Marquis de, 2. 

Colbert, Jrcbbishop of Rouen (Rigaud), by 
P. Drevet, 57 ; his sale, 24. 

Colbert, system of, 169. 

Colman, George, 119 and n. 9. 

Colli, 119; Mimoires, 13. 

Colle&ions : Andr^ 77 ; Armand, 134 ; 
Bapst, 116 n, I; Boyer d'Aguilles, 27 
and n. 3; Carnarvon, 104^ Caylus, 7 
and n. I, 8 J Chantilly, 13 and n. 4, 141 

' n. 1; Chauchard, 140 n. 2; Choiseul, 34, 
94 n. 3, 95 ; Crozat, 5, 6, ai and n. 7, 
22, 25, 27 and n. 2, 29 and n. 2 ; 
Doucet, 134 ; Duriez de Verninac, 126 
n. 3 ; Esterhazy, 77 and n. 5 ; de Gon- 
court, 125, 132 n. 2, 134, 140 n. 2; 
Hescltine, 50, 115, 132 n. 2, 133 n. 2, 
136 n. I, 144; Lacroix, 104 n. 3; 
Lehmann, 146 ; de Lignerolles, lOi n. i ; 
Lion, 155 i Mariette, 6 n. 5, 7 n. 2, 19, 
21 and nn. i and 7, 22, 28 and n. 6, 29 
and n. 2, 33, 34, 35, 42 n. 3, 60 ; Nera, 
1 50 ; Pichon, 1 1 n. 1 1 Piogey, 146 n. 4 ; 
Rothschild, Baronne J. de, 124 n, i, 126; 
Valton, 134 J Wallace, 146 ; Warneck, 



209 



d by Google 



'33 "'Si Wornum^ 1 1 5. See also under 

Cabinets, Galleries and Sales. 
Ctlleur tTAffichis (Bouchardon), by de 

Caylus, 7. 
Colpje, exhibition at the, 132, 133 n. 3. 
Com^die Fran^aise, 8 n. 6, 70. 
Comiti du Salut Publique, 146. 
Commune des Arts, 2, 168 n. 4. 
Cemparaisan, La (Lavreince), by Jaiiinct, 

154. 
Comftiz tttr met strmentt^ by A. de St.-Aubin, 

130, 136, 138. 
OimUist a^Eseartagnas, by Delaunay, 108. 
Cmctrt bmrgeoisy by A. de St.-Aubin, 135, 

137 and n. 2. 
Cond^ Prince de, 94 n. 3 ; Princcsse dc, 

3. 
Condivi, 21, 26. 
Cttt&UnUy La (Van Loo), by Beauvarlet, 

87 n- 3- 
CsHfidinti sans It savetr. La, by Le Veau, 

102. 
Ctnneisstur, Le, by Gravelot, 116. 
Canquetes tu Ch-meHiei Chinaisei (Castillon), 

by Lc Bas, 95 and n. 2. 
Ctnttantint, Histttj ef (Rubens), by Tar- 

dieu p^re, 86 n. i. 
Cmsfiratim de CataUnat (Moittc), by 

Janinct, 155. 
CoHiHllatlon redaulle, by Debucourt, 155. 
"Contcsdcla Fontaine" (1726), 121 n. i ; 

(1738) 71 and n. 5, 77, 97} (1762, 

Fermiers g£n£raux) 68, loi and n. 4, 

102 and n. 2, 103, 105, 106, 121, 122, 

123 and n. 2, 124 and n. i, 127, 128, 

" Contes de ma mArc I'Oye," 98. 

" Contes Moraux," by Mannontel, 9, 105, 

107, IIS, "6 and n. i, 137. 
Conti, abb£ de, 5. 
Ccnvertathn de Mattlett (Claude), by Moy- 

reau, 165. 
CtnversatiBH Eipagnale (Van Loo), by 

Beauvarlet, 87 and n. 3. 
Conversation galante (Lancret), by Le Bas, 

93- . . , 

Conversation with a Romhh Priest, by 

Gravclot, 114. 
Cooper, gr., 81 n. i. 
Copenhagen, statue of Frederick V. at, 

^ 73 "• 3- 

Copia, gr., 157 and n. i. 

Coppette, abbe, 11, 12 n. i. 

Cordeliers dt Catalone (Eisen), by Baquoy, 



Cwdeliers, distrid of the, 54. 
CardannitT hoUandais (Schoi 

Basan, 31. 
Corneille, illus. Gravelot, lOin. 3, 115 

n. I, no n. 6, 120. 
Corneille, MIlc^ 115 n. 1. 
Corntlia, by Coypel. See Adrienni 



n ofjosephlnt, by David, i 
^us^ 24 n. 3. 



Coronation 

Correr, Musde, 24 n. 3. 

Cortona, Pietra de, p^ 150 n. 9. 

Coss^ Dulce de, 94 n 3. 

Cestumes des fiUes tuisset, by Scrgent, 

n. 4. 
Costume Ripublicain, by Sei^nt, 156 1 
Culte, Robert de (Rigaudi by P. Dr 

S8. 
Couehi de la Mariit, after Baudouin, 

n. 9, 140. 
Coup* enchantee. La, by Delafosse, 10: 
Couronnemtnt du buste de Voltaire (Mot 

by Gaucher, 104 and n. 3. 
Courrier dt Fkndres (Bott), by Lc Ba 

n. 5. 
Course dts Chevaux (Moreau), by Go 

berg, 142 n. 2. 
Courtin, Jean, p.-gr., 163 and n. 3. 
Courtois, gr^ 136. 
Cousinet, Elizabeth, in-., 100. 
Coustelicr, Antoine-Urbain, tA., 23. 
Coustou, sc, 167 and n. 2. 
Coutant, Jean-Baptiste, 35. 
Coypel, Charles, p., 3 and n. 3,6 and 

7.43. 447S9,8in. 7,980. 2,99 

164. 
Cozens, 168. 
Cramer, id., 119. 
Crayen, 71 n. S, 76. 
Cribillon, 118 n. 2; illus. Marillier, 

n. 5 ; — Moreau, 145 n. 5 ; po 

(La Tour), ht F.-R. Ingouf, 88 n. 
Cris de Paris (Bouchardon), by de O 

6,7. 
Critique de PEtole dts Femmes, by Mo 

141. 
Croisy, house of Mariette at, 28. 
Cromwell, by Willc, 73. 
Crozat, Mile., 71 n, 4. 
Crozat, Pierre, 24 n. 5, 25, 26, 57 

90, 97 ; cabinet de, 5, 6, 21 and 

22, 25, 27 and n. 2, 29 and n. 2. 
Cnteht cassie (Debucourt), by Lc \ 

102 n. I, 155 and n. 3 ; — (Grei 

by Massard, 78, 
Crucifix, by A. de St.-Aubin, 135. 



d by Google 



Cumberland, Duke of, 120. 
Cupid, statue by Michael Angelo, 21. 
Cypicrrc, Mmc. de, 3. 
Czartoriski, Prince, 00. 

Dagotti. Sec Gautier. 
Dambrun, gr., 142 n. 2. 
Dame allant au Bal (Boucher), by Petit, 

74 n. I. 
Damt hitnfahmtU (Greuze), by Massard, 

78- 

Dmaeni in his all, by G. de St-Aubin, 

134 n. 2. 
Danger du Tete^-titi (Baudouin), by Si- 

monet, 106 n. 9. 
Danton, 54, 55. 

IxAnville, iii n. i, 116 n. 3, 117. 
"Daphnis « Chlo^" illiis. B. Audran 

after Philip of Orleans, 9, 57. 
Darcis, «*>, 92 and n. i. 
Darcv, M., financier, 45 j — Mme., 47. 
Dauaet, Etienne, gr., 16, 2S. 
Daull£, Jean, gr., 2, 30, 31, 32 n. 4, 62-68, 

73, III, 161 and n. I i engravings after 

Boucher, 64, 67 ; — Rigaud, 62, 63, 65, 

67; — Rubens, 67; Princisit Anastasie, 

27, 65, 66. 
Dauphin {1729), 39; — (Louis XVII,), 
^ 'S3-. 
Dauphinc (Marie -Th^rise d'Autriche), 

marriage flEtcs, 38, 40, 41 { Pompes 

ftinibres, 37, 38. 
David, p., 30, 78, 142, 144, 147, 158, 169. 
David and Bathshiba (RemNandt), by 

Moreau, 139, 
Oavot, M. Armand, 146 n, 4. 
DebucourC, L,-P., gr., 102 n. i, 155-157. 
*' Decameron." See Boccaccio. 
Diclarathn de la grcssesie (Moreau), by 

Martini, 109, 142 and n. i. 
Decoration de f illumination, etc., f^eriaillei, 

by Cochin ills, 39. 
Deforce, Marie (Slme. Wille), 83, 123. 
Dejantra (Moreau), by Le Veau, 106. 
Dijeuner de Ferney, by Dcnon, 14 n. I. 
Dclafossc, gr., 13 and n. 4, 102. 
De la Fosse, p., 167. 
Delatour, Louts- Francis, ti., 13 n. 2, 

'9 "■ 3> 23> 24) *6 and n. 4, 27. 
Delaunay, Nicolas, gr., 48, 99 and nn. i 

and 2, 106 n. 4, 146, i60i books 

illus. by, 49 n. 3, 103, 106, 108, 115 

n. 3, 140 n. I ; — Moliire (1773), 99 

n. 2, 107, 108, 157. 
Delaunay, Robert, le jeune, gr,, 142 n. i. 



Dilitit de la Mattmiti (Moreau), by Hel- Index. 

man, 142 and n. i. 
Delignon, gr^ 142 n. 2. 
Delia Mura, p., 42. 
Delvaux, gr-, 99 n, 2. 
Dcmarteau, Gillcs. gr., 45 n. 2, 150 and 

nn. 3 and 9, r66, 167. 
Dcnon, Vivant, 3 and n. 2, 14 n. i, 16. 
Depart di Marie de Midieis. See ^wj 

Dipartdes Conicrlts, by L. Boilly, 146. 
"Dc Pnesulibus Anglise," illus, Gravelot, 

"3- 
Dcquevauviller, gr., 154 n. i. 
Desalleurs, M., 5, 
Desbordes, Jacques, 6d., 98 n, 2, 
DcBcamps, Jcan-Baptiste, dess,, 50, 51 n. 1, 



Detcente de Croix (Pierre), by Demarteau, 
IS*- 

Descourtis, gr,, 156 and n. 2, 

" Description g^nlnde de la France," illus. 
Moreau, 143, 168. 

Desfriches, St.-Aignan, 52. 

Dcsmaiseaux, 149 n, i. 

Desormeaux, 141. 

Desptaces, gr,, 99 n. 3, 

Desiau,PrtHCt of, by Willc, 73. 

Deux Baisert. See Lafeinte Careste. 

Dcux-Ponts, Duke de, so. 

DMdeutt, La (Dou), by Wille, 79, 80 and 
n. 3. 

Diane, by^Goujon, 124. 

" Diflionnaire des Artistes," by abb£ de 
Fontenai, 62 n. i ; "^ beaux arts," by 
Watelet and L^esque, 10 n. 4i " — 
Graveurs," by Basan, 30 n. 2, 36. 

Diderot, criticism of Balechou, 161 ; — de 
Caylus, 9 and n. 2 J — Cochin, 51, 52 ; — 
Le Bas, 9^ 94 and n. 2 ; — Le Prince, 
152; — Watelet, i3n. 2j — Wilic,73, 
77 i portrait (Greuze), by A, de St,- 
Aulnn, 137 n. 3. 

Dido^ id., 26 n. 3. 

Dietrich, C.-G., p., 82 and n, i. 

Dietsch, Mile,, p,, 81. 

Different jeux dei petits pelitSMt de Paris, 
By A. de St.-Aubin, 136. 

Dimanchts de St.-Cloud, by G. de St.-Aubin, 
132 and n. 3. 

Diner dans itne Orangerie, by G. de St.- 
Aubin, 134. 

Dites done s'il wus plait (Fragonard), by 
Delaunay, 99 n, 2. 



d by Google 



Index. Divertts CAargei dis Ruts dt Parity b]r 

Cochin fils, 38. 
Dog and Fox, ay Gravdot, 113. 
Hon yuan (Morcau), by Le Bas, 93. 
Dolomieu, dc Gntct dc, 16 n. i. 
"DonQutchone**(i746),9S n. 2, 99 and 

n. 4. 
Dorat, 103, 105 n. i, 106 n. 4, 126. 
Dorigny, p., 3 and n. 4. 
Dorigny, Sir Nicolas, 112 n. 6. 
Oou, Gerard, p., 79. 
Douai, work of Eiscn for, 125. 
Douci Riihtanct, by L. Boilly, 146, 
Doucct collc(^ion, 134. 
Doyen, p., 151. 
Doyen, Angelique-Cathcrinc (Mme. Mari- 

ette), 26 n. 4. 
Duharrj, Madami (Drouais), by Beauvarlet, 

87; by Gaucher, 104. 
Dubois de St.'Gelais, 165. 
Dubosc, Claude, gr^ 61 n. 3, 112 and 

n. 6. 
Duchange, gr., 164. 
Duclos, gr., 107 and n. j, 108, 133, 137 

n. 2. 
DugazBHy Mile. See Nina. 
Dugourc, Jcan-Dcmosth^ne, 87 n. 4, 109 

n. 5, 112. 
Dumeril, p^ 31 n. 2, 98. 
Dumont, Francis, p^ 78, 89 n. i, 137 

n. I. 
Duoiont de LuncviIIe, p., 54 and n. 3. 
Dumont le Remain, p^ 39. 
Dupin fils, gr,, 136 n. 2, 
Duplessi-Bertaux, gr., 16. 
Duplessis, J.-S., p., 137 n. 5, 160, 166. 
Duplessis, M., 51, 145, 165. 
Duplessis, officitr-giniral, 74, 
Dupuis, Charles, gr., 62, 86 n. 2, 99 n. 3. 
Dupuis, Nicolas, gr., 46, 61 and n. 4, 62, 

65 n. 4, 68, 99 n. 3, 149. 
Duret, Elizabeth. See Mme. Le Bas. 
Duricz dc Verninac colle^lion, 1 26 n. 3. 
Duronceray, Signora, 10 n. 5. 
DusJjour, Mile. Dionis, 49 n. 3. 
Dragons de Vinus (Eisen pere), by Halbou, 

izi n. 5. 
Drevct, Claude, gr., 57, 59 n i. 
Drevet, Etienne, 58. 
Drevct, Pierre, gr., 2, 56-59, 68, 84, 1 1 1 ; 

work after LargilU^re, 57 ; after Rigaud, 

57, 58. 62. 
Drevet, Pierre-Imbert, gr., 2, 56, S9-61, 

68, 69, 84 i work after Rigaud, 59, 60, 

62, 63, 69. 



Drtits de l*bamme^ ete.y by Debocourt, 15& 

n. I. 
Drouais, Hubert, p., 32 n. 4, 86 a 2, 
Drouet, Marie (Mme. Basan), 32 n. ;, 34 



Eberts, £d., 141, 146. 

Eckhardt, t.-G., gr., 71 and n. i. 

Ecolc de France a Rome, 10, 1 2 and n. i, 

158. 
Eeoie del Maris (Morcau), by Masqudier, 

107. 
EctU di Zeuxis, by G. de St.-AulHn, 133. 
" Ecole du Jardinier-Fleuiiste," illus, Chi- 

velot, 115. 
Ecolcs Centrales (Paris), 145 and n. 4. 
£f(irw», /.'(Chardin), by Cochin, 37 n. 4, 

165. 
Edelinck, gr., 56, 58. 
Egerton MSS. (British Museum), 43 n. 1, 

44- 

Eisen, Charles, dess., 2, 91, lOi n. 3, 104 
n. I, 120-129, ^3°t '41 > book-illustn- 
dons: Boileau, 49 n. i, no, 122, 1141 
Contes de b Fontaine, 101, 121, 112, 
123 and n. 2, 124 and n. i, 127, 128, 
155; Eloge de la Folic, 85 n. 1, 100, 
121, 122, 124, 135; Ovid, 33, 106, 
107, 1241 Rousseau, 107 n. 2, iic^ 
121 and n. 2; Les Sens, 125, 126; 
Temple de Gnide, loi and n. i, 126 
and n. 3 } sacred pidures by, 125, 117; 
portrait of, by Ficquet, 68, 104; his 
family, 122 n. 3, 123, 125, 12^ 127, 
128. 

Eiscn, Mme., 122 n. 3, 125, 127, 128. 

Eisen pire, p., 121 and n. 5. 

Elements (Boucher), by Daulli, 64 n. 3. 

Elisabeth de Gouy. See Rigaud et sm ifmL 

Elizabeth, Empress of Russia, 65 o. 2, 66, 

77 "■ 4, 95- 
Elluin, gr., 87 n. 4. 
" Eloge de la Folie," illus. Eisen, 85 n. i, 

100, 121, 122, 124, 135. 
Bmbarquemtnt pour Ofthiri (Watteau), by 

Larmessin, 164; by Tardieu pire,86. 
"■ Emilc," illus. Eisen, 120, 121 and n. 2. 
"Emiiie" (Mme. de Chatelet), 11. 
Encyclopaedists, 9, 149. 
Enit portant son pire (Van Loo), by N. 

Dupuis, 62, 149. 
Enfants imitatturs, by Gravelot, 117. 
England, French engravers in, 61 n. 3i 

71 n. I, 112 and n. 6. 
England^ ^een of^ portrait, 79. 



d by Google 



EnUvenunt neSurnt (Baudouin), hy Ponce, 

1 06 n. 4. 
•EnUvnrunt de Prastrptne (de la Fosse), by 
Leinpereur, 167 and n. 4. 

Enlivemtat its Sahinet (Jordacns), by Sor- 
nique and Bcauvarlet, 31 n. 3. 

Entrh du Ricipiendaire, by Le Bas, 94. 

"Epitrc aux poetes," by Marmontel, 119 
n. 4. 

"Epreuves du Sentiment," by Baculard 
d'Arnaud, 107 n. 2, 127 and n. i. 

Esperendicu, M., 77. 

Esope mantrant U bustt de la Fmtatne 
(Oudry), by Cochin and Dupuis, 46. 

"Essai sur Ics jardins," by Watelct, 10 
n.4. 

Esterhazy collcaion^?; and n. 5. 

Esther^ Story of (de Troy), by Beauvarlet, 
87 n. 2. 

Etourdi, £', by Sitnonet, 108. 

Eu, Count d', 2. 

Eugene, Prince of Savoy, 22, 23, 24. 

Earapa (Boucher), by A. de St.-Aubin, 106. 

£ui7»WK«Km<»f/^£'i/j&«-(deTroy), by Beau- 
varlet, 87 n. 2. 

Evreux, Count £ (Rigaud), by Schmidt, 71, 
72, 73. 75- 

ExercUti de rinfanterie, by Gravelotj 116. 

Exhibitions, 1888 (Paris), 77 n. 6; 1890 
(Centennale), 146 n. 4; 1902 (Guild- 
hall), 133 and n. 5. 

Experience de Chimie, by G. de St.-Aubin, 

"Fables de Dorat," 105 n. i, 106 n, 4, 108, 
109. 

** Fables de la Fontaine," illus. Fessard, 
30, 33 i illus. Gravelot, 112 n. 5 ; illus. 
Oudry, 45 and n. 3, 46^ 47, 99 and 
n, I, 100, 102 n. 3, 103, 163 n. 4. 

Fabre sale, 34 n. i. 

" Fabricant de Londres, Le," illus. Grave- 
lot, 50 n. I, 115. 

Facheux, Let, by de Ghendt, 107. 

Falconnet, Etienne, sc., 65 n. 4. 

Famiile du Fermitr (Fragonard), by Maril- 
lier, 105 n. i. 

Famiile MtKort (Carmon telle), by Dcla- 
fosse, 14. 

Farvaques sale, 82. 

Faucen, Lt (Eisen), by Delafosse, 102 ; 
— after Lancret, 71 n, 5, 

Feinti Caress^, by Debucourt, 155. 

Filibien des Avaux (Le Brun), by P. Drevet, 
57. 



Fetnme h la tuUfe (Wille fils), by Wille, Index. 

82 n. 2. 
Fimmecommtily en a peu, by Gravelot, 116. 
Femme amchie sur le ventre (Boucher), by 

Demarteau, 150. 
Femme en caurraux (Zick), by Basan, 32. 
Femme en robe griie, by L, BoiUy, 146 n. 4. 
Fenouillot deFalbairc, 50 n. i, 115 and n. 

3 i portrait, by Cochin fils, 50. 
Fessard, Etienne, gr., 30 and n. i, 33, 135, 

136, 137, 162, 163, 
Feitin de Pierre, by Le Bas, 107. 
Ftstin Royaly by Moreau, 143 n. 4. 
Fete de Fillage, by G. de St.-Aubin, 133. 
Fetes, by Cochin pire and fils, 38-41, 53, 

"I, '43- 
Fltes dannies pour le second mortage du 

Dauphin (M.-A. Slodtz), by Flipart, 

88. 
Fetes Flamandes (Teniers), by Le Bas, 95 

and n. 1. 
/</« pour la naissanee du Dauphin^ by 

Moreau, 143 and n. 4. 
Fetes yinitiennes (Wattcau), by Cars, 8j. 
Feu £ Artifice, by Moreau, 143 n. 4. 
Feuquiires, Countess de (Mignard), by 

Daull^, 62, 63 and n. 1, 67, 
Ficquet, Etienne, gr., 56, 68, 79, 91, 104 

and n. i, 145. 
Fielding, illus. Gravelot, II4. 
FilU enlevie, by Dcbucour^ 155 n. 4, 
Fillceuljgr., 165. 
Firmin-Didot, M. Ambroisc, 57, 
Fitz- James sale, 133 n. 2. 
Fletcher, Henry, gr., 99 n. 3. 
Fleury, Cardinal (Rigaud), by F. Ch^eau, 

68. 
Flipart, Jean-Jacques, gr,, 31, 88, 89, 105, 

139, 146 } engravings after Greuze, 88, 

89, 167; book-illustrations, 99, loo^ 

102. 
Florence, Galerie de, 97, 106 nn, 2 and 3. 
Florence, Mile., 75 n. 2. 
Faire, La (Taunay), by Dcscourds, 156. 
Fokke, gr,, 98 n, 2. 
Folic, La, after Fragonard, 153, 
Fontaine, La (Chardin), by Cochin, 165, 
Fontcnai, abb£ de, 62 n, 1, 85. 
Fontenoy, battle of, 120. 
Fouquicr-Tinvillc, 147, 
Four Ages (Lancret), by Larmessin, 97. 
Fmrberies de Scapin (Moreau), by Le Veau, 

107. 
Fournelle, de, sale, 133 n. 2. 
I Four Seasons (Lancret^ by Larmessin, 97, 

'3 



db, Google 



Fragmnts Jt pnrtturts, ///., by Saint-Non, 

Fragonard, Join-Honorj, p., 3, 4, 15, 78 

n. 5, 99 n. 2, 105 n. i, 153. 
France timaignt son affiSim ii la vilU dt 

Liige (Cochin fils), by Demarteati, 45 n. 

2, 151. 
Franciscus Georgius, 169 n. i. 
Francois, gr. en couleur, 1 50. 
Franklin, Benjamin, 16, 
Freart dc Castcl, [15. 
Fridtrick 11. ef Prussia (Pcsne), by WiUe, 
^ 74- . 
Frederick F., engraving of Saly s statue of, 

by Preislcr, 73 n. 3. 
Fr^d^ric-Guillaume, prince de Pnissc, 143. 
Frimin, RitUy portrait, by P.-L. Surugue, 

8. n. 7. 
Frire Luc (Wleughcis), by Larmessin, 164. 
Friret, 164 n. 6. 
FrJron, 118. 

Frist i Pantique (Moitte), by Janinet, 155. 
Fuiu 4n Egypte^ by Eisen pere, 121. 

Gabun-i, 8 and n. i, 21 n, 7, 24. 

Gaignat sale, 28 and n. 2. 

Gaillard, gr.,65, 115. 

Galcrie deOrcsdc, 31 n. 3 and 4, 64 andn. 
4, 88, 97, r6o J — de Dusseldorf, 97 and 
n. 2, 168 ; — dc Florence, 97, 106 nn. 2 
and 3 ; — de Luxembourg, 164 ; — de 
Versailles, 46 and nn, 4 and 5, 53 n. 2, 
62,97. 

Galtrit du Palais (Gravelot), by Le Mire, 
115. 

Galitzin, Prince, 80 ; Princess, 86. 

Gallery, National (London), 64. 

GalUs, Prince dt (Tocqui), by Wilie, 77. 

Garan Cabartiier (Chardin), by Cochin 

jarri 

120. 
GSuau dis Rns (Grcuze), by Flipart, 89, 

167. 
Gaucher, Eticnnc, gr., 56, 62 and n. 1,85, 

88, 91, 104, 105, 140, 145. 
Gautier, Jean and Dagotti, grs., 150 and 

n. 5. 
Gay's Fables, illus. Gravelot, 1 13. 
Gazette des Beaux Arts, 87 n. 2. 
Gazette Littiraire, given to the Academy, 

168. 
GtndrMy portrait (Rigaud), by DauUi, 63, 

67. 
Genlis, Mme. de, 13 n. 3. 



.)ire, 37 n. 4, 165. 
Garricic, David, 115 n. 3, 118, 119 n. 9, 



Geoffiin, Mme., 8, 9, ic^ 27, 45, 47, ^ 

66. 

Gm-gf I. (Knetler), bj J. Ch&caii, 6t 
n. 3. 

Gesrges Dandtn (Moreau), by Le Vcau, 
107. 

Germain, gr^ 163, 

<* Gcrusalemme tiberata," illus. Cochin, 109 
n. 5, 1360. I. 

Gessncr, illus. Le BarbJer, 164 n. 6; — 
Moreau, 144 n. 3. 

Ghendt, de, gr., 107 and n. 2, 108. 

Gier, M, 81. 

" Gil Bhu," illus. Fokke, 98 and n. 2. 

Gillberg, gr., 136 n, 2. 

Gillot, Claude, D., 7, 89 n. 4. 

Girl feeding a Turkey^ by Gravelot, 113. 

Givors, 57. 

GUiron, gr., 155 n. 2. 

Glarieux, Le (Lancret), by N. Dupuis, 62. 

Gluck,8o} portrait (Duplcssis), 166. 

Gobelins,Jean Audianat, 57 n.2i deS^ 
at, 1 01 n. 2. 

Godeau, Louise-Nicole. See Mme. de St- 
Aubin. 

Godciroy, gr., 91, 108, 109 n. i. 

Godwin, 113. 

Goldini, So. 

Goncourt, MM. de, 82 ; collection, 135, 
132 n. 2, 134, 140 n. 2. 

Gori, 21, 26. 

Goujon, Jean, sc, 124. 

(?«(/, Le (Eisen), by de Longunl, 126. 

Gauvemanttj La (Chardin), by Ljjndf, 
165. 

Gamer neur du shall, trr Le Mire, 100 n. 1. 

"Graces, Lcs," by du Querlon, 78 n. 1, 100 
"■ 5* ^03t i^ "• 9i 140 "• '• 

Graces vengies (Moreau), by Simonet, 106 
n. 9. 

Grande Teilette, after Moreau, 142 n. 2. 

Grateloup, T.-B. de, gr., 104 and n. 2. 

Gratiano, Ercole, p., 42. 

Gravedlgger, by Gravelot, 1 13 n. 4. 

Gravelot, Hubert, dess., 2, 107, iii-i20, 
130, 141 ; book-illustrations, 112-114, 
119; Boccaccio, 85 n. i, 100, ti6, 
117, 136} Contes Moraux,9, 105, Ii5t 
116; Corncillc, 115 and n. I, ii9n.6, 
120; FenouiIIotdeFaIbairc,5on. 1,11$; 
Manon Lcscaut, lOO n. 5; Ovid, 33, 
106 i Rousseau, loi, 119 n. 6, 120; 
Voltaire, 116, Ii93nd n.6, 120; medal- 
lion of Clairatiy 1 18 and nn. i and 3 i 
work in England, 112-115, 118- 12a 



d by Google 



Grcuze, portraits by, 77, 137 nn. i and 3 ; 
engravings after, 139; — by Flipart, 
88, 89, 167 i — by Massard, 78. 

Grcuze, Mme., 84 n. 3. 

Grignon, gr., izo and n. i. 

Grimaldi, abbi de, 80, 119 and n. 1. 

Grimm, Correspondance littiraire, 13 and 
n. 4, 33, 86, 95 n. 2, 137 n. 3, 162. 

GribeauvaL M. de, 1 12. 

Gruyer, M,, 13. 

Guarini, 49 n. 5, 139. 

Guiffrey, M.Jean, 147. 

Guildhall, exhibition 1902, 133 and n. 5, 

Guillain, portrait, by P.-L. Surugue, 81 

Guillonville, Mme. de, 3. 

Guingiutte, La (Gab. de St.-Aubin), by 

Basan, 33 n. 3. 
Gustzvus III., work of Lavreince for, 154 

n. I. 
Guttenberg, gr., 142 nn. i and 2, 153 j Ics 

ftires — , 97 n. 2. 
Guyard, Mme. Labille, p., 159. 
Gayoa,/ermier-giniraiy 128. 



Habilkmtnts a la med* de Paris (A. de 

St.-Aubin), by Gillberg, 136 n. 2. 
Halboti, gr., 121 n. $, 142 n. 2. 
Haituau di Flandre (Tenicrs), by Basan, 

3*: 

Hamilton, Lady, 3. 

Hampton Court, cartoons at, 61 n. 3, 

1 12 n. 6. 
Hanmer, ^., 114. 
HarcouTt, Marquis d', 2. 
Hartlaub, M. I'Assesseur, 29 n. 2. 
" Harmonia Mundi," by Franciscus Geor- 

gius, 169 and n. 1. 
Harrach, Count, 80. 
Haiards de fEtcarpdette (Frsgonard), by 

Delaunay, 99 n. 2. 
Havre, Perl de (Cochin), by Le Bas, 50. 
Hzyman, dess., 1 14. 
Haymarket Theatre, 119 n. 9. 
Hccquet, M., 51 and n. 2. 
Hecquet, Pierre, 51 n. 2. 
Hecquet, Robert, gr, 62, 86 n. 2. 
Heinccken, direftor of Gallery at Dresden, 

64 n. 4. 
Helman, gr., 107 and n. 4, 142 and nn. i 

and 2. 
** Hiloise.'* See " Nouvelle Hfloise." 
H^ault, President, 45 and n. i, 104, 

140. 



"Hcnriadc" (1728), 99and n. 31 (1770) Index. 

125 and n. 4, (illiis. Moreau) 143. 
Henriette, Mme., 122. 
Henriquez, gr,, 160. 
HercuU tt OmphaU (Le Moine), by Cars, 

85 and n. 2. 
HJrisset, gr., 89. 
Heseltine colle£tion, 50, 115, 132 n. 2, 

133 "■ 2, 136 n. I, 144. 
Hesse - Hambourgy Landgravine de. See 

Jnastasie. 
Heureux Divarce, Z.', by Gravelot, 116. 
Heureuie ficanditi (Fragonard), by De- 
launay, 99 n. 2. 
" Histoire de France," illus. Cochin, 45 n. 

1, 53, 104, 140 ; — ■ Moreau, 95, 96 

and n. 2, 143, 168. 
" Histoire de hi Maison de Bourbon,** 

illus. Moreau, 141. 
" Histoire de rUnivers," illus. Eisen, 122. 
" Histoire dc Miss Jenny," illus. Gravelot, 

115 and n. 2. 
Histoire d'une Dfwte, by C. Coypc!, 3 

n. 3. 
*' Histoire romaine," illus. G. de St.- 
Aubin, 134 and n. i. 
" Historiens des Gaules et de France," 23, 

27. 
" History of England," illus. Gravelot, 1 13 

and n. 5. 
Hochschil^ Baron de, 91 n. i. 
Hohendorn, Baron von, 22. 
Hoin, Claude, p. 154. 
" Honnfite CrimincI, L'," iUus. Gravelot, 

son. I, 115 n. 3. 
Horace, iUus. Gravelot, 116 n. 4. 
Horthemeb, Louise-Madelaine. See Mme. 

Cochin. 
House of Commons^ by Gravelot, 113. 
Huber, oo n. i. 
Huber, M., 13 n. i. 
Hubert, gr., 87 n. 4. 
Huet, Christopbe, p., 130. 
Huet, J.-B., p., 151, 153 n, i. 
Hume, 115 n. 2. 

hare et Didalty by Eisen, 121. 

" Idies sur le geste thtitral^" illus. Copia, 

157 n. I. 
// est trap tard, by Sergent, 156 and n. 4. 
Illumination four le mariage du Roi, by 

Moreau, 143; — le second manage du 

Dauphin (Cochin)^ by Ingram, 164 

n. 2. 
Imbert, 140. 



215 



db, Google 



Index. IncroyabUsy Let (C. Vernct), by Darcis, 92 

n. I. 
InditcritioHy U (Lavreince), by Janinet, 

, '54. 

in^ttritim vengie^ by A. de St-Ailbin, 

, '35. "SS- 

Ingoldsby, General, 120. 

Ingouf, leg, grs., 88 n. i, 168 and n. i ; 

— Pierre-Charles, gr., 139, 
Ingram, John, gr^ 164 and n. 2. 
Inttritur Flamandy by Debucourt, 155. 
Interior of a theatre, by Gravelot, 113 

n. 4. 
Instrutlim fatemelle (Tcrbui^), by Wille, 

80. 
InitruHiim villageahe, by Debucourt, 155 

and n. 2. 
Iris entrant an Bain (Lc Moine), by Cars, 

85 and n. 2. 
Ivan, Emperor, 65 n. 2. 

Jabach, Evrard, 21. 

Jabacb, Hotel, exhibition of maitret at, 

127. 
Jantnet, Francois, gr. en couleur, 152- 

ISS, 156 n. 2. 
Jardinier, gr^ 87 and n. 7. 
Jeaurat, Edme, gr., 99 n. 3. 
Jeaurat, Etienne, p., 64. 
y'en aceepte Cheureux prisage (Moreau), by 

Triirc, 142 n, i. 
feu de pied dt baeuf (Lancret), by Le Bas, 

« ^3 "■ 7- 

jeu du Reiy by Cochin, 143. 

Jeune Cerinthitnnt (Vien), by Flipart, 89 

and n. 1. 
feune Detiinateur (Chardin), by Flipart, 

88. 
Jtune fiUe qui peUtte du cotm (Grcuze), by 

Flipart, 89. 
"Jeux de Satyrs, by Fragonard, 4. 
Jogan,Er., 87n. 4. 
Joly, 28 and n. 6, 29. 
Jombert, Charles-Antoine, 37 n. i, 38 and 

n. 2, 99. 
Jordaens, p., 31 n. 3, 87. 
Jaseph II. (Moreau), by Gaucher, 104. 
jmissance, La (Eisenj, by de Longueil, 

126. 
Joullain, gr., 89 n. 4. 
Joullain fib, 89 and n. 4, 90, 95. 
Jouvenet, Jean, p., 56. 

?uge dt Mtsk, by Flipart, I02. 
uge, ou la cruche cassie (Debucourt), by 
Le Veau, 102 n. i, 155 and n. 3. 



*' Jugement de Paris," iilus. Moreau, 140 

n. I. 
"Julie." See " Nouvelle H41obc" 
Julienne, dc, 26, 79, 81, 163 ; portrait (de 

Troy), by Balcchou, i5o. 
fuitice protege Us Arts (Cochin), by Dc- 

marteau, 45 n. 2, 150 n. 9. 

Kaunitz, Prince de, 80. 

Kehl, M., 109 n. 5. 

KtUer and Mmt. KtUtr (Rigaud), bf P. 

Drcvet, 58 n. 3. 
Kinski, Princess, So. 
"Kit-Cat Club," illus. Gravelot, 113. 
Knapton, id., 113. 

KncUer, Godfrey, p., 61 n. 3, 99 n. 4. 
Knobelsdorf, von, 75. 

Laban seeking his Gods, by G. dc St.-Aubin, 

131 and n. 3. 
La Borde, dc, 141. 
Lacazc, Galerie, 57 n. 5. 
Lacroix, colIe^on of M. H., 104 n. 3. 
Lady making her fVill, by Charles Coypd, 

3 "■ 3". 

La Fontaine, portrait of byFicquet,68,i04i 
Contes (1726), 121 n. I J — (1738X 7' 
and n. 5, 77, 97 j — (Fermiers-ginfraux, 
1762), loi and n. 4, 102 and n. 2, 103, 
105, 106, 121, 122, 123 and n. 2, 1Z4 
and n. i, 127, 128, 155 ; Fables (illus. 
Fessard), 30, 33 j — (iilus. Gravelot), 
Ii2n.5; — (illus. Oudry),45andn.3, 
46, 47, 99 and n. i, too, 102 n. 3, 103, 
16^ n. 4. 

Laitiire, La (Huct), by Demartcau, 151. 

La Live, M. de, 137. 

" Lamantation de Geremyc^** illus. Eisen, 
126 I). 2. 

La Mfeangirc sale, 13 n. 4. 

Lancret, p^ engravings after, 62, 74 n. 1,77, 
85, 93 and n. 7 i — by Larmessin, 71 
"■5,97) 164,165. 

Langlois, dit Chartres, 19 n. 3. 

Langlois, Mme., 87 n. 4. 

Largilli^c, p., 70, 71 n. 2; engravings 
after : by Edclindt, 58 ; by fierre Drcvet, 
57 ; by Willc, 70, 72, 73 ; portrait of 

Mile. , by WiUe, after Largilliire, 

71 and n. 2. 

Larmessin, Nicolas de, gr., 71 and n. 5i 
97 and n. 4, 161 n. i, 164. 

Larmessin p^re, 97 n. 4. 

Lasalle, 115. 

La Tour, p., 88 n. i. 

16 



.Google 



Latour d'Aigues sale, 34 n. i. 

Launaf, Nicolas dt (Rigaud), by F. Ch^reau, 

67, 68. 
Laurcnsen. See Lavreince. 
Lauretti^ by Gravelot, 116. 
Lavis, gravure au, 15, 151 and n. 4, 

152. 
La Valltire, Duke de, 132. 
La Faltiire, portrait, by A, dc St.-Aubin, 

138- 

Lavreince, Nicolas, p., 92 n. i, 154 and nn. 
I and 2, 155. 

Lc Barbicr, dess., 109, 164 n. 6, 168 
n. I. 

Le Bas, Jacques- Philippe, gr., 86, 89-96, 
III, 123, 146, 161 and n. i; his pub- 
lications : C^rjmonies Cbinoises, 95 
and n. 2 ; Fables de la Fontaine 
(1755-^759), 99; Histoire de France, 
95, 96, 143, 168; Ports de France, 
50, 94, 95, 96, 103 n. I; his pupils, 
39, 62 n. 1, 81 n. I, 85 n. i, 99, 100, 
102, 104 and n. I, 108, I09nn.i and 6, 
122 and n. 2 ; relations with Le Prince, 
94, 133 ; — with Mme. de Pompadour, 
95; — with Rehn, 91-93, 100 ; his 
school, 2, 85, 89-91,97, 98, 107, lion. 
2, 139, 140J work by, 86, 90 n. i, 93, 
94 "■ 3. 95 n- ', 109 n- 6, 140, 165 i — 
for book-illustration, 94, 99 n. 4, 100 n. 

5, >07' 
Le Bas, Mme., 90, 92. 
Le Beau, 7 n. 2, 10 n, 1. 
Le Beau, gr., 108 and n. 4. 
Le Blanc, abb^, 42. 
Lcblond, gr., 149 and n. i. 
Le Bouteux, dess., 109. 
Le Brun, p., 166 ; portrait (Largilli^re), by 

Edelinck, 58. 
Lebrun, Mme. Vigie, p., 3, 12, 159. 
Le Cat, M., 79, 
Le Comte, Marguerite, gr,, 10-12, 15; 

portraits of, by Watelet, 1 1 and n. i. 
Le Comte, M., II, 12 and n. 2. 
Ltctuvrtur^ Adritnne (Coypel), by Drevet 

Ills, 59, 60, 69, 
Lecizinsiiy portrait af Stanislas (Baccia- 

relli), by Marcenay de Ghuy, 14 and 

n. 4. 
Le Clcrc, Sebastian, gr., 38. 
LeaeuTy Lt (Gravclot), "by Gaillard, 114, 

115. 
Ltaitrty La (Van Loo), by Beauvarlet, 87 

and n. 3. 
Le Gouaz, gr., 109 and n. 2, 



Legrand, Louis, gr., 106 and n. 6, 109, Index. 
145 n. 6. 

Lehmann coIle£tion, 146. 

Leleu, agent of King of Poland, 160. 

Le Lorrain, L., p., 1 38, 1 39. 

Le Ltrrain, portrait, by Le Bas, 93. 

Le Mire, Noel, gr,, 91, 93, 100 n. I, 103, 
162 n, 3 J book-illustrations: Boccaccio^ 
100, loi; Contes de la Fontaine, I02, 
123 and n. 2, 124 and n. i ; Contes 
Moraux, 105 J Corneill^ "Si Fables 
de la Fontaine, lOQ; Ovid, 33, 105 
n. 3, 106, 107, 140 ; Temple dc Gnide, 
101 and n. 1, 126 ; relations with Eisen, 



107, 123, 124. 
jC Mire frirc, gr., lOO. 



Le Moine, p., 85 and n. 2, 91, 99 n. 3, 

111. 
Lemoyne, J.-B., sc, 61 n. 4, 
Lt Meyne pht, by Tocquf, 137 n. I. 
Lempcreur, Louis-Simon, gr., 29, 99 and 

n. I, 100, 105 n. 2, 146, 167, l68, 
Lendel, 66 n. 3. 
Lenoir, 159. 
Le Paon, dess., 140. 
L^pici^, Bernard, gr., 44, 61 n. 3, 96, 

99 n. 3, 160, 161 and n. i, 165 and 

"■ 7- . 

Lepelletier de St.-Fargeau mort (David), by 
Tardieu, 78. 

Lc Prince, Jean, dess. et gr., 78, 94, 95, 
'33t 'S') 'S^J gravure au Units in- 
vented by, 15, 151 and n. 4, 152. 

Le Roy, arch., 94. 

LtsdiguiireSf Duie de (Rigaud), W P- Dre- 
vet, 57 and n. 5, 58 n. 3 j Duehets dt 
— , by the same, 58 n. 3. 

Lesueury Eustachey by Cochin pire, 37 
n. 2. 

Litiney Mme.y by A. de St.-Aubin, 137 and 
n. 6. 

" Lettrcs d'Hiloi'se et Abailard," illus. 
Moreau, 144 and n. 4. 

Leucotbta and Apalle (Monnct), by Simonet, 
106. 

Levasscur, gr., 168. 

Le Veau, gr., 31, 102 n. i, 155 n. 3, 162 
n. 3 ; book-illustrations : Contes de la 
Fontaine, 102; Contes Moraux, 105, 
107 i Fables de Dorat, 108 ; Moli^re, 
107, 157 i Ovid, 106, 107. 

Xnjff*, ^f (Baudouin), by Massard, 78n. 1 1 
— (Moreau), by Halbou, 142 n. 2. 

Lever dt la Mariit (Dugourc), by Triire, 
109 n. 5. 



217 



d by Google 



L^vesquc, ion, 4. 

L'Hopital, Marquise <lc, Qj. 

Liaisons dangeriusts^ by Triire, 109 n. 5. 

Liberti Ju Bracmmtr (Benazech), by F.-R. 

Ingouf, 168 n. I. 
Li^nard, gr., 140 n. 2. 
Light if tht fVarld (BoucherX by Fcssard, 

162. 
Lienerac, Marquis de. See Duke de 

Caylus. 
Lignerolles coUeiftion, lOi n. i. 
Ling^c, gr., 108 and n. 5. 
Lingtut, portrait, by A. de St.-Aubin, 

Lion> colleflion of M, 1 55. 

Liotard, p., 14 n. 4. 

Lishn, Earthquake at, by G. de St.-Aubin, 

133 and n. 4. 
Liseusi, La (Dou), by Wille, 79 and n. 5. 
Livry, de, 53 and n. 2. 
Loire, the Drevct at, 57, 61. 
Loiztralitt, MlU.y by Balechou, 160. 
Lomazzo, Paul, p., 43. 
Longueil, Joseph de, gr., 91, 102 and n.2 ; 

engravings after Eisen, I2i, 124, 126; 

— for Banicr Ovid, 33, 106, 
LonguB, 9. 

Lorraine, EHzabcth-Thirise of^ 39. 

Loss, Count de, 161. 

Louis XIV., 4 and n. 2, 5, 56, 97 n. 4, 

138 ; portrait of, 84 n. 2 ; — (Kigaud), 

by P. brevet, 57 and n. 6. 
Louis XV., 7, 40, 43, 48 ; portrait of, by 

Cochin fils, 38 n. i, 108 j by Fcssard, 

163 i by P. Drcvet after Rigaud, 57; 

Statues of cngd. by N. Dupuis, 61 n. 4; 

— ii la Plaint des Sablons, sec Rtvue 
de la Plaint des Satltru ; — dennant la 
paix h r Europe (Le Moine), by Cars, 85, 

Louis XVI^ 46 n. 3, 54,83, 109, 142, 143, 
144, 148 ; portrait of (Callet), by Ber- 
wic, 78. 

Louis XVIII., 145. 

Lauise-Emilie^ Barenne ^ . . ., by A. de St.- 
Aubin, 136. 

Louvre, 3 n. 2, 21 and n. 7, 37 n. i, 40, 
57 n. 6, 59 n. 3, 144 n.2, 145,146, 147; 
Chakographie du — , 6 n. 4, 21 n. i, 
37 nn. 2 and 5, 39 nn. 2, 3 and 4,40 n. 
4, 46 n. 5, 47 n. I, 49 n. 6, 56 n. 3, 63 
n. 3, 69 nn. i and 2, 76 n. i, 78 n. 3, 
79 n. I, 84 n. I, 85 n. 2, 93 n. 5, 99 n, 
I, 164 n. 2, 167 nn. 4 and 5 ; Galerie 
Lacaze, 57 n. 5; lodgings of artists at, 
47 and n. 3, 53, 54, 59 n. i. 



" Lucun," illus. Gravclot; 1 16 n. 4, 119. 

Lucas, gr., 31 and n. 2, 98. 

" Lucr^ce," illus. Gravelot, 116 n. 4. 

Lutma, Jean, gr., 149. 

** Lutrin, Le, illus. Cochin fils, 49 and 

n. 1 ; — B. Picart, 49. 
Luxembourg, 57 and n. i, 153, 164; Petit 

— , 5 and n.\. 
Lyeurgui hlissi dam une slMtmi, by Codrin 

ills, 37 n. I, 133; by Dcmarteau afts 

Cochin, 151, 166. 
Lyons, the Audran at, 58 and n. 2. 

Magdaltn (Correggio), by DauU^ 67 ud 

n. 2. 
Magny, gr. en couleur, 150. 
Maintcnon, Mme. de, 4and nn. I and 2, 97 

n. 4. 
Maison de Villc de Paris, prints at, 163. 
Mattre Galant (Lancret), by Le Bas, 93 

Malad4 imaginaire (Boucher), by Cars, 85; 

— by Hclman, 107. 

Malbeste, gr., 91, 109 and n. 7, 1400.1, 

142 and n. 2. 
Malcsherbes, Lamoignon de, 28 n. 6, 46 

and n. 2. 
Malhttiretise FamilU Calat (Carmontclle], 

bv Delafbese, 13 and n. 4, 14 n. i. 
Malccuvre, gr., 87 n. 4. 
Malplaquet, 4 n. 2. 
Mantemre de St.-Claud (Carmontellc), \ff 

the Duke de Chartres, 2 n. i. 
" Manon Lcscaut " (1 753), 93, 98 and n. 1, 

100 n. 5. 
Man with Dog and Cat, by Gravelot, 113- 
Maratti, Carlo, p., 21, 88 n. 2. 
Marctau, Geniral, by Sergent, 156 n. 4. 
Marcenay de Ghuy, Antoinc de, p.etgr, 

Afari Confisseur, Le, by de Longueil, lOl 

Mari Syfphe, by Gravelot, 116. 

Mariagi, Lt (Morcau), by Malbestc, 109, 
142 and n. 2. 

Mariagt forte, by Nie, 107. 

Marie-Antoinette, 54, 83, 148 ; portrait bj 
Janinct, 153 and n. 1 ; — (Moreau^ ^ 
Gaucher, 1 04 ; — tn vtstaU (Dumont), 
by Tardieu, 78 and n, 3, 89 n. i. 

Marie- Leexinsia (Nattier), by Gaucher, 
104, 140; — by J.-N. Tardieu, 166; 

— (Van Loo), by f. Chircau, 61. 
Mariii deVtltagi (Watteau), by Cochin pir^ 

37 n- 3- 
Mariette, Angelique-Geneviive, 20 n. 1. 



218 



.Google 



Mariettc, Denys, 19 n. 3. 

Marjctte, Jean, 19 and n. 3, 23, 165 n. 7. 

Mariettc, Mnne., 2$ and n. 4. 

Mariette, Percy, 19 n. 3, 23 n, 4. 

Mariettc, Pierre-Jean, i, 8, 18-30, 31, 33, 
36, 56, 87 n. 4 ; colledion of, 6 n. 5, 7 
n.2, 19, 21 and nn. i and 7,22, 28 and n. 6, 
29 and n. 2, 35, 42 n. 3, 60 ; sale of — , 
28, 29, 33, 34 ; hmily of, 19 and n. 3, 
20, 28, 29; letters, 19, 21, 22, 23 n. 3, 
24 and nn. 3 and 4, 25 n. 4, 28 ; portrait 
of, by A. deSt.-Aubin, after Cochin, 137; 
publications of: Abccedario, 24 and n. 
5, 25 ; Catalogue Boyer-d'Aguilles, 27 
and n. 3 ; Catalogue Crozat, 27 and n. 2, 
29; HistoHensdes Gaules et de France, 
23, 27 ; Lettre sur Leonard de Vinci, 
21 and n. i, 26; Peinturcs Anciennes, 

26 and n. 3 ; Trait^ dcs pierres gravies, 

27 ; relations with the Academy, 26 and 
n. S, 28 } — with de Caylus, 18 and nn. 
2 and 5, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 66. 

Marigny, Marquis de, 27, 34, 38, 66 n. 3, 
87 n. 3, 940, r, 150, 158, 159; relations 
with Cochin, 2, 30, 37, 45, 47. 48, 52 
and n. i; visit to Italy, 42, 43; por- 
trait (Cochin fils), by Watelet, 10; — 
(Tocqu^X by Wille, 14, 69 n. i, 77, 
79- 

Marillier, dcss. et gr., 16, 105 and n, i, 
108, 109 n. 5, 130 n. 3. 

Marin, sc, 168 n, i, 

Afarinet (Vernet), by Le Veau, io2 n. i. 

MarlboroKgh, Battles of Duit ef, by Du- 
bosc, 112 n. 6. 

Marmontel, 9, 119 and n. 4i Contes 
Moraux, by — ,9, lOi n. 3, 105, 107, 
115, 1 16 and n. i, 137 ; portrait of, by 
A. de St.-Aubin, 137. 

Marriage of the Virgin^ by Eisen, 125. 

Marseille, engraving for town of, 80. 

Martin, p., 35. 

Martini, gr., 16, 91, 109 and n. 6, 141 
nn. I and 2. 

Martcnasie, Picrre-Franfois, gr., 85 n. i, 
93 and n. 2. 

Masquelier, gr., 33, 49 n. 3, 91, 106 and 
nn. 2 and 3, 107, 108, 109, 141 n. i, 
168. 

Massard, Jean, gr., 78 and n. i. 

Mass£, J--B., gr., 46 and n. 4, 53 n. 2, 62, 
79 n. I, 161 n. I. 

Matsi, J.-B. (TocquiX by Wille, 77, 79. 

Maupertuis (Tourniire), by DauUd and 
Wille, 64 and n. 2. 



Mauselie de M. Languet dt Gergy, by A. Index. 

de St.-Aubin, 136. 
Mayence, Elcflor of, 75 a. i. 
Ma^et, by Le Mire, lOi. 
Minagh-e, U (Dou), by Wille, 80 and 

n. 3. 
Mechel, Christian de, gr., 97 n. 2. 
"MimoiresdcBrandebourg,"ill us. Schmidt, 

77 n- 3- 
Mengs, Raphael, p., 81. 
Menuet de la Atariity by Debucourt, 156. 
Menus Plaisirs, 40, 41, 140 ; prints at, 

163. 

Mkre bien-aimit (Greuze), by Massard, 78. 

Mes Gem, by A. de St,-Aubin, 136, 

Met petits bouquets^ by Ger. de St.-Aubin, 

130 n. 3. 
Metastasio, illus. Morcau, 143. 
Meudon, fete at, 39 and n. 3. 
Michael Angelo, 7, 21, 26. 
Micheux, p., 99 n. 3. 
Midi, Le (Berghem), by Le Bas, 90 n. i. 
Miger, Simon, gr., 47 and n. i, 48, 103 

n. I, 106, 167, 
Mignard, Pierre, p., 62; portrait (Rigaud), 

by Schmidt, 69 n. 2, 76. 
Miollan, abb^, aeronaut, 153. 
Mme. de * * * tn habit de Bal (Coypcl)^ 

by P.-L. Surugue, 81 n, 7. 
JHodile hmnite (Baudouin), by Simonet, 

to6 n. 9. 
Moitte,sc., 155. 
Moliire, illus. Boucher, 85, 91; (1739) 98 

and n. 3; (i773) 93> 99 n. 2, 102 and 

n. 3, 107, 108, 141, 157 ; portrait of, by 

Cathelin, 108. 
Moltke, Count, 80. 
Monaco, Prince de, 80, 119 n. i. 
Monce, M. de la, 74, 75. 
Monnct, dess., 33, 96, 105, 106 and n. i, 

130 and n. 5, 131. 
Montaiglon, M. de, 24. 
Montenault, M. de, 45, 46, 47. 
Montenoy, Palissot de, 1 14 n. 2. 
Montesquieu, 126 n. 3. 
Montespan^ Mme. de, by A. de St.-Aubin, 

138. 
Monument de Costume^ by Moreau, 109^ 

IIO, 141, 142. 
Moreau le jcune, gr., 2, 52, 91, 112, 138- 

14S, 147, 148,168 J — and the Academy, 

143, 144, 145) engravings after, 104, 

109 n. I, 136 n. I ; Monument de Cot- 

tumty 109 and n. 4, 141 and n. 4, 142 

and nn. i and 2 ; Revue de la plaine dei 



219 



d by Google 



Sahlens, I40, 142, I43; engravins bi 



139^140,161 n. ii Cnubidela 
106 n. o, 140 } Rtvut au Trou ^Enfir^ 
140; Sttcrt dt Lttuii XV 1^ 142, 143; 
illusCrationi for books : Chansons dc la 
Borde, 109 and n. 3, 141 and n. i; Cr^ 
billon, 145 n. 5 ; Les Graces, 140 n. i ; 
Histoire dc France, 96 and n. 2, 140 ; 
Moliire, 93, 102, 107, 141 ; Nouvelle 
HJloise, loj n. 1, 141 ; Ovid, 33, 106, 
14OJ Pastor Fido, 49 n. s, 139 ; Tempio 
di Gnido, 139; Voltaire, 141 and n, 3, 
143- 

Mart dt Lucrhct (Moltte), by Janinct, 155. 

Moulin- Joli, Le, 11 and n. 3, 12, 15. 

Mauton^ Li, after Oudry, 32. 

Moyrcau, J^ gr., 161 n. i, 165 and n. 3. 

Mtihlbachcr sale, 40 n. i, 154 and nn. i 
and 2. 

Miintz, M. Eugene, 5 n. 2, 24 nn. 3 and 4. 

Museums, Baycux, 142 n. 3; British, 43 
n. I, 44, 103 n. 2, 113 and n. 4, 166 
n. 4 ; Cmrer, 24 n, 3 j Reims, 57 n, 6 ; 
Stockholm, 154 n. i. 

Nabucodamiar qui ardmne le massaerty etCy 

by Gab. de St.-Aubin, 131. 
Naissaac* et Triempbt de ylnui (Boucher), 

by Daull^, 64 n. 3. 
Nanteuil, Robert, gr., 2, 56, 78. 
Napoleon, 3 n. 2, 142. 
Nareiitff by Gr,(velot, 116. 
Nassau-Saarbruck, Prince dc, 103. 
National Assembly suppresses the Acad- 
emies, 168 and n. 4. 
National Gallery, London, 64. 
Natoire, p., 12, 88, 133 n. 2, 158, 
Nattier, p., 104, [62, 166. 
N'ajez pai pair (Moreau), by Hclman, 

142 and n. t. 
Neciir, portrait (Duplessis), by A. de St.- 

Aulnn, 137 and n. 5, 160, 
Nic, gr., 49 n. 3, 91, 106 and n. 3, 107, 

108, 109, 140 n. 2, 168. 
Neitattrs, Duchtsst de (Rigaud), by P. 

Drevet, 58 n. 3. 
Nera coIle£lion, 150. 
Netscher, p^ 78 n. 5. 
Neyman, 34 and n. 1. 
Nicaiie, after Lancret, 71 n. 5, 77. 
NicoIjMrs., 81. 
Nina (Aflle. Dugazott) (Hoin), by Janinet, 

Nivernais, Duke de, 94 n. 3, 161. 
Need ail Chateau^ by Debucourt, 1 56. 



Naet de fUlege (Taunay), by Dcscourdi, 

156. 
^ Notice sur la gravure," by Cho&rd, 145. 
Notre Dame, 37, 39. 
Natre SeigHmr au Timhtau (Caravage), bj 

Demarteau, 150 n. 9. 
Natre Seigneur qui fait la Cime, by Eitcn, 

"5- 
Nauveau lujels de peiuture it de lauptvtf \ij 

de Caylus, 7 n. i . 
Nauvtlle affligeante (Wille fils), by Catbc- 

lin, 126 n. 4. 
" Nouvelle H^lo'ue," iUus.Grave1ot, lOl mil 

n. 5, 119 n. 6, 120; — Marillicr, 105 

n. I, 107 n. 2; — Morcau, 141. 
Noieveiiiitei au Caft^ by G. de St.-Attbtn, 

NoKuelliste, Un (Watteau), by dc Caylic, 

Nazze di Figara, by G. dc St.-Aubin, 133 

and n. 5. 
Nymph (Boucher), by Demarteau, 15a 
Nymph and Lav* asleep, etc, (Poussin),!? 

Daull^ 64. 

Odieuvre, 6d., 57 n. 2, 63, 70, 71. 72, 73, 

74, 104 n. I. 
Odarat, V (Wille fib), by de LongucO, 

126. 
Offi-es tiduiiantet (Lavrcince), by Janinet, 

154. 
Oiet de Frh-e Philippe (Lancret), by Lar- 

mcssin, 165. 
Opirateury L'^ by Janinet, 152. 
Orlandi, Pire, 24, 25. 
Oraisan funlhrt dt Mme. Htnriettt^ by 

Eisen, 1 22. 
" Origine do Graces," illus. Cochin fils., 49 

andn. 3, 1 10. 
Orleans, Dukes of, 39, 137 n. 4. 
Orry, cmtr&lew~gln&ral, 73 n. i . 
*' Ostiologie, L'," priie for founded by 6e 

Caylus, 8. 
Oudry, p., 3, 32, 45, 57 n. 6, 99 and n. i, 

163 n. 4. 
Oui au Nan (Moreau), by Thomas, 141 

n, 2. 
OtiiV, Z,', by Eisen, 1 25, 1 26. 
Ouvrier, gr., no n. 2. 
Oavritr dt fileusti a deux mainsy by G. de 

St.-Aubin, 134. 
Ouvrihe en dtnuile (Van Mieris), by Basao, 

31 i by Cochin fils, 39 n. i. 
Ovid (1767-1771), 33, 34, 78 n. I, 105- 

107, 124, 140 ; early editions, 98, 105. 



d by Google 



Pacciaudi, g and n. 2. 

Paix du Minagty after Greuzc, 139. 

Pajou, sc, 158, 159. 

"Pamela," illus. Gravelot, 1 14. 

Papelier, ^d., 146. 

Papillon, Jean-Michel, gr., I02 n. 3, 

PafiUannn-'tts bumatnet, by Gcr. de St.- 

Aubin, 130 and n. 3. 
Paradt aux tbiStrit du Souiivard, by G. 

deSt.-Aubin, 133. 
Paralytique, Lt (Greuze), by Flipart, 167. 
Parc^ Lty by Fragonard, 3. 
Parj, the Minister, 138 n, i. 
Pari gagni (Moreau), by Camligue, 142 

n. 2. 
Parina, Duke of, 9 n. 2. 
Parmt, Duchesu de (Nattier), by 8alechou, 

162. 
**Partie de Cbasse dc Henri IV," illus. 

Gravelot, 119. 
Partie de ff^scb (Moreau), by Dambrun, 

142 n. 2. 
Paftorals (Boucher), by Ingram, 164. 
Pasquier, J.-J., gr,, 87 and n. 8, 100 and 

n. 5, 121. 
" Pastor Fido," illus. Cochin fils and Mo- 
reau, 49 and n. 5, no, 139. 
Patas, gr., 128 and n. i, 142 nn. i and 2. 
Pater, p., 71 n. 5. 
Paulmy, Marquis de, 127. 
Payianne d* St.-Cloud (Car mon telle), by the 

Duke de Chartres, 2 n. i. 
Ptinturts antiques trouvies a Rome, by Pietro 

Santt Bartoti, 7 and n. 2. 
Piierini de Cyt/tirg. See Emiarquement 

pour Cytbire. 
Piliitier^ MUe. (Drouais), by DaulW, 32 

n.4. 
Pelletier, gr,, 134. 
Perraull, Claude, portrait of, 163. 
Perronneau, p., 88, 167. 
Pertie delivrant jtndromide (Le Moine), by 

Cars, 85 and n. 2. 
Pcsne, Antoine, p., 74. 
Petit, Giiles-Edmc, gr., 74 and n. i. 
Petit Luxembourg, 5 and n. 3, 
Petit Physicitn, Lt (Netscher), by Wille, 

So and n, 4. 
Petite Laitiire (Baudouin), by H. Gutten- 

berg, 97 n. 2, 
Petite Ltge^ La (Moreau), by Patas, 142 

n. 2. 
Petite TaiUtte, La (Moreau), by Martini, 

142 n. 2. 
Petites Maisons, 6 n. 2. 



Petiti Parratnsf after Moreau, 142 n. i, I 
Petils Pieds, Les, by de Caylus, 9. 
Petrarch, early editions, 98. 
Pezay, Marquis de, 125 and n. 2. 
Pbilemut et Baucis (St.-Gois), by Miger, 

106. 
Philip, Don, of Spain, 39. 
Philippe Emlit^, 2. 
Pbilesopbe Marie (Lancret), by C. Dupuis, 

62. 
PhilasBphie Endermie^ after Greuze, 139. 
Piazzetta, p., 42. 
Picart, Bernard, gr., 81 n, 7, 99 and n, 4, 

105, 112, 164. 
Pichon, Baron, collection of, 11 n. i. 
Pierrei gravies antiques du Due d'Orlians, 

by A, de St.-Aubin, 137 n. 4. 
Pierre, J.-B.-M., p., 3, 10, 13 n, 2, 29, 42, 

53. »Si- 
Pigalle, sc, 8, 18, 155. 
Pileiy Dt, portrait by B. Picart^ 164. 
Pilles, Marquise de, 3. 
Pine, id., 112, 114. 
Pineau, Francois-Nicolas, 145. 
Pincau, Fran^oise- Nicole, 139 and n. 3. 
Pius VII., 3. 

Piogey, collei^on of Dr., 146 n, 4. 
Pitrc. See Martenasie, 
Place Louis XF, by Prieur, 148 ; — (Mo- 
reau), by Tilliard, 136 n. i, 
PMmd it Salle de Speiiacle, Bordeaux, by 

Robin, 133. 
Plaideurs, Les (dc Sive), by Lempereur, 

99 n. I. 
Poignant, M. et Mme., 34 and n. 2, 
Poilly, Francois de, gr,, 160 n, i. 
Poilly, J.-B. de, gr., 99 n. 3. 
Poilly, M., 160. 
Poinsot, W., 107 n. 2. 
Poniatowslci, Prince, 80. 
Poisson, Abel. See Marigny. 
Poitiers, Parliament at, 15 n. 2. 
Polignac, Cardinal, 39 j portrait of(Rigaud), 

by Cars p^re, 84. 
Poltxine de Hesse- Rkin/els, pompe funihrt 

de, by Cochin pire, 38, 39, 41. 
PoUronnerit de f dnMtf (Coypel), by Fokke, 

98 n. 2. 
Pompadour Mme. de, 2, 10, 27, 37, 42, 

43> 4-S> +6 n- 2, 53, 95 j engravings by, 

122; portrait of, by A, dc St.-Aubin, 

137 { — (Van Loo), by Bcauvarlct, 87 

n.3. 
Pempet fiinibres, by Cochin p4re, 37, 38, 

39, 41 i by Cochin fils, 39. 



d by Google 



Index. Ponce, gr., 48, 106 and n. 4. 

Porporati, gr,, 87 n, 4, 166 and n. 6, 167. 
Parte Enfmcicf by Debucouit, 155 n. 4. 
Porteur d'Eau (Bouchard on), by de Caylus, 

Parts de France (Vernct), by Cochin and 

Le Bas, 50-53, 94, 95, 96, 103 n. i, 

161. 
Poullain sale, 34. 

PourceaugitaCy M. de^ by Baquoy, to8. 
Pmistex ftrmty by L. Boilly, 146. 
Poussin, Nicolas, p., 42, 57, 64. 
Praslin, Duke de, 94 n. 3, 168. 
Prault, Les, £ds., 49 n. 5, 109, 139 and 

n. 3, 140. 
Pricautiont, Lts (Moreau), by Martini, 142 

n. I. 
Pricieu$it ridiculet, by Moreau, 141. 
Preisler, gr,, 73 and n. 3, 153. 
Prtmitr pat de PEnfanu, by JanJnet, 155. 
Prestatim du Serment Civifue, by JanJnct, 

154. 
Pretender O^oung), 81 n. i ; portrait of, 

by Daulli and Wille, 64 and n. 1, 

73- 
Prhiast, Abhif by Schmidt, 77 n. 2, 
Provost, B.-L., gr., 49 n. 5, 53, 1 10 and 

n. 2, 139. 
Prieur, Jean-Louis, dess., 147, 148. 
"Princesse d'Elide," illus. Moreau, I41. 
Principaux ivinements du rignede Louis XV, 

by Cochin fils, 48 and n. i. 
'* Principles of Beauty," illus. Bartolozzi, 

168. 
Prinlempi,hj Le Vcau, 106; — (Eiscn), 

by Mme. de Pompadour, 122. 
Print Room, Biblioth^ue Nationale. See 

Cabinet des Estampes. 
Pnceitien of Pampeyy by G. de St.-Aubin, 

Pf'V'l P""' ""e CbapeUe dt Communisn^ by 

£iscn, 125. 
Promenade de la gallerie du Palais Reyal, 

by Debucourt, 156. 
Prtmtnade des' remparls de Parts, by A, de 

St.-Aubin, 136, 137. 
Promenade du jardin du Palais Rsyal, by 

Debucourt, 156. 
Prud'hon, p., 30, 157, 169. 
Prussia, King of, 28. 
Psichi, by Simonet, 108. 
Puffendorf, 122. 

Purification (BouUogne), by Drcvct fils, 59. 
" Pygmalion," illus. de Ghendt after Eisen, 

107 n. 2. 



QuarrJ de Qucntin sale, 34 n. i. 
^uatrt htures du jeur (L^cret), by Lar- 

messin, 165. 
^atre parties du jour (Baudouin), 1^ de 

Ghendt, 107 n. 2j — by Boucher, 74 

n. I i — (Eisen), by de Longuetl, 1 24. 
^uatre Satsms (Eisen), by de L<Higueil, 

124. 
^een Carolina (Kncller), by Picart, 99 

n. 4. 
^iieen EHzaiet/), by Henry Fletcher, 99 

n. 3. 
Querlon, du, 103, 106 n. 9, 140 a. i. 
^eue au Lait, by L. Boilly, 147. 
QuinauIt-DuiTCsne,Jcanne-F lan^oisc:, 8 and 

n. 6. 
^iprtqiu, Les (Eisen), by Le Mire, toi. 
^los Ego (Rubens), by Daull£, 67 and 



Racine (illus. de Sive), 99 n. i, lOi and 

n. 2, 102. 
Radix, Mmt^ by A. de St.-Aulnn, 137 and 

n. 6. 
Randon de Boissy sale, 133 n. 2. 
Raoux, p., 165. 

Raphael, p., 7, 61 n. 3, 97, 112 n. 6. 
Rapin de Thoyras, 113. 
Rictption de PAmbassadeur lure, by Cocbin 

fiU, 39, 40 and n. 1, 45. 
Reception de Mirabiau aux Qfomps-Efystay 

by Moreau, 143. 
Ricancitiation d*Absa!»n, by G. de SL-Aubin, 

13' n- 3- 
Recueil de Basan, 3I, 22 ; — de Cayba, 6, 
7 and n, I ; — d* Antiquitis tgyftiennaf 
r/r,, de Caylus, 7 n. 1,8; — de peintvres 
antiques, de Caylus, 7 n. I, 26 and n. 3 ; 

— de Caricatures, by de Caylus after da 
Vinci, 21 n. 1 J — de . . . plantes des- 
tinies, 24 J — de Cochin fils, 38 n. i j 

— de CroTMt, 9 7 } — de desstns ptmr 
diffhens artistes, by Eiscn, 122 and a.4; 

— de Cbiffires, by Ger. de St.-Aubin, 130 
n- 3 ; — i* plantes, by Ger. de St.- 
Aubin, 133 n. 4. 

Regent (Philip of Orleans), 57, 75 n. 2, 

149 n. I. 
Regnault-Delalande, 35, 87 n. 4. 
Rehn, gr., 91 and n. I, 92, lOO, 104 

n. I. 
Reims, Musfe ^^ SI "-j 6. 
Rembrandt, p., 7, 139. 
Rencontre au bids de Boulogne (Moreau), by 

Guttcnberg, 142 n. i. 



d by Google 



RenJex-veui pour Aiarlj (Moreau), by Gut- 

tenberg, 142 n. i, 
Rennes, statue of Louis XV. at, 61 n. 4. 
Renou, gr., 16S. 
Renouu-d, tA.^ 138, 144 n. 3. 
Rlpat dts Gardes du ctrpi, by Pricur, 148. 
Reptntir tardif^ Lt (Lavreince), by Janinct, 

154 and n. 2. 
Rtpts m Egyptt, by Eisen pirc, I2t. 
Restifdcla Bretonne, 48. 



Rcstout, Jean, p., 38, 39, 112. 

Restout de la Jouc, p^ 165. 

Retsur du Bal (de Troy^ by Beauvarlet, 

87 and n. 2. 
Retsur du Laboureur^ by F. -R. Ingouf, 

168 n. 1. 
RJunin dam un Pare, by G. dc St.-Aubin, 

132. 
Reuss, Count, 80. 
Revel, Gabriel, p., 84 n. i. 
Revolution, 83, 146 ; Academy during the, 

159, 168; influence on artists, 137, 

144, 156; work of Pricur during, 147, 

148. 

Revue de la Maitan du Ret an Treu d'En/tr 

(Le Paon), by Moreau, 140. 
Revue de la Plaint det Sahlani, by Moreau, 

140, 142, 143- 
Riccoboni, Mme., 115 and n. 2. 
Richard MinuUle, by Le Mire, lOi. 
Richelieu, system of, 169. 
Rigaud, Hyacinthe, p., 57 n. 4, 72, 75, 

1 04 and n. 3 i engravings after : by Bale- 

chou, 160, 161 ; by L. Cars, 84 n. i ; 

by Cars pire, 84; by F. Chireau, 61 ; 

by DaulM, 62, 65, 67, 68 ; by P. Drcvct, 

57 and n. 6, j8, 62; by Drevet fils, 59, 

60, 63, 67, 68, 69 ; by Ficquet, 104 

and n. 2i t^ Schmidt, 09 n. 2, 71, 76; 

by Wille, 63, 64, 74, 77. 
Rigaud, portrait ordered of Drevet Ills, 59. 
Rigaud et ton ipause (Rigaud), by DauU^ 

63 and n. i, 67 j by Wille, 63. 
Rivalz, p., %. 

Robert Hu'bert, p., 15, 16 n. 2. 
Robin, p., 133. 

Roche-AIard, Chevalier de, 112. 
Rochefoucauld, Alex, de la, 166 n. 4. 
Rode, B,, p., 76 n. 3. 
Roeer, Barthelemy, gr,, 157 and n, 2. 
Rohan -V en tadour, Armand, Prince de, 85 

n. 2. 
Rai i Phiteldt rule, 1789, by Prieur, 148. 
Rti Candaule (Eisen), by de Longucil, 102, 

124. 



Rti gtttveme par lut'mime (Lc Brun), by Index, 
Dupuis, 62. 

Roland, caisiier of M. Le Comte, 12 n. 2. 

Rolland, M., 57. 

Romanet, gr., 105 n. 1, 142 n. z. 

Rontgens, David, 32. 

Rosalba. See Carriera. 

Rosaspina, gr., 78 n. 5. 

Rest mal dif endue, by Debucourt, 156. 

Roslin, p., 65 and nn. 3 and 4, 108 n. 2, 
146. 

Rosoi, du, 107 n. 2, 125, 126. 

RossignoL, Le, lOl, 103. 

Rothschild, colle^on of Baronne J, de, 
124 n. I, 126. 

Rautn, Port tt ville de (Cochin fib), by Chof- 
iard, JO, 51 and n. i, 103 a. i. 

Roullet, gr., 160 n. i. 

Rousseau, gr., 106 and n. 7. 

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 16, 120, 121 and 
n. 2; works, illus. Delaunay (1774), 99 
n. 2, 108; — Eisen, 107 n. 2, 120, I2i 
and n. 2 ; — Gravelot, loi and n. $, 
iig n. 6, I20i — Marillier, 105 n. i, 
107 n. 2; — Moreau, 141 and n, 2, 143. 

Rovitlio, iA., 98. 

Rubens, p., 7, 42 n. 3, 67 n. r, 86 n, i. 

" Ruines dcs plus beaux Monuments de la 
Gr^e," illus. Le Bas, 94. 

Rumprj sale, 34 n. i. 

Russia, Empress of, 28, 65 n. 2, 66, 77 n. 
4, 95. , „ . 

Russian sketches by Lc Prince, 152. 

Ryland, William, gr., 81 and n. 6, 91. 

; Sacre de Louis XVI, by Moreau, 142, 143 
I and n. i. 

Said Mehemet pacha, 40. 

Saint- Agnan, Leroi de, 10. 

Saint-AU>in, portrait (Rigaud), by Schmidt, 

Saint-Auban. See Barathier. 

Saint-Aubin, Augustin de, dess. et gr., 2, 16, 
48, 87, 107 n. 5,110 n.2, 130, 133 n. 2, 
135-138, 146; book-illustrations: Boc- 
caccio, 136; Origine dcs Graces, 49 
n. 3 i Ovid, 33, 106 J portraits by, 105, 
137, 138} Neeker, 137 and n, 5, 160; 
Mme. de St.-Aubin, 136; Soye% discrtty 
'30) 136. '38, »4?- 

SainC-Aulnn, Gabriel de, dess. et gr., 2, 
33 n- 3. 'SO-'SS. 

Saint-Aubin, Germain de,dess., 130 and nn. 
2 and 3, 133 n. 4, 134 and n. 3, 135 and 
nn. I and 2. 



223 



d by Google 



Index. Saint-Aubin family, 130 n. 2, 135 n. I. 

Sainte-Catharine (?. dc Coitonaji by Dc- 

martdu, 150 n. 9. 
Sainte FamilU, by Eisen, 127. 
Stt.-Gtntvieve, by Eisen, '^S* 
Saint- Fkrmtin (Tocqui), by Wiile, 80 and 

n. 5. 
Saint-Fond, Faujas de, 16 n. i. 
St.-Gerniain i'Auxerraii, 20, 47 n. 3. 
St.-Goia, dc9s., 106. 
Saint-Marc, id., 122. 
Saint-Martin, Dame, 127, 128. 
Saint-Non, abb£ de, gr., 4, 15-17, 1 68. 
Saint Petersburg, visit of Moreau to, 1 39 j 

— of Le Prince, 151 J — ofSchmidt,77 

and n. 4. 
St. Petersburg^ Fitw tf (Lc Prince), by 

LeBas, 94,95, 133. 
Saint- Quentin, dess., 109. 
St. SehettUrt, by Eisen, 125. 
Sales, 34 and n. i, 133 n. 2^ Basan, 35 

and n. 4 ; Caylus, 81 ; Crozat, 29 ; 

Dault^, 66 ; Farvaquca, 82 ; Gaburri, 8 

n. 1} Gaignat,28and n. 2 ; de Julienne, 

81 } La Misangire, 13 n. 4; Le Has, 

96 ; Mariette, 28, 29, 33, 34 ; Miihl- 

bacher, 40 n. 1, 154 and nn. i and 2 ; 

Surugue, 81, 82} Vence, 31 n. 5; 

Wille,34,3S- 
Salon de la Corrcspondance, 155 ; — • des 

Grices, 132. 
Salm du iMivre en 1753, by G. de St.- 

Aubin, 131 and n. 2. 
Saly, 8C., 73 n. 3. 
Sand, George, 11, 12. 
Sanglier Jorci (Wouvcrmans), by Le Bas, 

92 n. 3. 
Santerre, p., 166 and n. 6. 
Santi Bartoli, Pietro, p., 7 and n. 2, 23 n. 

3, 26. 
Santo Giorgio, Cardinal, 21, 
Sardinia, iCing of, 12 ; Elisabeth -Th^r^e, 

Queen of — , 39; Pol ix^ne, Queen of — , 

39. 4'- 
Sarrazin, Jacqutt^ by Cochin p4re, 37 n, 2, 
Sassoferrato, p., 77 n, 5. 
Satin Gown (Terburg), by Wille, 63, 80 

and n, 7. 
Satyr Martyas (C. Van Loo), by Miger, 

47 n. I, 167. 
Saugrain, Testament de, illus. Moreau, 

144 n. 3. 
Saxe, Marshal, 59, 120; portrait of (Ri- 

gaud), by Wiile, 77 j — (Liotard), by 

Marcenay de Ghuy, 14 and n. 4. 



Saxe-Weimar, Prince of, 80, 

Saxony, Eledor of. See Augustus III. of 

Poland. 
Siance dt Pfyytiquiy by G. de St.-Aubin, 

134- 
Scenes Enfantitut^ by Gravelot, It2 n. 5. 
Seines familihes (Lavreince), l^ Janinet, 

154. 
Schmidt, G.-F., gr., 69, 71 n. 5, 76 n. 2, 77, 

97 n. 4, 104 and n. i ; engravings after 

Lancret, 71 n. 5» 77 ; — after Rigaud, 

„ 7i»7». 73, 75-77- 

Schmuzer, J.-M., gr., 35, 80 and n. 2. 

Schoumann, Arthur, p., 31 and n. 6. 

Sciences^ Let^ by Gravelot, 112 n. 5. 

Scotin, gr., 112 n. 6. 

"Secchia Rapita," illus. Gravelot, 119 and 

n. 3. 
Siguier, Chancellor, 166 j portrait of, 163. 
Seigneur che% sen Ftrmier (Moreau), 1^ 

Delignon, 142 n. 2. 
" Sens, Lcs," by du Rosoi, 107 n. 2, 125, 

126. 
Sentinellt en difaut (LavreinceX by Dards, 

92 n. I. 
Scrgent-Marceau, gr., 48, 156 and n. 4. 
Sermenty Le (Fragonard), by Bcrwic, 78 

n. 5. 
Servandoni, arch., 39, 
S^ve, de, dess., 99 n. 1, loi and n. X, 

102. 
Seven Sacraments (Poussin), by B. Audran, 

57- 
Shakespeare, illus. Gravelot, 114 and o. i. 
" Siicle de Louis XIV," illus. A. de St.- 

Aubin, 138. 
Silpbe tt Itpigmit, by N^ 109. 
Sihettre, Leuis de, by Greuze, 137 n. 1. 
Silvestre, p., 160, 161. 
Simonet, gr., 49 n. 3, 106 n. 9, 140, 142 

n. 2, 144 n. I ; engravings for Ovid, 33, 

106 i — Moliire C1773X 107, 108. 
Skowmann. See Schoumann. 
Slodtz, Michel-Ange, sc., 20, 27, 34 n. 1, 

40 n. 3, 88 i — frircs, 39, 40 and n. 3, 

14} portraits of, by Cars after Cochin 

fils, 40 n. 3. 
Smith, John Raphael, gr., 8 1 . 
Soci^^ R^publicaine des Arts, 146. 
5«>, Le (Boucher), by Petit, 74 n. i. 
Sairit de 12 Juiliet 1789, by Sergent, 156 

9-*- . . 

Sairie des Tbuiltries (Baudouin), by Simonet, 

106 n. 9. 
Solimen, p., too n. i. 



224 



d by Google 



Smge de St. yasepb, by Eisen, 127. 

" Songs in thcOpera of Flora," illus. Gnve- 

lot, 113. 
" Sophie de Francourt," illus. Gravclot, 

115. 
Somique, gr., 31 and n, 3. 
Sffrtit de I'Opira. See Li Mariagt. 
Soufflot, arch., 42, 43. 
Sauptr i LtuvecUnnes, by Moreau, 144 and 

n. 2. 
Sniper fia (Moreau), by Helman, 142 n. 2. 
Spain, funeral of King of (1750X 37. 
Statue equestre du Roi^ Bordeaux. (Lemoyne), 

by N. Dupuis, 61 n, 4. 
Stockholm, Mus^e, 154 n. i. 
Strange, Robert, gr., 81 and n. i, 91. 
Struensee, Count, 80, 83. 
Subleyras, Louis, p., 12 n, i, 37 n. 1, 160, 
Suite de desiins, etCy hv Watelet, 1 1. 
** Sully, Mimoires de, ' 1 1 4 n. 2. 
Sultane^ La (de Troy), by Beauvarlet, 87 

n. 3. 
Suppbte dt Marsyat, Sec Satyr Manyas. 
Surugue sale, 8t, 82. 
Suruguc, Louis, gr., 81 and n. 7, 82, 99 n. 

3, l6i n. I. 
Surugue, Pierre-Louis, gr., 81 n. 7, 161 n. 

1, 164, 165. 
Suzettt mal cachte, by Debucourt, 155 n. 4. 

Tableau des portraitt i la node, by A. de 

St.-Aubin, 136. 
Tableaux de la Revolution, by Prieur, 147, 

148. 

Tacite, illus. Gravclot, 116 n, 4. 

7i7(3, Le (Eisen), by dc Longueil, 126. 

Taillcr Hallemant, gr., 93. 

Tailleur pour femmes, by Cochin fils, 39 

n. I. 
Tapestries of the House of Lords, by Grave- 
lot, 112 and n. 7, 114. 
Tardicu, Jacques -Nicolas, gr., 65, 79, 108, 

161 n. I, 166. 
Tardieu, Nicolas-Henri, gr., 86 and n. i, 

88 n. 2, 90, 99 n. 3. 
Tardieu, Pierre-Alexandre, gr., 47, 51, 

78 and n. 2. 
Tardieu, Mme., gr., 37. 
Tartuffe, Le, by Simonet, 108. 
Tasso, illus. Gravelot, 117, 119 and n. 

S, 136 n. I. 
Taunay, p., 156 and n. 3. 
" Tilimaque," illus. Grignon, I20. 
Temanza, arch., 22 n. 2, 24 and n. 3, z8 

and n. 2. 



Tempite, La (Vernct), by Balechou, 160, Index. 

161 1 byFlipart, 87,88. 
Temple, Prieur at the, 147 and n. i. 
" Temple de Gnide," lOi and n. i, 126 and 

n. 3 ; Italian edition, illus. Moreau, 

'39- 

Tencin, Mme., to. 

Tenicrs, p., 31 and n. 5, 93 n. 5, 95. 

Terburg, p., 80. 

Tcrray, abb<S, 1 1 j portrait of (Roslin), by 

Catnelin, 108 n. 2. 
Terence(l753, illus. Gravelot), Il6, 119; 

(1770, illus. Cochin) no n. 2. 
Terre, Duehesse de Parme sous la figure dt 

la^ after Nattier, 162. 
Testament, illus. for Old and New, by 

Moreau, 144 and n. 3, 
Tessin, Count de, 91, 92 and n. 3. 
"Testes d 'ex press ion," prize for, founded 

by de Caylus, 8 ; drawing by Cochin 

lits, 50. 
Thetis and Proteus (Monnct), by Lc Mire, 

106. 
Thiers, Baron de, 2, 90 n. 1. 
Thomas, gr., 142 n. 2. 
Thomas, Anteine, by Cochin iils, 50. 
Ticozzi, 24 n. 3. 
Tieck, Louis, 155 n. 3. 
Tiepolo, p., 3, 42. 
Tiiliard, J.-B., 136 and n. i. 
Time and Truth, by Delaunay, 108. 
Titian, p., 7. 
Titon, Maximilien (Rigaud), by P. Drevct, 

57- 
Tocqu^ Louis, p., 62, 69 n, i, 77, 79 and 

n. I, 1370.1. 
Toilette, la (de Troy), by Beauvarlet, 87 

and n. 2 i — by Ponce, 106 n. 4. 
Toilette de flnus (Boucher), by janinet, 

153- 
" Tom Jones," illus. Gravelot, 1 14. 
Tonneau d'arrosage, by G. de St.-Aubin, 

132. 
Toulon, Fill* et Rade de (Vcrnet), by 

Cochin and Le Bas, 52. 
Toumehem, De, portrait (TocquJ), by 

N. Dupuis, 61 n. 4, 62, 68. 
Tournes, Jan de, id., 98. 
Taut ou rien, by Gravelot, 116. 
Traitant, Le (DumcrilV by Lucas, 31 n. 2, 
Trait d'huntaniti de Mme. la Daupbine 

(Moreau), by Godefroy, 109 n. i. 
" Traiti des pierres gravies," by Mariette, 

27. 
Tremoli^es, p., 99 n. 4. 



225 



G G 



d by Google 



Triceteutt^ La (Van Miens), by Willc, 80 

Knd n. 3. 
Triire, gr., 109 smd n. 5, 142 nn. i and 2. 
Triomphe de VAmaur^ by G. de St.-Aubin, 

Trhmpht dt Marat, by Boilly, 146, 
Triampht its Graces (Boucher]^ by Simonet, 

(06 n. 9, 
Trail Commires (Eiscn), by Lc Mire, 124 

n. t. 
Traqueuri, Les, by Flipart, 102. 
Troschcl, C.-L., 76 n. 3. 
Troy, Francois dc, p., 6, 37, 43, 87 and n, 

2, 99 n. 3, 160, 166. 
Trubetskoy, Princcsse. See Anastane. 
TttUia^ by Moreau, 144, 145. 
Turtnne^ Marshal, portrait of (Ph. de 

Champagne), by Marcenay de Ghuy, 14 

and n. 4. 
Turgot, 2J. 
Tvanne Tafler en gauacbty by Lavreince, 

154 n. I. 
Tweht Months (C. Audran), by J. Audran, 

56. 

Unluciy Glance. See GaUrte du Palais. 
Ustcri, M., 26 n. 3. 

Valenciennes, Eisen at, 121. 
Valtaycr-Coster, Mmc., p., 159. 
VallK-Poussin, Etienne de la^ 12 n. i. 
Valine,' Simon, gr., 61. 
Valory, Chevalier de, 2. 
Valton colledion, 134. 
Vandiires, M, de. Sec Marigny. 
Van Dyclc, p., 7, 42 n. 3, 78 n. 2, 151. 
Van Loo, Carle, p., 34 and n. i, 47 n, i, 
62, 79, 87 and n. 3, 88, 100 n. 5, 



,61. 



. Carle, 139, 140 and n. 4, 
. 32, 8A 



149, 150 n. 9, ;_ 
'"an Loo, Jean-Baptistc, p., 47 n 



Van 

Van Loo, Louis-Michel, p., 34 and n, 

47 n. I, 108, 133 n. 2, f6-j and n. 5. 
Van Micris, p., 32. 
Fartnnes, Arrtst af Lcuii XVh at^ by 

Prieur, 148. 
Vasari, 25 n. 2. 
Vases {Pierre and Vien), by Watelet, 10 and 

n. 5. 
Vass£, Antoine, sc, 8, 20, 48 n. t. 
Vassclin, M., 128. 
Vatican library, %i n. 2. 
Vence sale, 31 n. 5. 
Venice, school of, criticism by Cochin fils, 

42. 
Vernet, Carle, p., 92 n. i, 156. 



Vernet, Mm 

144. 
Vernet» Joseph, p., 32, 87, 88, 102 n. 1 . 

Ptrts dt France, by — , 50-52, 95, 9^ 

103 n, I ; engravings after, by Bsdc- 

chou, 160, 161, 162. 
Vcnailles, letes at, 38, 39 and n. 2, 40, 41, 

S3, 60, III, 143, 164 n. 2} Gaioie 

de — , 46 and nn. 4 and 5, 53 n. 2, 62, 

97 ; collcdion of prints at, 163. 
Vertue, gr., 11 2. 

Fertueuse Athtnitnne (Vien), by Flipart, 88. 
Ferlumne et Pemme (Boucher), by A. de 

St.-Aubin, 136 n. 3. 
Vien, p., 10, 88, 144, 146, 158. 
Vienna, visit of Mariette to, 22, 23 and n. 

3 ; popularity of Wille's woric in, 80. 
Vitrge (Sassofcrrato), by Schmidt, 77 and 

n. S. 
Vitrge assise, etc. (Maratti), by FUpait, 88 

n. 2. 
Vierge an tinge, by F. de Poilly, 160 n- 1. 
" Vies des Peintres Flamands," by Des- 

camps, 104 n. i, 123, 168. 
Vtgnet, gr., 105 n. i. 
Fillagems qui cherche son vtau, Le (Kerre), by 

Cochin fils, 42. 
Villette, Marguerite de. See Comtesse de 

Caylus. 
Villette, Marquise de, 4 n. 1. 
Vincent, p., 54. 

Vinci, Leonardo da, p., 8, 20, 21 n. i, 26. 
Virgi^ 119 n. 4} illus. Cochin fib, 49. 
Vispri, p., 104. 
Vivares, Francois, gr., 81. 
Vlcughcls, p., 71 n. 5, 99 n. 3, 164. 
Van patriotique, by Prieur, 148. 
Voltaire, 8 n. 6, ij, 14 n. i, 75 n. 1, iij 

n. I, 118 n. 2, 120; Canrmnenunt du 

hustt d* — , 104 and n. 3; works of, 

illus. Gravelot, 116, 119 and n. 6, 120; 

— Massard, 78 n. 1 j — Moreau, 141 
and n. 3, 143 and n. Jj — pub. by 
Kehl, 109 n. 5. 

Voyi^ pictoresque, by Descamps, l68i 

— de la Grficc, i86j — pittoresque dc 
Naples et dans les Deux Siciles, by Saint- 
Non, 1 5-17,168} — de Paris, by d'Argen- 
ville, 136, 168. 

Voycz, gr., 87 n. 4, 

Vrai Bmhiur (Moreau), by Simonet, 142 
n. 2. 

Vue de la ViUe etdela Rade dt Tmilni (Ver- 
net), by Cochin and Le Bas, 52. 

Vue de Meungf by Campion, 3. 



226 



d by Google 



Fui del Envinms dt Poitien, hy Saint-Non, 

15 n. 2. 
f^ut da Chateau des Bergeries, by d'Argen- 

9 on, 2. 
Fue du Oiamp dt Mart, by Janinct, 154. 
Vue, La (Wille fils), by dc Longueil, 

126. 
Vm prise dam let jardins de la Filla Bar- 

barini, Rome (Robert), by Saint-Non, 16 

n. 2. 
Fues de Rome (Fragonard), by Saint-Non 

and Hubert Robert, 15. 
Fuel del bordi de la Loire et du Ltiret, by 

Campion, 3. 

Wallace colle^on, 146. 

Walpolc, "Anecdotes of Painting," m 

n. I, 112 and n. 3, 114. 
Warneck collection, 133 n. 5. 
Watelet, Claude-Henri, gr., 4, 9-13, 14, 

15, 16. 
Watelet pire, receveur-geniral, 10 n. 3. 
Watteau, p., 3, 4, 8, 42, 57, 131, 160; 

engravings after, 6 and n. 6, 37 and n. 

3, 57 n. 2, 85, 86, 97, 163, 164. 
Weirotter, p. et gr,, 1 1 and n. 4. 
" Wilhclm Meiater," 1 (0. 
WiUe, Jean-Georges, gr., 2, 13 n. 4, 27, 

29 n. 2, 31 n. 5, 51, 53 n. 2, 54, 69-83, 

88 n. I, 103, III, 146, 162 and n. 3, 

163 ; — > and the Academy, 14, 75, 144, 



158, 159, 168; — and Basan, 32, 33, Index. 
34i 35) ^i ! ^i^ collections, 42 n. 3, 
60 J sale of — , 34, 35 ; — ■ and Daulle, 
63, 64, 66 and n, 3, 67, 73 ; his journal, 
72, 76 ; his pupils, 14, 47, 78, 81, 87 n. 
4, 97 n. 2, 105 n. I J engravings by, 
— after Dutch masters, 31, 79, 80 J after 
Largilli^re, 70-72 ; — suFtcr Rigaud, 63, 
65, 68, 72, 74, 75, 77 i Marignj 
(Tocqui), 14, 69 n, i, 77, 79; Satin 
Gown, 63, 80; portrait of wille (Greuze), 
77 and n. 6. 

Wille, Madame, 83, 123. 

Wille, Pierre-Alexandre, p., 82 and n. 2, 
126 and n. 4. 

Winckelman, 8r. 

JVolK Pro/ester, by Wille, 74. 

Woollet, William, gr., 81. 

Wornum collcdicHi, 115. 

Wouvermans, p., 62, 92 n. 3, 165, 

rori, Duke of, by Daull* and Wille, 64 

and n. I, 73. 
Yscmbourg, Prince d', 80. 

Zanetti, Antonio Maria, 23 n. 3. 

" ZJlis au bain," illus. Eisen, 125. 

** Zerbrochene Knig,"by Tieck, 155 n. 3. 

Ztck, p., 32. 

Ziesenis, p., 79. 

Zinggf gr., 32 and n. 2. 



227 



d by Google 



db, Google 



db, Google 



Dionizodb, Google 






-~TVr?ir 



3 2044 033 589 342 



I 



■^^ 1733.32.18 



Dionizodb, Google